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Two Republics in China (1 Viewer)

xlwoo

Senior Member
Thirdly, though theywanted to establish a new military base in the vicinity of Zunyitown, the National Army continued to harass them. They had to escapeto the northern Sichuan province, where Zhang Guotao, in command ofthe 4[SUP]th[/SUP] Redmilitary bloc, already set up a base. But that was far away, and theywould have to cross various streams. From January to May of 1935,they ran here and there to avoid being destroyed by the NationalArmy. They failed three times in crossing the Chishui Stream. Oncethey were forced to go back to Zunyi town. On the fourth try, theystole across the stream, then crossed Jinsha Stream and Dadu Stream.They met Zhang Guotao on the 16[SUP]th[/SUP]of June. Then Mao suggested that they should march towards thenorthern Gansu province so that they might escape into the SovietUnion when necessary. But Zhang Guotao had three plans. The firstplan was that they should go to create a base in northern Sichuanprovince, southern Gansu province and Xikang province. The secondplan was that they should go to the northern Shaanxi province. Thethird plan was to go west into Xinjiang province.
Fourthly, the two blocs(the central Red Army, renamed as the 1[SUP]st[/SUP]red military bloc) went together north from the 12[SUP]th[/SUP]of June to the 7[SUP]th[/SUP]of July. Then as both Mao and Zhang were in disagreement as to thefuture plan, each went his own way. Zhang, after marching through thegrasslands, refused to keep going north but went back through thegrasslands again to Xikang province and wanted to establish his basethere. And Mao Zedong, together with Peng Dehuai, Lin Biao(1907–1971), and Ye Jianying (1897–1986), went to southwesternGansu province. In October 1935, Mao and his men, only about 3,000left, surmounted the Liupan Mountain and reached the northern part ofShaanxi province. To their surprise, Liu Zhidan was there with his7,000 men. So they settled there.
As for Zhang Guotao, whohad started with 80,000 men, he wanted to found a new CentralCommittee of the Communist Party and to be the chairman himself. Butmost of his men had died through the Long March. He had no hope forhis personal ambitions. So he turned himself in to the NationalParty. The Communist Party called him a traitor.
It happened like this: onApril 4, 1938, leaders of both the National Party and the CommunistParty were to go to worship at the mausoleum of Emperor Huang, alegendary hero recorded in Chinese history books, supposed to havelived five thousand years ago. Zhang went there as the chairman ofthe Communist Party and met Jiang Dingwen, a leader of the NationalParty. After the rites were concluded, Zhang told his attendants togo back first as he had something else to deal with. But he jumpedinto a car the National Party provided for him. And he was gone. Hewas no longer a member of the Communist Party. At the end of 1948, hearrived in Taiwan in poverty. He seemed to be a forgotten man. In thewinter of 1949, he went to Hong Kong with his wife and three sons. In1958, he went to Canada where his eldest son lived. In 1976 he had astroke and was paralyzed on the right side. He died on December 2,1979, at the age of 82.
An interesting note fromrecent times: People doubted the actual distance the Red Armycovered. Therefore, on November 3, 2003, two young Englishmen startedon their way to retrace the route the Red Army had covered. Theyspent 384 days and covered 13,000 li, not 25,000 li.
 

xlwoo

Senior Member
[h=3]Themilitary coup d’état in XiAn City[/h]As Japan invadednortheastern China (details in Chapter 3), the Communist Party seizedthis opportunity to demand that the Communist Party and the NationalParty unify against Japan in January, 1936. And as Japan occupied thenortheastern China, Zhang Xueliang was driven out. Therefore, ChiangKai-shek ordered Zhang to besiege the Communist Party in northernShaanxi province on the 20[SUP]th[/SUP]of September, 1935. But on the 1[SUP]st[/SUP]of October, in the battle at Mt. Lao, the Red Army annihilated tworegiments of Zhang’s army. On the 29[SUP]th[/SUP],in another battle, the 107[SUP]th[/SUP]division and the 619[SUP]th[/SUP]regiment of Zhang’s army were wiped out, too. On the 22[SUP]nd[/SUP]of November, his 109[SUP]th[/SUP]division went alone towards Wuqi Town and camped on the way at ZhiluTown for the night. The division commander thought that the Red Armywas far away and could not attack him, and so he let down hisvigilance. However, the Red Army took a quick march all night longand surrounded the division. In the morning, the Red Army put thedivision to rout.
After these defeats, ZhangXueliang made secret contact with the Communist Party seeking atruce. On the 9[SUP]th[/SUP]of April, 1936, Zhang went to YanAn city to talk with Zhou Enlai, therepresentative of the Communist Party. Zhang Xueliang accepted theCommunist Party’s demand to unite against Japan. Zhang Xueliangeven put in a request to join the Communist Party. Nevertheless, hisrequest was not granted because his father, Zhang Zuolin, a warlordin the northeastern China, had killed some Communist Party members.Anyway, when Deng Xiaoping (1904–1997), an important leader of theCommunist Party, was dangerously ill, Zhang procured medication forhim and saved his life.
Chiang Kai-shek heardabout the situation and was upset with Zhang Xueliang. But at thetime, an event happened in Canton, on the 1[SUP]st[/SUP]of June, 1936, called the 6/1 event. Chen Jitang in Guangdongprovince and Li Zongren (1891–1969) in Guangxi province wanted tobe independent from the central national government, and on that daythey sent a telegram from Canton to the central government askingpermission to go north to fight Japan. But their real aim was tooverthrow the central government.
 

xlwoo

Senior Member
Chiang Kai-shek sent hisarmy to conquer Chen in Guangdong province and simultaneously broughtover Chen’s subordinates. In July, the commander of Chen’s airforce betrayed him and turned over to Chiang Kai-shek by flying 70airplanes under his command to Nanking. Then the commander of his 1[SUP]st[/SUP]army declared his loyalty to Chiang Kai-shek. So on the 18[SUP]th[/SUP]of July, Chen Jitang escaped to Hong Kong. Then Li Zongren in Guangxiprovince had to announce his obedience to the central government.
On the 22[SUP]nd[/SUP]of October, Chiang Kai-shek flew from Nanking to XiAn city to urgeZhang to continue the attack of the Red Army, but Zhang raisedobjections. They had a quarrel and Chiang went to Luoyang City. Onthe 29[SUP]th[/SUP] day,Zhang went to Luoyang for the celebration of Chiang Kai-shek’sbirthday. He wanted to persuade Chiang to unite with the CommunistParty against Japan, but Chiang refused. On the 27[SUP]th[/SUP]of November, Zhang asked to go and fight Japan, but was rejected byChiang. On the 2[SUP]nd[/SUP]of December, Zhang flew to Luoyang to inform Chiang that his armymight riot and asked Chiang to go to XiAn to talk to his soldiers.This was really a trick to lure Chiang there for a certain purpose.Chiang Kai-shek, unwise as ever, agreed and flew to XiAn with Zhangon the 4[SUP]th[/SUP] ofDecember. He lodged at Huaqing Pool on Lishan Mountain. Huaqing Poolwas a resort built around a bathing pool with hot spring water.Actually the bathing pool was also inside a room. It was built inTang Dynasty (AD 618–907) for the famous Yang, imperial concubineof Emperor Xuanzong (AD 685–762).
On December 9, theCommunist Party organized a demonstration with crowds. A boy was saidto be injured by the police, which incited the wrath of the mob.Zhang went to see Chiang Kai-shek, who wanted Zhang to stop thedemonstration, but Zhang did not follow Chiang’s instruction. OnDecember 11, at night, Zhang summoned his generals and asked them tomake preparations for a military coup the next day. Accordingly, inthe morning of December 12, Zhang went to see Chiang Kai-shek withsoldiers and took him into custody.
 

xlwoo

Senior Member
That evening, MailingSoong, Chiang Kai-shek’s wife, was told of the event andimmediately thought of Donald William Henry (1875–1946, died inShanghai), an Australian reporter, who was a friend of both Chiangand Zhang. Soong and Henry immediately took the train to Nanking. At8 o’clock in the morning on December 13, Soong sent Zhang atelegram and Henry did, too, saying that they would be flying to XiAnCity. On December 16, the national government ordered Zhang torelease Chiang at once, but Zhang declined. So the governmentgathered, intending to attack XiAn, and prepared to send bombers. TheCommunist Party suggested killing Chiang. But on the 17[SUP]th[/SUP],Stalin wrote to the Communist Party saying that he was opposed tokilling Chiang, who, in his opinion, would be a qualified leader inresisting Japan. He demanded that Chiang Kai-shek be released. So theCommunist Party agreed.
When Soong and Henryarrived in XiAn, they went to see Chiang Kai-shek at once. Soongpersuaded Chiang to go along with the plan, saying that it would bebetter to act against Japan than to be killed by the Communist Party.As a player in the anti-Japan resistance, he would be a hero. Killedby the Communist Party, he would be nothing. So Chiang Kai-shekaccepted the agreement on the 24[SUP]th[/SUP]day about the unity with the Communist Party to fight Japan, etc. Buthe did not sign on the agreement. Some of Zhang’s subordinates werenot satisfied. Zhang said that if Chiang wanted to go back from theagreement once he was released, he would do that even if he signedthe agreement. If Chiang kept his promise, what did it matter that hesigned it or not.
Chiang Kai-shek was let goin the afternoon of December 25, and Zhang accompanied him back toNanking. He was kept in secret confinement till Chiang Kai-shek diedon April 5, 1975. Then he was restored to freedom and died on October15, 2001, in Hawaii. This event ended the war between the CommunistParty and the National Party and began the Sino–Japanese war allover China.
 

xlwoo

Senior Member
[h=1]Chapter3. The Japanese Invasion of China[/h][h=2]Events Leading Up to the Sino–Japanese War in 1937[/h]


[h=3]The 9/18 event[/h]The Japanese army had begun enteringChina even during the latter stages of the Qing Dynasty. Around thebeginning of the 20[SUP]th[/SUP] century. Russia had built a railroadin northeastern China. In 1905, Russia and Japan had had a war there,on the territory of China, and Japan took control of the part of therailroad from Changchun City south, called the South ManchuriaRailway.
A legend about the origin of theJapanese says that 2,000 years ago, when the first emperor of the QinDynasty was on the throne, his next ambition was to live eternally.He sent a man by name of Xu Fu to go east in ships together with 100boys and 100 girls. It was said that there were islands in theeastern seas on which dwelt immortals. The errand of Xu Fu was tofind these immortals and ask for an elixir. Once he got it, he was tobring it back to the emperor. Xu Fu reached the Japanese islands andlived there with boys and girls, never returning to China. Those weresaid to be the earliest inhabitants and the earliest ancestors of theJapanese.
About 10:22PM on September 18, 1931,some Japanese soldiers laid gunpowder under the rails of the SouthManchuria railway for blew it up. This part of the line went by theLiutiao Lake, a bit north of Shenyang City. Then they left threeChinese corpses in the uniform of Chinese soldiers as evidence thatit was Chinese soldiers who had blown up the rails. On this excuse,the Japanese army attacked the Chinese army in Shenyang City. TheChinese army was ordered not to cause trouble with the Japanese army;so two of the three Chinese regiments guarding the city withdrew. Butthe third 620[SUP]th[/SUP] regiment did not receive the order, and ofcourse, resisted the attack. The next afternoon, Japanesereinforcements came and the Japanese army entered the city. Theyencountered resistance and fought street by street till all theregiment fled the city. This was called the Liutiao Lake Incident (orMukden Incident, by foreigners), and was the beginning of the whole9/18 event. But this was not really counted as the beginning of theSino-Japanese War as the Chinese central government did not declarewar against Japan yet.
On September 19, Japanese army attackedand conquered 18 towns along the South Manchuria Railway. Thedefensive Chinese army in Changchun City also counterattacked theJapanese army, but on the next day, the city fell into Japanesehands. On September 21, Xie, chief-of-staff of the headquarters ofthe Chinese army in Jilin province, changed sides and went over toJapan. So the Japanese army took Jilin. On October 1, Zhang Haipeng,guarding Tiaoliao Town, changed sides, and under instruction from theJapanese sent three regiments of his army to assault Qiqihar City,but on October 16,theywere defeated by theChinese defenders. By the 26[SUP]th[/SUP] of October, the Japanesearmy had occupied the chief towns along the Sitiao Railroad. FromNovember 4 to 18, the Chinese army in Heilongjiang province foughtthe Japanese army. Then they had to retreat from Qiqihar afterleaving heavy casualties, and the next day, the Japanese army enteredit.
At the start of the 9/18 event, ZhangXueliang, who was responsible for all the northeastern provinces,left Shenyang for Jinzhou. On the 8[SUP]th[/SUP] of October, theJapanese army sent 12 bombers to raid Jinzhou. On the 15[SUP]th[/SUP]of December, after occupying the important towns of Heilongjiangprovince, the Japanese army began to attack Jinzhou. On the 17[SUP]th[/SUP],reinforcement came directly from Japan. On December 28, the 2[SUP]nd[/SUP]division of the Japanese army crossed Liao River to attack Jinzhou.On January 3, 1932, the Japanese army took Jinzhou. On February 5,the Japanese army occupied Harbin City. These battles were still notwritten in Chinese history as the outbreak of Sino-Japanese War.
The army in the northeastern provincesunder the command of Zhang Xueliang had 18 brigades of foot soldiers,five independent brigades of cavalry, and four regiments and abattalion of artillery, plus 262 airplanes and fleets. They couldhave fought off the Japanese invaders, but they simply abandoned thenortheastern provinces. A shameful strategy.
 

xlwoo

Senior Member
[h=3]The1/28 event[/h]After Japan occupied northeasternChina, it took aim at southeastern China.
Shanghai was an ideal place for Japan.At 4 o’clock in the afternoon on January 18, 1932, five Japanesemonks were instructed by the traitor Kawashima Yoshiko, formerly theLast Princess of Manchuria and now a Japanese spy using a Japanesename, to throw stones at workers at a Chinese factory. This caused afight to break out. But some thugs were sent by the Japanese, andthey beat one of the five monks to death and severely injuredanother. Then 50 Japanese young men went to the factory at midnighton January 19 and burned the factory down and murdered threepolicemen.
On January 20, around a thousandoverseas Japanese in Shanghai held a demonstration to demand theJapanese consulate and the Japanese Mariner headquarters take revengeon the Chinese. But on the way there, they began to riot and smashedChinese shops.
On January 21, the Japanese generalconsul demanded the Mayor of Shanghai to apologize, punish themurderers, make compensation for the losses, and disband all theanti-Japanese organizations. Although the mayor accepted all of thesedemands, the consul further ordered that the Chinese army back awayfrom Zhabei district on the pretext that they posed a threat to theoverseas Japanese. He added that if Chinese army did not leave before6:00PM on January 28, they would attack. On January 24, more Japanesemariners came to Shanghai. At 11:30 at night on January 28, Japanesemariners attacked the Zhabei district in Shanghai, which was in thecontrol of the 19[SUP]th[/SUP] army of the national government. The19[SUP]th[/SUP] army fearlessly resisted the Japanese attack with thesupport of the people of Shanghai, which forced the Japanese toaccept the mediation of England and America for a truce. But onFebruary 3, the fight started anew. On the 23[SUP]rd[/SUP], a fiercebattle took place and 3,000 Japanese mariners and 2,000 Chinesesoldiers were killed. On February 24, two more divisions from Japanarrived in Shanghai as reinforcements. Only the 5[SUP]th[/SUP] armyof the national government came to the aid. On March 3, with themediation of England and America, the Songhu armistice was signed.The Chinese army were to be stationed in the region from Shanghai toSuzhou City. But Japan could still have their army in Shanghai.
One episode during all this took placeon April 29 when Japan held a military parade in Hongkou Park tocelebrate the birthday of the Japanese emperor, or “Sumera mikoto,”and their victory. A Korean hero, disguised as a Japanese man,entered the park with a grenade in the shape of a water flask. Whenthe Japanese were singing their anthem, he flung the grenade onto theplatform, where it exploded. The chairman of the committee for theJapanese in Shanghai died on the spot. The commander of the Japanesearmy in Shanghai for the event was severely injured and died in thehospital. A regiment commander and the Japanese envoy for China eachbroke a leg. And one eye of the commander of the 3[SUP]rd[/SUP] fleetwas blinded. The Korean hero was caught and sentenced to death; hewas sent to Japan and executed at a Japanese army base. After WorldWar II, his remains were taken back to Korea and a monument waserected in his honor in Hongkou Park in Shanghai.
 

xlwoo

Senior Member
[h=2]Theestablishment of Manchukuo[/h] Afraid of international interference,Japan desired to establish a puppet government in northeastern China,and they thought of the abdicated emperor Henry. He was 18 years oldwhen he was driven out of the Forbidden City on November 5, 1924; heescaped to the Japanese embassy and traveled to Tianjin City, andlived under the protection of Japan ever since. So he was their firstchoice for the puppet government.
Therefore,Henry was escorted from Tianjin City on the 10[SUP]th[/SUP] ofNovember, 1931, to Changchun City, where Manchukuo (meaning the stateof Manchuria) was established on March 1, 1932, with Changchun as itscapital and Henry as the head of Manchukuo.

On the 15[SUP]th[/SUP] of September,1932, the Japan–Manchukuo Protocol was signed, in which Manchukuoasked that Japan station its army on its territory. On September 23,1932, the Soviet Union consented to allow Manchukuo to set upconsulates in Moscow and New Siberia. But the League of Nationsreproved Japan for this and disavowed Manchukuo as an illegal entity.On February 24, 1933, the League of Nations declared that Manchuriabelonged to the Republic of China, as the establishment of Manchukuohad not been decided by popular vote but by the government of Japan.The League of Nations adopted the “Stimson Doctrine” specifyingthat new states created by force of arms would not gain internationalrecognition. Japan protested and withdrew from the League. Of course,the national government in Nanking also refused to recognize it.
On March 1, 1934, the designationManchukuo was changed to Manchu Empire, and Henry got to be Emperoronce again. On May 24, 1934, El Salvador recognized the ManchuEmpire. On April 6, 1935, Emperor Henry visited Tokyo, Japan, for thefirst time and the Sumera mikoto came to welcome him at the railwaystation. On November 28, 1936, Italy signed a protocol with Japanrecognizing the Manchu Empire. On February 20, 1937, Germanyrecognized it and signed a treaty in Berlin on the 12[SUP]th[/SUP] ofMay. In August of 1940, Denmark recognized the Manchu Empire. Ahandful of other nations also recognized it.



Changchun City,as the capital of this empire, had expanded to cover an area of 30square miles by 1944 and its population reached 1,217,000, largerthan the population of Tokyo at the time. The population was composedof Manchus, Han, Mongolians, Koreans, Russians, and of course, twomillion Japanese (as Japanese citizens, not subjects of the ManchuEmpire). The total population was divided into different classesaccording to their different tribes. Among the regulations thatreflected this stratification was one prohibiting non-Japaneseresidents from eating rice and white flour. Any non-Japaneseresident, if found to have rice or white flour, was taken in as an“economical criminal.” Three languages were used officially:Chinese (Han), Mandarin (the language of Manchu officials) andJapanese. As the population was mostly of the Han tribe, Chinese wasthe chief official language.
However, onFebruary 24, 1942, Poland abolished its recognition of the so-calledempire and in August, 1945, the empire came to an end when Japansurrendered and the Soviet Army occupied its territory. Henryabdicated once again on August 17 and was captured by the Soviet armyas a prisoner of war.
He was handedover to the Communist Party of China. He was released on December 4,1959, and died of uremia on October 17, 1967.
 

xlwoo

Senior Member
[h=3]The12/9 event[/h] After Japanseized the northeastern provinces, they wanted to encroach moreprovinces further south such as Chahar and Hebei. They intended toestablish another puppet government in these provinces. But theChinese people had had enough. The students rose up in protest. At10:00AM on December 9, 1935, three thousand students fromuniversities and high schools in Peking demonstrated in opposition tosuch Japanese aggression. They fought with the police. Many studentswere injured and at least ten students were arrested. On December 10,all the students in Peking went on strike.
Students inHangzhou followed suit. On December 11, the Peking government (stillcontrolled by the Republic of China) sent policemen to theuniversities and schools to forbid the students going out todemonstrate. On December 12, students in Shanghai, Nanking, Wuhan,Canton, and many other big cities gave their support. The next day,the principals of six universities in Peking told the students thatthey must go back to classes since those who had been in custody wereall released. On the 15[SUP]th[/SUP], the mayor of Peking invitedstudent representatives to have a talk. On the 16[SUP]th[/SUP], thePeking government and the university authorities announced that anystudents who refused to attend class would be punished. But on thesame day, 10,000 students went out to demonstrate again, and around30 students were arrested and about 400 injured. Then 20,000 Pekingresidents joined in. Workers and shop owners all went on strike. OnDecember 17, the mayor asserted that the students were beinginstigated by the Communist Party.
In January,1936, students in Peking and Tianjin organized propaganda groups togo south among the workers and peasants to let them know about theinvasion by Japan and calling on them to rise up against theJapanese. On March 31, Guo Qing, a student at the 17[SUP]th[/SUP]high school in Peking, died in prison. Students indignantly crowdedinto the streets, carrying his coffin. On May 28, all Peking wasprotesting, with the slogans “Down with Japan” and “The 29[SUP]th[/SUP]army must fight Japan.” On May 30, the commander of the 29[SUP]th[/SUP]army announced that if the Japanese army moved any further, it wouldface resistance. On June 13, students in Peking demonstrated again,and this time the police did not interfere; on the contrary, theyshowed their sympathy. On December 12, students held the fifthdemonstration. These student protests, though not enough to preventthe Japanese from trespassing further into China, roused the Chinesepeople at large to resist the invaders.
 

xlwoo

Senior Member
[h=2]TheOutbreak of the Sino–Japanese War, Or the Anti-Japanese War[/h][h=3]The double 7s event—Lugou Bridge event[/h] At 7:30PM onthe 7[SUP]th[/SUP] of July (07/07), 1937, the Japanese army,stationed at the other side of Lugou Bridge over the Yongding River(with the Chinese army on this side of the bridge), 15 km fromPeking, began to exercise, conducting a sham battle in the desertedfields under their control close to Wanping Town. (Wanping had beenfounded in 1540 in the Ming Dynasty as a satellite town for thedefense of Peking.) At about 12:40 that night, reports of gun shotswere heard by the Chinese soldiers across the river. Japaneseofficers said that a soldier in their army had gone missing in theexercise and they heard reports of guns, so the soldier must havebeen killed by Chinese soldiers. On this pretext they tried to comeinto Wanping town to search for him. The Chinese army guarding thetown, of course, refused their request, answering that everyone inthe town was asleep and must not be disturbed, and besides, noChinese soldier had fired a shot. Therefore, at 5 o’clock in themorning on July 8, they opened fire on the defensive Chinese army atthis side of the bridge and also blasted the town with artillery. TheChinese army had to fight back. Historians consider this is the eventthat lit the fuse of the Sino–Japanese War.
Next day, theCommunist Party sent out a public telegram to call on people toresist the Japanese invaders. And Chiang Kai-shek made a speech,saying, “No matter where you are, in the south or in the north, nomatter who you are, old or young, everyone has the responsibility toresist, everyone must be determined to make a sacrifice.” in theprevious six years Chiang Kai-shek had stuck to a policy of notfighting the Japanese because he was not confident they could achievethe final victory, and he needed time to prepare. He had hired Germanadvisors to train his officers and soldiers up to German standards.He stored ammunition and expanded his air force. He communicated withEngland, the US and Russia seeking diplomatic support. Though helacked the self-confidence to win the war, he foresaw that the finalvictory belonged to China. As a small country, however strongmilitarily, Japan could never occupy such a big country like China.
In the firsttwo days of fighting, Japan could see that they were not going totake the bridge easily. So they proposed peace talks to make time togather more troops. Japan maneuvered its army from Korea andnortheastern China to where the battles were, amassing 400,000troops. On July 9, 11and 19, peace agreements were signedthree times, but they were useless, only serving to numb the Chinesearmy with a false outlook of peace.
On July 25, theJapanese army suddenly attacked the Chinese army stationed atLangfang, and 14 Japanese airplanes raided the barracks of theChinese army. At noon on July 26, the Japanese army occupiedLangfang. Then Japan demanded the Chinese army to withdraw from theregion of Peking and Tianjin City, a demand that was of courserejected. At 1:00AM on July 26, a Japanese regiment started fromTianjin City and arrived at Fengtai, close to Peking, at 2:00PM. Theyasked to enter Peking to protect their citizens in the city. Theywere permitted in. When just half of the regiment was inside the citygates, the Chinese army fired at them. The regiment was cut in two,half inside and half outside the city. The inside half escaped to theembassy area, into the Japanese barracks in the Japanese embassy. Theother half returned to Fengtai. On July 28, the Japanese army startedto assault Peking. Chinese army resisted and suffered hugesacrifices. In the night of July 28, the Chinese army had to retreatfrom Peking. The next day, Japan took Peking, and the day after,Tianjin City fell into their hands as well.
 

xlwoo

Senior Member
[h=3]The8/13 event—battle in Shanghai[/h] In southernChina, Japan wanted to occupy Shanghai. On August 9, two Japanesemariners in Shanghai drove a car and trespassed into the Hongqiaoairport area to fire guns, but they were shot dead by the Chineseguards. On August 13, Japanese mariners following their tanksattacked the Chinese army stationed along the Songhu railway, butthey were beaten. On August 14, the national government made astatement calling for self-defense in resistance of Japan. Thestatement was really a general mobilization order to all Chinesepeople. The central national government organized several militaryblocs to defend Shanghai. On August 15, the Japanese governmentissued a statement, too, saying that in order to punish the Chinesearmy for its rash action and to urge the Nanking government not totake severe steps, the Japanese government had to resort to war. Theysent more troops by sea to the Shanghai area. In joint action withthe mariners, the Japanese army planned to occupy the strategicallyimportant zone in the north of Shanghai.
Chiang Kai-shekdivided the warring area into five zones. Shanghai was in the thirdzone. On August 17, the Chinese army counterattacked and the 87[SUP]th[/SUP]division took the Japanese sailors’ club. The 88[SUP]th[/SUP]division fought Japanese troops in Hongkou park. The two divisionsjointly broke through the Japanese defensive line to Huishan wharf.At the same time, the Chinese air force attacked that of Japan andalso their warships. They downed 47 Japanese airplanes and sank oneJapanese cruiser. Two divisions sailed from Japan to the easternregion of Shanghai, arriving on the 22[SUP]nd[/SUP]. And on the 23[SUP]rd[/SUP],they landed at Wusong district. On August 24, the Chinese 15[SUP]th[/SUP]military bloc entered Shanghai and assailed the two Japanesedivisions just as they were setting foot on land. On September 1, athousand Japanese soldiers attacked the Chinese cannon site and bothhad heavy casualties. Japan gathered 30 warships to support theirarmy in an attack at Baoshan.
After September11, Chiang Kai-shek himself took the command of the third zone. Fromthen till the beginning of October, the Japanese army increased to200,000 strong. But they did not have a decisive advantage over theChinese army till early November. At dawn on November 5, under thecover of heavy fog and lifted by the rising tide, Japanese armylanded at Hangzhou Bay. On November 6, they took Jinshan and used avise strategy to attack the Chinese army from two sides. On November8, under such unfavorable conditions, Chiang had to give order toretreat. On November 9, the Japanese army occupied Songjiang Town andon November 12 they took Shanghai. During the battles, the people ofShanghai had contributed 3.3 million yuan to support the Chinesearmy.
 

xlwoo

Senior Member
[h=3]Thebattles in Shanxi province[/h]The Japanese army from north marchedtoward Pingxing Pass in Shanxi province on the 24[SUP]th[/SUP] ofSeptember, 1937, but the Chinese army was lying in wait for them. AJapanese regiment entered the ambush zone and was annihilated. OnSeptember 29, the Japanese army broke through the Chinese army’sdefensive line at Ruyuekou and attacked the rear of Chinese army atPingxing Pass. The Chinese army had to beat a retreat to TaiyuanCity, capital of Shanxi province. Qikou was an important strategicplace, the gate to Taiyuan. On October 14, the Japanese army used avise ruse to attack Qikou from two wings, but met with strongresistance. There were heavy casualties on both sides. On October 21,the Japanese army sent a division to attack Niangzi Pass with theintention of going in as an indirect route to take Taiyuan from thenorth side. On October 26, a Japanese division sent a detachment togo round to the back of the Chinese army defending Niangzi Pass. TheChinese army in the Pass had to withdraw. The Japanese army tookNiangzi Pass and chased the retreating Chinese to Yangquan. Then theJapanese army occupied Yangquan and marched toward Shouyang, closerto Taiyuan, on the 2[SUP]nd[/SUP] of November.
Another Japanese military bloc took adifferent route and took Xiyang on its way to Taiyuan on November 2.The two Japanese blocs converged on Taiyuan. On November 3, theJapanese 5[SUP]th[/SUP] bloc reached the northern edges of Taiyuan.On November 5, the Japanese broke through the Chinese defensive lineand approached the city wall on November 6. In the meantime, theJapanese 20[SUP]th[/SUP] military bloc penetrated the Chinesedefensive line in the southern perimeter. On November 7, the Japanesearmy surrounded Taiyuan and on the 8[SUP]th[/SUP] they began anonslaught on the city; at night they entered the city from thenorthern side. The Chinese army had to escape and then the Japanesearmy took the whole city.
In February of 1938, the Japanese 108[SUP]th[/SUP]military bloc took Dongyang Pass and then another two towns. In earlyMarch, more towns were taken. By then all the important cities andtowns in Shanxi province had fallen into the hands of Japan. Out of105 cities and towns in Shanxi province, 102 of them were occupied byJapanese army.
 

xlwoo

Senior Member
[h=3]Theslaughter in Nanking[/h]By October 1937, Nanking, the capitalof the national government, was exposed to the attack of Japanesearmy. Therefore, Chiang Kai-shek decided to set up a temporarycapital in Chongqing City in Sichuan province in southwestern China,at a safe distance from the Japanese army.
At first some generals persisted indefending Nanking at any cost. So the national government gathered100,000 soldiers for that purpose. No matter, as Japanese armyapproached Nanking, the government at last had to declare that thegovernment was moving to Chongqing City on the 20[SUP]th[/SUP] ofNovember. Government offices, universities and schools moved inland,one after another. Even residents of the city escaped from Nanking.In June, there were 1,015,000 residents in the city, but in December,only 468,000 or 568,000 remained. On the 20[SUP]th[/SUP] of December,for humanitarian reasons, over 20 Westerners were still thereorganizing the international committee of the Nanjing safety zone totake in and protect refugees.
The Chinese national governmentrecognized their efforts and supplied them with cash, food and policeprotection. Japan was far from pleased, but declared that if therewere no Chinese soldiers hiding there, they would not attack it. Butafter they took the city, their soldiers forced entry into the zone,stealing private belongings, raping women and arresting and killingyoung men. Several times the international committee made protests tothe Japanese embassy and Japanese army authorities, but in vain.During this slaughter, the committee protected 250,000 refugees. Onthe 18[SUP]th[/SUP] of February, 1938, the organization was renamedthe Nanking international rescue committee, acting only in a rescuerole. By June, it was closed entirely.
On the 7[SUP]th[/SUP] of November,Tokyo gave orders to limit the action of the Japanese army to theeast of Suzhou and Jiaxing region. But the army ignored the order andpursued the retreating Chinese army, intending to occupy Nanking.They advanced quickly as no Chinese army fought them on the way.Seeing this, Tokyo issued orders to take Nanking on December 1.
The Japanese army marched so fast thattheir supply units were left far behind. When they were approachingNanking, food was scarce. The soldiers pillaged the Chinese villagesfor anything edible and wantonly violated women. To cover theircrimes, they even slew all the people in the village and burnedeverything. As they came to Nanking, at least 30,000 Chinese peoplewere killed along the way. It was a rehearsal for the slaughter inNanking.
On December 8, the Japanese army tookall the defensive sites outside Nanking. The worst battle took placeat Yuhua Terrace outside the city. Two Chinese brigades were guardingthe place. From December 9–11, the Japanese army kept on sendingreinforcements for the attack, aided by their artillery and airraids, until every Chinese soldier was killed. When the Japanesetroops reached the terrace, no one was alive. Then the Japanese armycleared all the defensive lines outside the city, and the Chinesearmy in the city had to retreat. On December 13, the Japanese armyentered the city. Some Chinese soldiers who did not have time toescape stripped off their uniforms and disguised themselves ascivilians. Some ten thousand Chinese were taken captive. They wereall killed on instructions from the Japanese army authorities. Theyalso searched for other Chinese soldiers in disguise. Anyone theysuspected was killed. Many of them were really unarmed civilians.They even murdered old people and children. They killed all the womenthey had raped.
On December 13, 1937, a Japanesenewspaper, Tokyo nichi nichi (mainichi shimbun), reported that twoJapanese officers, Mukai Ming and Noda Takeshi, had a competition tosee who could kill more Chinese people. Encouraged by theirsuperiors, they declared that whoever was first to kill 100 Chinesepeople was a hero. They practiced this slaying from Gourong toTangshan, and Mukai Ming killed 89 while Noda Takeshi killed 78.Certainly, we can all agree they were not heroes. However, thecompetition continued. When they met at Mt. Zinjin, both had dentedthe blades of their swords. Noda Takeshi said that he had killed 105and Mukai Ming said that he had killed 106. However, there was nowitness. So they started the competition anew, aiming at 150. Thenewspaper ran pictures with captions. Both these brave men wereexecuted in Nanking for their crimes after the surrender of Japan.
Statistics showthat during the two months the Japanese occupied Nanking, about80,000 women were raped, some of them pregnant, from girls as youngas 12 to women as old as 65. Many died after the violence. They rapedwomen right in front of their families. Many people were buriedalive. The victims were forced by the Japanese soldiers to dig theirown pits. During the six weeks of the occupation, 23.8% of structuresinside and outside the city were destroyed by fire, 63% had beenplundered and 88.5% were structurally damaged. They used militarytrucks to carry away their loot. By some estimates, 26,584 antiquecurios or artifacts were missing, such as bronze wares from the ShangDynasty (1765–1122 BC), along with 7,720 paintings and 45,979valuable books. Some 109,000 casualties were found and buried. TheNanking branch of the World Red Swastika Society gave out statisticsin 1945 claiming that from December 22, 1937 to October 30, 1938,they found and buried 43,123 bodies—1,793 inside the city and41,330 outside the city, including 75 women and 20 children. Thosestatistics were from just one organization. The victims totaled300,000 in all.
 

xlwoo

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[h=3]Thebattles in Shandong province[/h]Now the Japanese army occupied thenorth of China and also Shanghai and the Nanking area. What morecould they want? Well, the Shandong province, which is between thenorthern provinces and the southern area. Shandong province was thenstill under the control of the Chinese army. Xuzhou City was a placeof strategic importance. So battles were waged in its vicinity andexpanding into adjoining provinces. If the Japanese army occupiedXuzhou, they could go west along the Longhai railway to attackZhengzhou in Henan province and then go south along the Pinghanrailway to attack Wuhan in Hubei province. So the Japanese army camedown from the north and came up from the south.
At the beginning of the Anti-JapaneseWar in 1937, Han Fuju, the chairman of the government of Shandongprovince, was ordered to take charge of the defensive line along theYellow River and prevent the Japanese army from crossing the river.But when the Japanese army rushed down upon him from the north, hefled as if to open the gate and invite the enemy in. The Japanesearmy easily crossed the river. In early March 1938, they occupiedJiNan, the capital of Shandong province.
On the 26[SUP]th[/SUP] of January,1938, the 13[SUP]th[/SUP] division of the Japanese army marched fromthe south towards Fengyang and Bangbu in Anhui province. The Chinesearmy stationed there, after efforts at resistance, fell back towardsthe west. On the 3[SUP]rd[/SUP] of February, the Japanese divisiontook Linhuai Pass and Bangbu. On February 9–10, the 13[SUP]th[/SUP]division crossed the Huai River to the north. The 51[SUP]st[/SUP]Chinese army stationed itself on the north bank and fought theJapanese army.
Between March 1–17, the Japanese armyattacked Teng Town in the southern Shandong province. On March 14,the battle reached its climax. The Japanese army used 30 cannons. OnMarch 17, Teng Town was lost.
Meanwhile in late February, theJapanese 5[SUP]th[/SUP] military bloc came down to the south, aftertaking over a few towns, and approached Linqi Town where the 40[SUP]th[/SUP]army of the national government held the defense. Then the 59[SUP]th[/SUP]Chinese army came for reinforcement. From February 14to18, the 59[SUP]th[/SUP] Chinese army attacked the Japanese bloc fromthe rear and one wing. The Japanese had to retreat this time, leavingbehind heavy casualties.
On March 20 a Japanese brigade, aftertaking a few towns, approached TaiEr village area, which was thefront defensive line to Xuzhou. The brigade attacked alone withoutwaiting for the 5[SUP]th[/SUP] division and another brigade of theirarmy; they were supposed to break through the defensive lines on theleft wing and on the right wing. From March 24, the Japanese armyassailed fiercely. The 2[SUP]nd[/SUP] Chinese military bloc held theline. Then the 20[SUP]th[/SUP] Chinese bloc attacked the Japanesearmy from behind. The 59[SUP]th[/SUP] Chinese army arrived in time tocontribute their endeavors. They surrounded the Japanese army. The10[SUP]th[/SUP] Japanese corps was wiped out and the 5[SUP]th[/SUP]Japanese corps was put to rout. It was the first and only time thatthe Chinese army defeated the Japanese army in the early period ofAnti-Japanese War.
Anyway, Japan aimed at taking Xuzhou.On the 18[SUP]th[/SUP] of April, two Japanese divisions attacked the20[SUP]th[/SUP], the 3[SUP]rd[/SUP] and the 59[SUP]th[/SUP] Chinesearmies. On the 5[SUP]th[/SUP] of May, the main forces of the Japanesearmy divided into two detachments and went from west side of Xuzhouto the north and south sides of the city, intending to surround it.On May 14, the 14[SUP]th[/SUP] Japanese division came from Puyang inHenan province, and crossing the Yellow River, occupied Heze. On May15, the Japanese army surrounded Xuzhou. So under the command ofChiang Kai-shek, the Chinese army in Xuzhou broke through the circleand escaped to the mountainous area in Henan and Anhui provinces.Xuzhou was at length taken by the Japanese army on May 19.
Now the Japanese army marched westalong the Longhai railway and on the 6[SUP]th[/SUP] of June occupiedKaifeng City in Henan province. To prevent the Japanese army from anyfurther advance, Chiang ordered his men to blow up the south dike ofthe Yellow River at Huayuankou on May 9, on the northeastern side ofZhengzhou in Henan province. The water from the river flooded southand the Japanese army had to flee eastward. Thus ended the battles inShandong province. Han Fuju was executed for running away from thebattlefield and allowing the Japanese to cross the Yellow Riverunopposed.
 

xlwoo

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[h=3]Thebattles at Wuhan City area[/h]After taking Nanking, the Japanese armywanted to conquer China in three months with blitzkrieg attacks likeHitler did in Europe. They marched along the Yangtze River towardsWuhan, gathering large numbers of troops, amounting to 300,000strong. If they took Wuhan, half of China would be in theirpossession. But they neglected to consider that even so, they onlyoccupied the cities and towns in this half of China, not the wholearea. They had no manpower to control the countryside. As they pushedforward, they had to leave some of their troops to guard the citiesand towns they had captured. And so they could use less and lesstroops, and then there were those lost in battle. Poor strategy.
The Chinese army totaled 1,100,000 indefense. The whole defensive line extended for 250 miles. Thefighting went on for four and a half months, the longest in terms oftime and the largest in scale of all the battles between Japan andChina. The Japanese casualties were 35,500 while those of the Chinesearmy were 256,000. After that, the Japanese did not have enoughforces in China to make the lightning attacks they preferred; nowthey had to change their strategy and concentrate on keeping a holdon what they had secured so far.
On the night of the 11[SUP]th[/SUP] ofJune, 1938, a Japanese brigade, under the cover of a rainy night,gave a surprise attack and took Anqin the following day. Anqin wasthe first defensive spot en route to Wuhan. Then they went west bywater, riding their warships. In late June, they arrived at Madang,where the Chinese army had built a strong defensive line. ChiangKai-shek hoped that this line could block their advance for at leastone month.
At first, the Japanese army wanted toget through the line by water. On June 22, they approached Madang andfound that the water was full up mines, sunken ships, and artificialreefs so that their warships could not go through. They had toadvance by land and break through the line through the mountainousareas.
 

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Li Yunheng, the Chinese commander incharge of the defense in Madang, wished to show that he was a clevergeneral—without realizing how serious the situation was. Heorganized a training class for officers in charge of regiments,battalions, companies and platoons in his army for two weeks startingon June 10. And at 8 o’clock in the morning June 24, he thought hewould hold a ceremony marking the completion of the class. So on the23[SUP]rd[/SUP], all the officers went to the headquarters and stayedthere for the ceremony next morning. Someone in the training classwas spying for the Japanese and gave this information to the Japanesearmy. So they sent surprise squads to attack some of the fortressesalong the front. As there were no officers to direct the action ofthe soldiers, there was chaos and the squads took the fortresseseasily. But when the squads went on to attack Changshan, theyencountered strong resistance, because the officers there had refusedto attend the ceremony. The fight lasted for two days and the Chinesetroops were short of ammunition and telegrammed headquarters. The167[SUP]th[/SUP] division was sent as reinforcement. But Xue Weiying,the commander of this division, was a coward and approached slowly toavoid being killed in the battle. At dawn on the 26[SUP]th[/SUP], theJapanese squads stole through a thick patch of reeds to attackanother frontier post. They used poisonous gas and killed all thedefensive soldiers there. Then the Japanese army cleared all mines inthe water by firing at them and got rid of other barriers. Theyshipped mariners to attack Changshan and broke through the defensiveline there. The Chinese defense had to withdraw out of Madang and theJapanese army occupied it. Madang was the ‘gate’ in the middle ofthe Yangtze River to Wuhan. Commander Li Yunheng was severelypunished and the division leader Xue Weiying was executed for neglectof his duties.
After taking Madang, the Japanese armycontinued west. On the 29[SUP]th[/SUP] of June, they took Pengze.Under orders from Wuhan headquarters, the 64[SUP]th[/SUP] Chinesearmy came in hopes of taking back the town, but it was defeated andchased to Hukou, which was soon taken by the Japanese army on the 4[SUP]th[/SUP]of July. The 64[SUP]th[/SUP] Chinese army then went to Jiujiang,which was situated by the Poyang Lake. On July 22, the Japanese armyattacked the city. At dawn on July 23, the Japanese army stole intothe lake in the rain and set foot on the shore at noon. The Chinesedefensive army did not see them coming. They spotted the enemy andreported to headquarters only at 4 o’clock. By then, the Japanesearmy had surrounded the city. The Chinese army inside had to fightthrough the circle and escape. The city fell into the hands of theJapanese army on July 24.
The next goal of the Japanese army wasTianjia Town. The hilly ground was easy to defend and hard to attack.The river was only 500 meters wide. The Chinese army set up a strongdefense here with artillery. On the 21[SUP]st[/SUP] of August, theJapanese army attacked Matou Town, about 10 miles downstream fromTianjia Town, and took it after more than 20 days of struggle. On the26[SUP]th[/SUP], the Japanese army sailed in warships upstreamtowards the town. There were more barriers in the water, so theJapanese army advanced very slowly. On August 29, another Japanesedetachment went to attack Guangji. If they could take this town, theycould go on to attack Tainjia from behind. Tianjia Town was about 25miles northeast of Guangji Town. The attack began on August 30and lasted until September 6. Between Guangji Town and TianjiaTown there was only a narrow road between two small lakes. TheJapanese army followed that road on September 15. There were somedefensive outposts set along this road. Coming to a roadblock, theyused poisonous gas again. Some Chinese soldiers were injured and theChinese army had to retreat.
 

xlwoo

Senior Member
The Japanese mariners went to Wuxue,some distance from Tianjia. Wuxue was defended only by a company ofChinese soldiers. In the evening of September 15, the mariners beganthe offensive. The defensive soldiers fought the invaders alley byalley till only a few soldiers left, and they slipped away. Butbefore they left, they destroyed the dike at the river bank and thewater flooded Wuxue area, which hindered the advance of the mariners.
A Japanese brigade that was surroundedby the Chinese army was running short of rations and ammunition. AJapanese commander learned about this and called for an air lift tore-supply them. So Japanese airplanes dropped the necessities andammunition to the brigade. But as the fighting continued, theirammunition was soon used up. The Japanese soldiers were reduced tothrowing stones at the Chinese attackers and sometimes threw back thegrenades the Chinese soldiers cast at them. The Chinese army figuredout that the enemy was in a tight spot and marched forth in adownpour of rain to wipe them out. However, more Japanese troops cameto the rescue and assailed the Chinese army from behind, so they hadto withdraw. Few men in the Japanese brigade were left alive.
On September23,some of the wounded Japanese soldiers were shipped away, but thefirst field hospital was still full. Because of the lack of helpinghands, those who were lightly wounded and who could still walk, wentto the field hospital by themselves. Sometimes they had to crawl inthe rain and in the mud. By the time they reached the hospital, theywere almost dying. Some died on the way owing to the loss of blood.The hospital had little food to spare and could only give them whatthey had. War is cruel to all participants.
After the sunset on the 26[SUP]th[/SUP],the 4[SUP]th[/SUP] Japanese battalion attacked Xinwo. Their soldiersall put on gas masks and cleared out the Chinese company there,except about ten of them who had already escaped. The Japanesesoldiers then went in and used bayonets to kill any Chinese soldiersthat had not died yet.
The 4[SUP]th[/SUP] battalion wenttowards Lujia Mountain without leaving any soldiers to guard Xinwo.It was dark and the mountain contours were complicated. The 4[SUP]th[/SUP]battalion lost its way in the mountains. The 339[SUP]th[/SUP] Chineseregiment was taking shelter on this mountain. But after a fewbattles, only one battalion was left. As Xinwo was lost, the regimentcommander chose some hundred soldiers to form an expendable squad tomake one last try at Xinwo. When they reached there, they found noJapanese soldiers guarding the place. But by coincidence the 2[SUP]nd[/SUP]Japanese battalion came into their firing zone. The Japanese troopsthought that their 4[SUP]th[/SUP] battalion had already wiped out bythe Chinese soldiers defending the city, but now they encountered theChinese squad by surprise. So 61 soldiers of the 2[SUP]nd[/SUP]Japanese battalion were killed and 17 escaped. At daybreak, the 4[SUP]th[/SUP]battalion found that they were at the foot of Lujia Mountain and theyclimbed up to attack the Chinese soldiers on the top, who were justready for breakfast. When they detected Japanese soldiers creeping upthe mountainside, they disappeared.
In the early morning of September28, the cannons from the warships on the river and from landpoured heavy fire upon Tianjia and all the defensive structures andweaponry were destroyed. It looked like a sea of flames. At the sametime, all the outer defensive spots were lost. The Chinese army inTianjia was ordered to withdraw. At 10 o’clock on September29,when the Japanese army entered the town, the Chinese defenders werenowhere to be seen.
 

xlwoo

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At the same time, the 106[SUP]th[/SUP]Japanese military bloc had been marching south along Nanxun railroadto Nanchang. On the August 20, this bloc, aided by the 101[SUP]th[/SUP]Japanese bloc, broke through the Chinese defensive line at Xingzi.But the Chinese army had a second defensive line. The two Japaneseblocs could not go further this time. In September 1938, a Japanesereconnaissance airplane found that there was a gap in the defensiveline after the fight had been going on for a month. So the 106[SUP]th[/SUP]Japanese bloc was sent to go stealthily through that gap and comeupon the Chinese defensive army to attack them from behind. OnSeptember 25, the 106[SUP]th[/SUP] bloc began to steal through thegap, but lost their way in the mountains. They were soon discoveredand surrounded by Chinese soldiers. On October 7, the Chinese armyattacked and the fight went on for three days. The bloc had noreinforcements and ran out of ammunition. On September 10, 3,000Japanese soldiers died. The rest escaped.
On the August 27, the 2[SUP]nd[/SUP]Japanese army attacked Dabie Mountain area and took LiuAn andHuoshan. They split into two detachments. The first went through theDabie Mountain area to approach Wuhan directly. The second detachmentwent to Lushan through a circuitous route to Wuhan. But Mt. Fujin wasright on their way to Wuhan. They had to occupy Mt. Fujin first. Asevere battle commenced. They failed to take the mountain bySeptember 6. On September 11, the 16[SUP]th[/SUP] Japanese bloc camefor reinforcement. The Chinese defensive army in the mountains had towithdraw. As the Japanese army approached Wuhan, there was no moreChinese army seen. The Chinese army already retreated from Wuhan,leaving the city to the Japanese army.
Although the Japanese army took controlof many cities and towns, they really did not annihilate the Chinesearmy, which still had enough strength to fight back when needed. Onthe contrary, the Japanese army suffered great losses and had no morestrength to wage battles on a large scale. As China is such a hugecountry, even with all the Japanese armies thrown into the territoryof China, they could not cover the whole area of the nation. Besides,when they took a city, they took on an additional burden. As theyacquired more and more burdens, they had less and less strength tofight. That has to be factored into any military strategy.
 

xlwoo

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[h=3]TheJapanese army takes Canton in the south[/h]The top brass of the Japanese army hada meeting on September 7 and decided to overrun southern China asthey had already occupied the northern and middle China. Their finalgoal was to occupy the whole of China and then occupy all thecountries in East Asia to establish what they called Great East AsiaCoprosperity Sphere.
However, historians question why theyattacked Pearl Harbor, since Hawaii was not in East Asia. Thisill-advised action, or ill-advised stratagem, made them pay heavilywhen America declared war against them. of course, even if theyhadn’t attacked Pearl Harbor, the United States would finally havejoined the war in East Asia after Germany was conquered, becauseJapan was one of the axis countries, just as the Soviet Union enterednortheastern China to fight the Japanese army.
Anyway, Chiang Kai-shek misjudged thesituation, thinking that since Japan was still fighting in theYangtze River area, they could not go south to Canton. So hemaneuvered four divisions from the Canton area to support thosebattling in Wuhan. In other words, he weakened the defensive forcesin Canton. But Canton was a harbor city, an outlet to the sea, aplace of strategic importance.
On October 12, 1938, the Japanese 18[SUP]th[/SUP]and 104[SUP]th[/SUP] blocs set out for Canton by sea and air from thePescadores Islands (located between the mainland and Taiwan, whichwas known at the time by the name Formosa, given by the Portuguese)with the aid of four aircraft carriers. They entered Daya Bay in theGuangdong province. The next day, they dropped bombs on Huiyang Townand after three days, they took it. On October 19, they suddenlyattacked Zengcheng and put the Chinese defenders to rout. On October21, the Chinese army withdrew from Canton and the Japanese army tookit. Another burden. On October 22, 110 Japanese airplanes and the 5[SUP]th[/SUP]fleet pounced upon Humen, a very important strategic spot. Within tendays, they occupied Canton and Human.
 

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[h=3]TheJapanese army attacks Changsha City three times[/h]Although the Japanese army occupiedNanking and Wuhan, two big, important cities, there were otherimportant cities in between that had not taken yet. Changsha was oneof them. On the 14[SUP]th[/SUP] of September, 1939, they gathered100,000 soldiers and marched towards Changsha. But they had to fightthrough one Chinese defensive line after another.
The 101[SUP]th[/SUP] Japanese blocattacked GaoAn on September 18. On the 19[SUP]th[/SUP], the Chinesegave up the town after a severe fight and receded to Shiguling. Then,the Chinese 32[SUP]nd[/SUP] army counterattacked in GaoAn onSeptember 21. On September 22, the Chinese army took back GaoAn. TheJapanese 106[SUP]th[/SUP] bloc took Ganfang on September 24. The nextday, the Chinese counterattacked in Ganfang. On the 6[SUP]th[/SUP] ofOctober, two Chinese blocs surrounded the Japanese army, who fledback to where they had come from. The Chinese army chased them andtook back a few towns that had been captured by the Japanese army. OnOctober 13, Chinese army stopped its pursuit. Thus ended theChanghsha battle for the first time, and the people there had amoment to recover.
In early September of 1941, Japangathered 120,000 men, with artillery and air support, and marched onChanghai once more. On September 7, the Japanese 6[SUP]th[/SUP] blocattacked Dayun Mountain as a decoy to screen the gathering of their3[SUP]rd[/SUP], 4[SUP]th[/SUP], and 40[SUP]th[/SUP] blocs on theright bank of the Xinqiang River. The 4[SUP]th[/SUP] Chinese armygave up the front line on the mountain. On September 10, the Chinese58[SUP]th[/SUP] army came as reinforcements and took back themountain position. At the daybreak on September 18, the Japanese 3[SUP]rd[/SUP],6[SUP]th[/SUP], and 40[SUP]th[/SUP] blocs crossed the Xinqiang Riverand the next day they reached the north bank of the Miluo River. TheChinese 37[SUP]th[/SUP] and 99[SUP]th[/SUP] armies were stationed onthe south bank of the river and they prevented the Japanese army fromcrossing. Meantime, the Chinese 20[SUP]th[/SUP], 58[SUP]th[/SUP] ,and 4[SUP]th[/SUP] armies went to attack the wing side of theJapanese army. But a telegram from headquarters to the armies at thefront was intercepted and deciphered by the Japanese, who changedtheir original plan and went to assail the Chinese army coming fromtheir wing side. On September 24, the Japanese army crossed the MiluoRiver. On the 26[SUP]th[/SUP], the Japanese 4[SUP]th[/SUP] bloccrossed Laodao river and the next day crossed Liuyang River andapproached Changsha. On the afternoon of September 27, they enteredthe city from the southeast side and shortly occupied the whole city.
But Chinese armies came from all sidesand surrounded the city. The Japanese supply lines were cut andprovisions inside the city ran short. On October 1, they had toescape north. So the Chinese army pursued them. On October 5, theycaught up with the runaways on the south side of the Miluo River andfought there. The Japanese army had to cross the river to the northside. On October 6, the Chinese army crossed the river, too, keepingup the chase, and they crossed the Xinqiang River on October 8. OnOctober 11, the Chinese army restored all the positions taken by thefoe. The second battle for Changsha was over.
After the 7[SUP]th[/SUP] of December,1941, when Japan made their semi-secret bombardment of Pearl Harbor,Japan was scheming to attack the Chinese army in Changsha area againlest they should go south to assist the Britain in the defense ofHong Kong.
On December 23, the Japanese armycrossed the Xinqiang River once again to pounce upon the Chinese armyin Changsha, who put up a firm resistance. Other Chinese armiesaround the area came to surround the Japanese army, who gradually ranlow on ammunition and their supply line was cut off. On January 15,1942, the Japanese army had to break through the encirclement andescape. They lost 50,000 soldiers.
The victory in these battles made adeep international impression just when the situation appearedunfavorable to the Allies in East Asia. On January 1, 1942,twenty-six nations held an assembly in Washington D.C., and made ajoint declaration. The United States, Great Britain, the SovietUnion, and China, the four greatest powers in the world, signed thedeclaration. And Xue Yue, the commander of the Chinese army in theChangsha defensive war, was conferred a Medal of Honor by Americangovernment.
 
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