Writing Forums

Writing Forums is a privately-owned, community managed writing environment. We provide an unlimited opportunity for writers and poets of all abilities, to share their work and communicate with other writers and creative artists. We offer an experience that is safe, welcoming and friendly, regardless of your level of participation, knowledge or skill. There are several opportunities for writers to exchange tips, engage in discussions about techniques, and grow in your craft. You can also participate in forum competitions that are exciting and helpful in building your skill level. There's so much more for you to explore!

Two Republics in China (1 Viewer)

xlwoo

Senior Member
On the 23[SUP]rd[/SUP]of April, Sun Yat-sen gathered his generals for a meeting in hispresidential residence to decide what to do next. There were twooptions. One was to first annihilate Chen’s army so that he couldnot give the Revolutionary Army a stab from behind. Chiang Kai-shekheld this opinion. The other was to immediately march north, whiledoing their best to avoid any conflict with Chen’s army. Sun tendedtoward the second opinion, as he thought that Chen had not reallybetrayed him, at least not yet. He had no reason to attack Chen.Chiang Kai-shek thought that Chen would at long last betray Sun.Since Sun did not believe him, he left Guangdong province, whilewriting a letter to Chen advising him not to betray Sun.
When Sun Yat-sen came backto Canton, he still allowed Chen to be the commander of the firstarmy. But Chen refused to take the appointment. On the 28[SUP]th[/SUP]of April, Zhang Zuolin, Duan Qirui and Sun Yat-sen formed an allianceto fight Wu Peifu. Sun thought that this created an opportunity forhim to go north.
On the 4[SUP]th[/SUP]of May, Zhang’s army was beaten by Wu’s, and Zhang had to retreatback to where he had come from, northeastern China. Wu took controlin Peking. Wu had a secret agreement with Chen Jiongming that hewould drive away the current president, Xu Shichang, and Chen woulddrive away Sun Yat-sen. Then the first step was to let Li Yuanhongback into the presidency and get him to wipe out all the warlordseverywhere, except of course the two of them. If Li failed to do so,he would be the scapegoat. If he succeeded, Wu and Chen would use thecongress to have themselves elected as the president and the vicepresident.
So they announced that thecurrent president Xu was illegal. Xu resigned on the 2[SUP]nd[/SUP]of June. Once back in the presidency, Li denounced that warrant thatwas out for Sun Yat-sen and invited him to Peking to discuss nationalaffairs. He also appointed many warlords in the south, but none ofthem accepted his appointments. Afterwards, as Wu and Chen saw thatLi could do nothing for them, they forced Li to quit the presidencyagain. Li went back to Tianjin City.
On the 9[SUP]th[/SUP]of May, Sun issued an order for a general attack, and on the 13[SUP]th[/SUP]of June, the Revolutionary Army put Wu’s army to rout in Jiangxiprovince. Wu sent his man to Chen and asked him to take action assoon as possible.
 

xlwoo

Senior Member
[h=3]ChenJiongming Turns Traitor in Canton[/h]When Chen went back to hishometown, he took with him a lot of guns and ammunition, enough toarm 40 battalions. On the 20[SUP]th[/SUP]of May, Chen’s subordinate, Ye Ju, led his troops into Canton andstarted a treasonous action. By the 1[SUP]st[/SUP]of June, the situation had become acute. Liao Zhongkai, a faithfulfollower of Sun, sent a telegram to Sun Yat-sen asking him to comeback to Canton. When Sun was back in Canton, he summoned Chen, butChen refused to come.
On the 12[SUP]th[/SUP]of June, Sun Yat-sen ordered Ye Ju out of Canton. Next day, Chen andYe secretly met at Shilong. They knew that, to prevent Sun from goingnorth to fight Wu, they would have to cut off his access tofinancing. Liao was the person who provided Sun with everything. Sothey decided to kidnap Liao. On the 14[SUP]th[/SUP]day, Chen sent a telegram to Liao to invite him to his hometown forsome important business. On the fifth day, Liao went there and wasdetained. Then Ye Ju maneuvered his troops and planned to attackSun’s residence with cannons. On the 16[SUP]th[/SUP]day, Sun was informed of this and took refuge on a warship.
On the 19[SUP]th[/SUP],Sun Yat-sen sent a telegram to the Revolutionary Army at the frontierto come back to Guangdong province. On the 2[SUP]nd[/SUP]of July, the Revolutionary Army started to assail Chen’s army inGuangdong province, and beat the betraying army. Chen sent a telegramto Wu seeking assistance. Wu sent some troops to Guangdong province.On the 26[SUP]th[/SUP] ofJuly, the Revolutionary Army was chasing after Chen’s retreatingarmy but met with the reinforcements sent by Wu. Therefore, theRevolutionary Army had to withdraw. When Sun Yat-sen learned this, hehad to leave Guangdong province and go to Shanghai. Liao was releasedand left Canton. When Chen attempted to assassinate him afterwards,he was already gone.
 

xlwoo

Senior Member
On the 16[SUP]th[/SUP]of August, 1922, Sun Yat-sen made a statement accusing Chen ofbetrayal. To annihilate the treacherous army, Sun determined to allywith Duan. In October, he appointed Xu Chongzhi as thecommander-in-chief and Chiang Kai-shek as the chief of staff. On oneside, the Revolutionary Army together with Duan’s army vanquishedWu’s army. On the other, the armies of Yunnan and Guangxiprovinces, who supported Sun, defeated Chen’s army. On the 14[SUP]th[/SUP]of January, 1923, troops in Guangdong province turned over to Sun andattacked Chen, who escaped to his hometown, Huizhou.
On the 15[SUP]th[/SUP]of February, Sun Yat-sen returned to Canton. In April, Chen Hongying,a warlord in Guangxi province, accepted the appointment of the Pekinggovernment to be the governor of Guangdong province, and came toattack Canton, but was soon subdued. He escaped to Hong Kong.
At the end of 1924, Sunwent to Peking to discuss national affairs, but he was fatally ill.In February the Revolutionary Army, now under the full command ofChiang Kai-shek, marched east to wipe out the warlords there. Sundied on the 12[SUP]th[/SUP]of March, 1925. He famously wrote, in his will, “The revolution isnot successful yet; comrades must still make efforts.” That June,Chen Jiongming betrayed the cause again, but he was soon wiped out byChiang Kai-shek.
 

xlwoo

Senior Member
[h=2]EarlyHistory of the Communist Party of China[/h][h=3]The organization of the Communist Party of China[/h]In April 1920, theCommunist International sent Grigori Voitinsky to China. In May, hefound Chen Duxiu, 42 at the time, and sought to contact somerevolutionary young men in other cities to establish the CommunistParty of China, the CPC. Chen was the professor who had been arrestedin the May 4 student movement in 1919. In August 1920, underinstructions of the Soviet Communist Party, the Communist Party ofChina was established in Shanghai. At that time, it was calledCommunist Group with Chen Duxiu as the general secretary.
But after the CommunisstParty took over the reign of the mainland, public data they issuedstate that the first meeting of the Communist Party was held about ayear later, in Shanghai, on the 1[SUP]st[/SUP]of July, 1921. Why was the earlier date concealed from the public?There might be two reasons. One was that they wanted to cover up thefact that the Communist International had had a hand in it. The otheris that Mao attended the meeting in Shanghai, so by emphasizing thatmeeting they could say that Mao was one of the founders, enhancinghis image. But the meeting was in 1920, not in 1921 in Shanghai.
Fifteen people attendedthe meeting on the 23[SUP]rd[/SUP]of July, 1921, at 106 Wangzhi Road (presently 76 Xingye Road) inShanghai. These included Mao Zedong (1893–1976); Dong Biwu(1886–1975, later the vice chairman of the People’s Republic ofChina); Zhang Guotao (1897–1979, later commander of the Red 4[SUP]th[/SUP]Army in the Long March); Chen Gongbo (1890–1946); and Zhou Fohai(1897–1948). The last two later defected to Japanese invaders inSino–Japanese War (1937—1945). Also present were Malin and NicoChhabra (representatives from the Communist International).
 

xlwoo

Senior Member
Soon some suspicious menwere found lurking outside the house. The meeting broke up andeveryone discretely slipped away. And the next day, they met on aboat on the South Lake in Jiaxing Town, casually playing mahjongwhile in fact continuing their meeting. Thus the Communist Party ofChina was established. At that time it had only 50 members.
On the 23[SUP]rd[/SUP]of December, 1921, accompanied by an interpreter, Malin went to seeSun Yat-sen in Guilin City of Guangxi province. He stayed there fornine days and concluded that Communist Party members could join theNational Party while still maintaining their status in the CommunistParty. This would help the Communist Party to develop. But his ideawas strongly opposed by some party members, especially Chen Duxiu whowas then the leader of the party. So on the 23[SUP]rd[/SUP]of April, 1922, Malin left Shanghai for Holland, by sea, and then,through Berlin, made it to Moscow. He reported his work in China tothe Soviet Communist Party, which consented to his idea. On the 27[SUP]th[/SUP]of July, the Soviet Union sent a representative to China, togetherwith Malin, with instructions. Malin typed the instructions on theshirt he wore. In Shanghai, Malin met Chen Duxiu and gave him hisshirt.
Chen Duxiu had to obey thedecision of the Communist International because at the second meetingof the Communist Party, held from July 16–23, 1922, at 625 SouthChengdu Road in Shanghai, they had decided to join the CommunistInternational. Chen Duxiu and Zhang Guotao attended the meeting withten other representatives. Then the Communist Party of China gotfinancial aid from the Communist International.
On the 29[SUP]th[/SUP]and 30[SUP]th[/SUP] ofAugust, 1922, the Communist Party of China (CPC) held a centralmeeting on the West Lake in Hangzhou City and decided to found theFirst United Front, an alliance between the National Party and theCommunist Party.
 

xlwoo

Senior Member
In June 1923, theCommunist Party had its third meeting in Canton, and 40representatives, representing 420 party members, discussed the issueof the First United Front. They elected Chen Duxiu, Li Dazhao(1889–1927), Mao Zedong, and Xiang Ying (1898–1941, who laterbecame commander of the New 4[SUP]th[/SUP]Army in the Sino–Japanese War), and five others, as members of theCentral Committee.
It was said that after themeeting, at the urging of the Communist Party, Sun Yat-sen proposedhis three great policies: Alliance with Russia, Co-operation with theCommunist Party, and Assistance to Peasants and Workers. But as amatter of fact, Sun never identified with such policies. This wasjust invented by Mikhail Markovich Borodin, a Russian counselor tothe Communist Party of China, to make them look good. Then theCommunist Party used this invention as a fact for its own purposes.
Why did Sun agree to theUnited Front notion? It was because Sun always held to his ideal ofThree Principles for the People: the Principle of Nationalism, thePrinciple of Democracy, and the Principle of People’s Livelihood.Ironically, this party, which was also called Kuomintang by thepronunciations of the Chinese characters “National Party,”evolved into a highly centralized, hierarchical, and authoritarianparty. Sun thought that the ideal of communism was closest to histhree principles and so he wanted to unite with the Communist Partyagainst their common enemies—warlords who were still takingadvantage of the power void left when the imperial order crumbled.
From the 20[SUP]th[/SUP]to the 30[SUP]th[/SUP] ofJanuary, 1924, the 196 representatives of the National Party heldtheir first conference in Canton (now Guangzhou). Sun was thechairman and the Russian counselor Borodin was in attendance. SomeCommunist Party members were elected into the executive committee ofthe National Party. Li Dazhao and a few others were members and MaoZedong, Zhang Guotao were alternate members.
 

xlwoo

Senior Member
In the autumn of 1924,General Feng Yuxiang (1882–1948) launched a coup d’état and tookcontrol of the Peking government. He invited Sun Yat-sen to Peking todiscuss national affairs. In the morning of November 5, Feng sent histroops to surround the Forbidden City and ordered the abdicatedemperor to move out. So Henry gathered his precious belongings andmoved to Tianjin City with his family. A few faithful old courtiersfollowed him there.
On November 13, 1924, SunYat-sen started from Canton and arrived in Peking on the 31[SUP]st[/SUP]of December. It was soon found that he was suffering from livercancer and he died on March 12, 1925. Sun had been in Peking threetimes. First, in 1894, he went to Peking with the intention ofadvising the Qing officials on how it might reform the government.But when he saw how serious the corruption was, he realized that noreform could be enough to save China. So he decided to make arevolution. His second visit was in 1912 when the Republic of Chinawas founded. He went to Peking to advise Yuan Shikai that if Yuancould carry on the revolution, he would resign from the temporarypresidency. This was his third time.
On the 15[SUP]th[/SUP]of September, Zhang Zuolin came with his forces from the northeasternprovinces towards Peking and allied with Feng Yuxiang. Then a battlebroke out between Zhang, Feng and Wu Peifu. Wu’s army was put torout and Wu escaped south to Hunan and Hubei provinces. Thereafter,Peking fell under the control of Zhang Zuolin, who was always backedby Japan.
 

xlwoo

Senior Member
[h=3]Whampoamilitary academy[/h]The Whampoa MilitaryAcademy was founded on the 16[SUP]th[/SUP]of June, 1924, on the instruction of Sun Yat-sen, to train officersfor the Revolutionary Army. It was situated on Changzhou Island inthe Whampoa District of Canton. Afterwards, branches were founded inWuhan, Changsha, Chaoshan, and Nanning cities. In preparation for theestablishment of this academy, Sun had sent Chiang Kai-shek to theSoviet Union in September of 1923 to learn from their experience. Sothe academy was modeled after those in the Soviet Union. And ChiangKai-shek was appointed President of the academy. Quite a fewCommunist Party (CPC) members were appointed leaders of departments,such as Ye Jianying (1897–1986), deputy director of the trainingdepartment, and Zhou Enlai (1898–1976), deputy director of thepolitical department.
In May of 1924, theacademy began to take in students. Out of 1200 applicants, 350students were enrolled and 120 were accepted as alternate studentsfor the first term. In 1927, the academy was relocated in Nanking andrenamed the Central Army Officer Academy. Later, in 1949, it moved toTaiwan, for reasons that will become apparent later. From 1924 to1949, there were 23 terms, and including the terms held in Taiwan,the academy was functioning for 78 terms. The academy graduated41,386 students, including many famous generals.
 

xlwoo

Senior Member
[h=3]TheBreak-Up of the National Party and the Communist Party[/h]After the death of SunYat-sen, Chiang Kai-shek took the full command of the RevolutionaryArmy. Unlike Sun Yat-sen, Chiang Kai-shek had no confidence in theCPC, especially after their fourth conference.
That fourth conference ofthe Communist Party was held from the 11[SUP]th[/SUP]to the 22[SUP]nd[/SUP] ofJanuary, 1925, with 20 representatives gathered in Shanghai. ChenDuxiu, Zhang Guotao, Zhou Enlai, and Xiang Ying, and many othersattended. Chen was the chairman. During the conference, Chen waselected the general secretary of the central bureau, consisting offive persons. They decided that the Communist Party had to takecharge of the revolution, and that laid the ground for majordisruptions.
On the 20[SUP]th[/SUP]of March, 1926, the warship Yat-senplanned an artillery attack on the Whanpoa Military Academy to driveaway Chiang Kai-shek. Chiang gave orders to arrest the captain, LiZhilong, a member of the Communist Party. Then Chiang ordered ZhouEnlai and all their party members to get out of the academy. Thestudents now faced a problem as to which party they would follow. Onestudent quit the National Party and 39 students quit the CommunistParty. The others remained in the academy.
Meanwhile within theNational Party, Wang Jingwei (1883–1944, who later treacherouslywent over to the Japanese during the Sino–Japanese War) wanted totake over the leadership of the National Party. He organized anothergovernment in Wuhan City, close to Wuchang City, the cradle of the1911 revolution, and held the third conference of the National Partywithout the attendance of Chiang. This was called Wuhan government.
At that time Chiang onlyhad command of the Revolution Army and held no position in thegovernment. The Wuhan government wanted Chiang to continue to thenorth to wipe out the warlords there. But Chiang planned to go eastto occupy the eastern provinces first, including Shanghai, becausethose eastern provinces were also under the control of warlords.
During those years, theland problem was serious. Peasants wanted to have their own land sothat they would not be exploited by landowners. When peasants workedland owned by those in the ownership class, they had to give part ofthe harvest to the landowners, as in any feudal system. As theimperial system had been demolished, they wanted land reforms too.Under instigation by the Communist Party, they began to demand thismore and more aggressively.
 

xlwoo

Senior Member
Stalin, head of the SovietUnion, asked the Communist Party of China in October of 1926 to curbthe action of peasants, to reduce the violence. In March of 1927, theCommunist Party established legal penalties for landowners. Anylandowners who resisted the revolution would be put to death.
On the 2[SUP]nd[/SUP]of April, 1927, the Central Committee of the National Party held ameeting in Wuhan, inviting two members of the Communist Party, one ofwhom was Mao Zedong. They were considering a bill about the landproblem. The government would confiscate the land of “reactionaries”(those who preferred the old ways as opposed to the revolution) suchas property owners, officials who had a stake in the old system, andwarlords. The definition of reactionary landowners was to be based onthe amount of land they owned, measured by the mu (about 0.165acres). Anyone who had more than 30 mus, about 5 acres, was dubbed areactionary. All landowners would be classified into rich peasants,small and middle landowners, and large landowners, according to theamount of terrain they possessed. This standard was still used in theland reform when the Communist Party later established theirrepublic.
On the 22[SUP]nd[/SUP]of April, when this bill was under discussion, the National Party andthe CPC had different opinions. That was one of the reasons for theirfalling out, because many members of the National Party came fromfamilies who owned land. Then on the 26[SUP]th[/SUP]of April, Chen Duxiu and Zhang Guotao were invited to attend themeeting, and also Borodin, the Russian counselor. On the 6[SUP]th[/SUP]of May, the bill was at last passed. Only the large landowners wouldsee their land confiscated. The land belonging to small landownersand families of revolutionary officials would remain the same.However, once the peasants had been instigated, it was hard to checktheir zeal to take possession of the land.
 

xlwoo

Senior Member
[h=3]Victoryof the Revolutionary Army and the final break between the two parties[/h]In July of 1926, theNational Party decided that the Revolutionary Army should head northto annihilate the warlords there. As Chiang was thecommander-in-chief, he led the army north, fighting all the way alongthe route. The plan was for the Revolutionary Army to attack Wu Peifufirst, and then Sun Chuanfang, occupying Jiangxi, Fujian, Anhui,Jiangsu, and Zhejiang, five provinces. Finally the Revolutionary Armywould attack Zhang Zuolin in Peking.
In August of 1926, theRevolutionary Army assaulted the main force of Wu Peifu and wiped itout; they took over Wuchang city on the 10[SUP]th[/SUP]of September. In November, the Revolutionary Army annihilated themain force of Sun Chuanfang, another warlord, and occupied Jiujiangand Nanchang cities. At the same time, Feng Yuxiang gained control ofthe northwestern region of China. A warlord, Yan Xishan (1883–1960),ruled Shanxi province. Observing the rapid advance of theRevolutionary Army, both Feng and Yan joined it. Now only the warlordZhang from the northeastern provinces remained in Peking.
In October, the CommunistParty organized workers in Shanghai to rise to arms against thewarlord government 675 miles north in Peking, but they failed. InNovember, the Revolutionary Army took control of the area of theYangtze River. So the national Government decided to establish itscapital in Wuhan City, but Chiang wanted the capital in Nanchang,which was then under his control. Anyway, on the 9[SUP]th[/SUP]of December, the national Government moved to Wuhan City.
On the 21[SUP]st[/SUP]of February, 1927, the Central Committee of the National Party held ameeting of the 80 members, one third belonged to the Communist Partyand one third were communist-leaning. Among the leaders of all thedepartments of the National Party, half of them were members of theCommunist Party. This meant that the CPC controlled the nationalParty. And the Communist Party was organizing its own army.
Chiang Kai-shek decided hehad to found another government. He had many supporters, like thebrothers Chen Guofu (1892–1951) and Chen Lifu (1900–2001) andothers in his army. All were young men.
On the 19[SUP]th[/SUP]of February, General Bai Chongxi (1893–1966) took over Hangzhoucity as he marched east with his detachment of the RevolutionaryArmy. On the 22[SUP]nd[/SUP],the Communist Party fomented a second riot in Shanghai but failedonce more. On the 10[SUP]th[/SUP]of March, the Central Committee of the National Party had anothermeeting to openly declare their break with Chiang, and he cut off allrelations with the Communist Party.
 

xlwoo

Senior Member
Then Wang Jingwei cameback from France, where he attended classes in the University of Lyonand reorganized the National Party by expelling the Russian counselorand members of the Communist Party. He also suggested that thenational government and the headquarters of the National Party bemoved to Nanking.
On the 22[SUP]nd[/SUP]of March, the east detachment of the Revolutionary Army under BaiChongxi entered Shanghai. On the 24[SUP]th[/SUP],the middle detachment occupied Nanking. A few members of theCommunist Party instigated the soldiers of the Revolutionary Army torob and kill foreigners in order to incite foreign governments totake action against the national government. But the consuls ofEngland, the United States and Japan had evidence that the CommunistParty was responsible for the trouble.
On the fifth of April, theCentral Committee of the National Party divided the RevolutionaryArmy into two military blocs. Chiang was re-appointed thecommander-in-chief of the first military bloc and Feng Yuxiang wasthe commander-in-chief of the second. On the same day, Chiangcontacted the heads of certain mafias in Shanghai and asked them toorganize a Shanghai business guild to oppose the Shanghai workers’general union, an armed group which was controlled by the CommunistParty.
Meantime, Borodin secretlyurged General Guo Songling under the warlord government to fightZhang Zuolin, who had secret contacts with Chiang. On the 6[SUP]th[/SUP]of April, Zhang suddenly attacked the embassy of the Soviet Union inPeking to arrest 58 members of the Communist Party hiding there,including Li Dazhao, one of the main founders of the Communist Party.They found secret documents which proved that the Soviet Unioninstructed the Communist Party to overthrow the Chinese government.On the 12[SUP]th[/SUP] ofApril, Chiang sent the national 26[SUP]th[/SUP]army to the Shanghai workers’ general union to order them tosurrender their weapons. But they refused, and many people werekilled in the conflict, which became known as the 4/12 event. ThenChiang ordered all the organizations controlled by the CommunistParty to disband.
On the 17[SUP]th[/SUP]of April, Chiang and other members of the Central Committee of theNational Party met in Nanking to issue warrant for the arrest of 197leading members of the Communist Party, including Borodin, ChenDuxiu, Mao Zedong, Zhou Enlai, Liu Shaoqi (1898–1969), ZhangGuotao, Deng Yingchao (1904–1992, wife of Zhou Enlai), and others.On the 28[SUP]th[/SUP], LiDazhao and others were hanged in Peking, accused of plotting tooverthrow the government.
On the 20[SUP]th[/SUP]of April, the Communist Party issued a statement saying that Chiangwas the open foe of the revolutionary people and called upon thepeople to overthrow him. On the 22[SUP]nd[/SUP]day, Wang Jingwei and other members of the National Party whosupported the Communist Party, together with Mao Zedong and someCommunist Party members, openly blamed Chiang for the disruption.Chiang founded the national government in Nanking in opposition tothe government in Wuhan City.
On the fifth of June whenIndian revolutionary M.N. Roy, a representative of the CommunistInternational, asked Wang Jingwei to allow the Communist Party tocontrol the Wuhan government, Wang began to disband the CommunistParty. Therefore, on the 1[SUP]st[/SUP]of August, the Communist Party called for riots in Nanchang. Thatmarked the final rupture between the National Party and the CommunistParty.
 

xlwoo

Senior Member
[h=1]Chapter2. The First Civil War Between The National Party and the CommunistParty[/h][h=2]Communist Party Riots[/h][h=3]The Riot in Nanchang City[/h]Wang Jingwei learned thatthe Soviet Union was planning to help the Communist Party of China totake over power from Wuhan government in July 1927. He expelled allthe members of the Communist Party that were in the National Partyand the Wuhan government. This led the Central Committee of theCommunist Party in Jiujiang City (Jiangxi province) to foment a riotin Nanchang City, where they controlled some of the army. On the 26[SUP]th[/SUP]of July, Zhou Enlai was sent to organize the riot. Several hoursafter Zhou left, they got a telegram from the CommunistInternational, instructing them not to start it if there was nochance of winning. So Zhang Guotao was sent after Zhou. When Zhangreached Nanchang, all the preparations were already in place, andbesides, most of the representatives refused to take these orders.The 11[SUP]th[/SUP] army andthe 20[SUP]th[/SUP] armyunder the command of He Long (1896–1969) had already come toNanchang from Jiujiang City, and were welcomed by Zhu De (1886–1976),commander of the 9[SUP]th[/SUP]army and head of the city police.
At two o’clock in themorning of August 1, 1927, the rebels began to attack the NationalRevolutionary Army guarding the city. After fighting for four hours,they occupied the city. But the national government gathered moretroops to surround Nanchang. The rebellious army had to beat aretreat from the city and went south. On the way, Zhou Enlai, He Longand other leaders deserted their troops and escaped to Hong Kong andShanghai. Only Zhu De led the rest of the army to Guangdong province.They had to adopt the stratagems of guerrilla warfare. In January of1928, Zhu De started another riot and led his army to Mt. JingGang inJiangxi province, where he met Mao Zedong. Their troops formed theRed 4[SUP]th[/SUP] Army.
 

xlwoo

Senior Member
[h=3]MaoZedong resorts to rebellion[/h]As Wang Jingwei expelledthe members of the Communist Party from the National Party and theWuhan government, Mao Zedong went to Changsha City on the 12[SUP]th[/SUP]of August to arm peasants and mine workers in that area inpreparation for a riot. He had an army of 8,000 soldiers. On the 9[SUP]th[/SUP]of September, they started their rebellion and set out to attackChangsha City. There were many Communist Party members in the city,scheming to let the attackers in by making a sudden assault on thenational government army guarding the city. But their plan was leakedby insiders and became known to the national government. The traitorshad to escape or they would be arrested and killed. Mao had to changehis plan of attack and marched towards Mt JingGang, where his forcesunited with Zhu De’s army.
On the 4[SUP]th[/SUP]of June in 1928, Zhang was forced to withdraw from Peking to go backto his original location. As he could not always accomplish whatJapan demanded, Japan was not satisfied with him. On the fifth day,when Zhang was on board a train and passed through the railwaystation at Huanggutun, his train was exploded with gunpowder setthere by the Japanese. He was severely injured and died when hereached Shenyang City. His son Zhang Xueliang (1901–2001) succeededhim in his position.
He declared he was joiningthe Revolutionary Army on the 29[SUP]th[/SUP]of December, 1928. There were no more warlords, and China was thusunited.
 

xlwoo

Senior Member
[h=2]ChiangKai-Shek Besieges The Red Army Five Times[/h][h=3]The first siege[/h]Since Chiang Kai-shek hadcleared all the warlords from China, he began to deal with theCommunist Party and the Red Army in October of 1930. Chiang sent hisarmy, 300,000 strong, against the Red Army (the Chinese Workers andPeasants Red Army), 40,000 soldiers. If Chiang could surround the RedArmy, he could easily wipe it out. But Mao’s strategy was wiserthan Chiang’s. On November 1, Mao faked some maneuvers so that theChinese Red Army seemed to be advancing in different directions,leading Chiang’s commander-in-chief to think that the Red Armywould escape. Therefore, the National Army split up in order to chasedown the enemies in different directions. Then the Red Army gatheredtogether again and annihilated a small national division of 9,000soldiers that had been cut off from the main force on December 30,1930. And the other divisions had to fall back. Thus ended the firstsiege.


[h=3]The second siege[/h]On the 1[SUP]st[/SUP]of April, 1931, the second siege began. Considering the failure ofthe first siege due to the failed tactic of attempting to surroundthe Red Army, Chiang Kai-shek decided instead to move slowly with allthe troops keeping close. On the 13[SUP]th[/SUP]of May, the 28[SUP]th[/SUP]division of the fifth army of the national forces left Futian andmarched eastward. On the fifth day, Zhu De and Mao directed their 3[SUP]rd[/SUP]military bloc and the 35[SUP]th[/SUP]Red Army to form a left wing, and the 3[SUP]rd[/SUP]Red Army to head up the middle, while the 4[SUP]th[/SUP]Red Army and 12[SUP]th[/SUP]Red Army made up the right wing, to surround the fifth national army.The commander of this army committed the same mistake. He should nothave marched separately from others. Zhu De and Mao ordered their 7[SUP]th[/SUP]Red division and 35[SUP]th[/SUP]Red division to block the advance of the reinforcements from the 19[SUP]th[/SUP]national army. As a result, on the 16[SUP]th[/SUP]day, the 28[SUP]th[/SUP]division of the national army was annihilated by the overwhelmingnumber of enemy forces. On the 19[SUP]th[/SUP]day, the 12[SUP]th[/SUP] Redarmy attacked the 54[SUP]th[/SUP]national division, which escaped. The 19[SUP]th[/SUP]national army had no information about what was happening to theother armies and had to retreat. Thus ended the second siege.
 

xlwoo

Senior Member
[h=3]Thethird siege[/h]On the 21[SUP]st[/SUP]of June, 1931, after the two failed sieges, Chiang Kai-shek formedtwo military blocs 300,000 strong for the third siege. On the July10, the Communist Party also made all possible preparations forbattle. The National Army had started to march on July 1, but couldnot ascertain the location of the Red Army. Towards the end of themonth, the main forces of the Red Army were found taking a back routeto a place called XingGuo. From the enemy’s location, ChiangKai-shek judged that the Red Army planned to go west to cross the GanRiver. He wanted to wipe it out on the east bank of the river. Maoand Zhu’s original plan was to ignore the main forces of theNational Army, and use the Red Army to break through the encirclementat Futian to assail the detachment remaining in the rear; but thisplan was detected. The 11[SUP]th[/SUP]and the 14[SUP]th[/SUP]divisions of the National Army marched faster to occupy Futian toblock the Red Army’s escape route. This time, it looked good forChiang. But Mao changed to a bold plan. He ordered the 35[SUP]th[/SUP]Red Army to disguise itself as the main force, and to cross the GanRiver to distract the National Army. On the 4[SUP]th[/SUP]of August, his main forces stole through the gap between the twomilitary blocs of the National Army before they closed like a vise.(That gap is said to have been 40 liwide. The li, or“Chinese mile,” creates some difficulties as this traditionalunit of distance was only recently standardized. It now means half akilometer or about a third of a mile.) This strategy was successfuland the Red Army arrived at a safe place and annihilated a brigade ofthe National Army there on August 7. Then the Red Army moved toHuangpo and wiped out four national regiments on the 11[SUP]th[/SUP].
Then Chiang Kai-shek foundout that what he was pursuing was not the main force of the Red Army.When the national troops turned back to march north, the fatiguedarmy was like an arrow at the end of its flight. On the 18[SUP]th[/SUP]of September, the 9/18 event happened, so Chiang had to go back toNanking to take charge of the situation. Thus ended the third siege.
The strategies Mao used inthe previous three battles would be seen repeated and repeated.Chiang was defeated three times by the same stratagem. ChiangKai-shek never learned from his failures and made little improvement.It could be said that he deserved to be driven away from the mainlandto Taiwan, after all.
 

xlwoo

Senior Member
[h=3]Theestablishment of the red government in Ruijin [/h]After a few victories, theCommunist Party founded their Red government in Ruijin City ofJiangxi province. It was located in a basin with mountains on threesides. Nanchang City, the capital of the province, under the nationalgovernment, was 300 li (just over 90 miles) away.
On the 7[SUP]th[/SUP]of November, 1931, they celebrated the founding of the Redgovernment. Mao was the Chairman of the government and Zhu De was theCommander of the army. In the area of the Red government, almosteveryone was in an organization of some sort. The organization forsix-year-olds and up was called the “children’s league.” Thatof the youngsters of fifteen-year-oldand up was called young pioneers. Youngadults joined the “Red Guard Army.” They printed their own papermoney and used terrorist methods to control people. Even their owncomrades were killed. Li Wenlin, also a leader in the party, wasmurdered. Peasants in that area did not have to give part of theirharvest to any landowners, but they did have to support the Redgovernment in order to support the Red Army.
No one could leave thearea without a pass. There were sentinels everywhere, 24 hours a day.Whoever was caught leaving secretly would be executed. War time ornot, under such drastic terrorism even the intimatesubordinate Yang Yuebin deserted Mao andwent to the national government to give away Mao’s location.Airplanes were sent to bombard the place and Mao had to move.
 

xlwoo

Senior Member
[h=3]Thefourth siege[/h]After the 9/18 and 12/8events (detailed in Chapter 3) were over, with the signing of theSonghu armistice agreement in May of 1932, Chiang Kai-shek plannedfor the fourth siege. This time he attacked the district of Hubei,Hunan and Anhui provinces where the Red Army was weak and was soonvanquished. Then in February of 1933, Chiang concentrated his forcesto push forwards to where the main forces of the Red Army camped. Theleadership of the Red Army had been changed at the meeting in NingduTown in October of 1932. Mao Zedong was dismissed from the commandingposition. The leader was Bogu, who came from Shanghai on the 7[SUP]th[/SUP]of January, 1933, but the actual commanders of the Red Army were ZhuDe, Zhou Enlai and Peng Dehuai (1898–1974).
They used the same ruseMao had used. They ordered the 11[SUP]th[/SUP]Red army to disguise themselves as the main forces to attract andlead off the middle, second and third columns of the National Army toLichuan area, while their actual main forces rested at Guangchang.Then they laid ambushes by the 1[SUP]st[/SUP]Red military bloc and 3[SUP]rd[/SUP]Red military bloc and 21[SUP]st[/SUP]Red army to attack the 52[SUP]nd[/SUP]national army, while the 5[SUP]th[/SUP]Red military bloc and 22[SUP]nd[/SUP]Red army would attack the 59[SUP]th[/SUP]national army. On March 1, both national armies were annihilated andthe commanders were captured. So the National Army was forced towithdraw. Thus ended the fourth siege.
 

xlwoo

Senior Member
[h=3]Thefifth siege[/h]In May of 1933, ChiangKai-shek set up his headquarters in Nanchang City and assumed theresponsibility of commander-in-chief himself for the fifth siege ofthe Red Army. Since the last siege, the Red Army had grownconsiderably. Chiang Kai-shek therefore gathered an army a millionstrong, including the 300,000 soldiers of Chen Jitang in Guangdongprovince. Chen had been a warlord there, and then had subordinatedhimself to the national government when he saw all the other warlordshad been wiped out.
The siege began onSeptember 25, 1933, and ended on October 14, 1934, lasting for 385days. Chiang Kai-shek used artillery and airplanes. On the 25[SUP]th[/SUP]day, the National Army attacked Lichuan Town. After three days, theytook the town. On the 9[SUP]th[/SUP]of October, the 24[SUP]th[/SUP]Red division went to attack Xiaoshi, but the National Army had astrong defense there with fortresses and trenches. For several days,the Red Army could not take the town, and suffered heavy casualties.That was the first stage.
In November, there was acoup d’état in Fujian province against Chiang Kai-shek. Theleaders of this coup founded another government, but they had littlesupport. Even the Communist Party declared this new governmentunlawful. So the coup ended in failure.
On the 11[SUP]th[/SUP]of December, the National Army in town changed from defense tocounterattack. The Red Army fought back under the command of theCentral Committee of the Communist Party, regardless of the fact thatthe National Army was far better equipped. The Red Army was conqueredand retreated. That was the second stage.
On April 10, 1934, ChiangKai-shek sent 11 divisions divided into two columns marching towardsGuangchang. The Communist Party used 9 divisions to prevent theNational Army from attacking the town. Battles broke out in manyother places, too. The Red Army lost in those places and had towithdraw to Guangchang. On the 27[SUP]th[/SUP]of April, the National Army attacked the town and occupied it in theevening. The Red Army had to escape, leaving 5,500 casualties. Thatwas the third stage.
In June of 1934, theCommunist Party made up its mind to resist the National Army assaultto the last man. Even so, on August 5, nine divisions of the NationalArmy, with air support, defeated the Red Army. The remnants of theRed Army had to escape and began the famous Long March. That was thefinal stage of the fifth siege.
The Red Army failedbecause the commanders changed from the right strategy to a wrongone. During this period Mao Zedong was not in the Red Army. He hadbeen sent somewhere else. The failure drove home the obvious pointthat strategy is more important than many other factors; strategy canbe decisive; and especially in politics and war, strategy iseverything.
 

xlwoo

Senior Member
[h=2]TheFamous Long March [/h]The central Red Army,86,000 in all, began marching on the 21[SUP]st[/SUP]of October, 1934. This wound up being a 2,500-li march, that is, some775 miles. They were headed to the western Hunan province where the2[SUP]nd[/SUP] and 6[SUP]th[/SUP]Red military blocs encamped. Chiang Kai-shek deduced what route theywere likely to take and laid four blockade lines to stop them. ZhouEnlai and Zhu De went to have a talk with Chen Jitang, a formerwarlord, and bribed him to let them go through his blockade line. Sothere was no fighting at the first three lines, as the Red Army neverwent there. However, they had to fight the National Army when theyattempted to break through the fourth line. They made a heavysacrifice after the rest of the Red Army fought through the fourthlines. Only 30,000 were left out of the 86,000.
The Long March could bedivided in four stages. Firstly, the escaped Red Army wanted to go toa place at the border of Sichuan, Hunan and Guizhou provinces, wherethe geographic features were easy to defend and hard to attack. Inthese areas there were still some local small warlords that theycould mingle amongst them for safety and the central nationalgovernment would not easily reach them. In early December, theyclimbed over some mountains and occupied Liping town in Guizhouprovince on the 14[SUP]th[/SUP]of December, 1934.
Secondly, at a meeting inLiping on the 28[SUP]th[/SUP]of December, Mao Zedong strongly opposed the plan to unite with the2[SUP]nd[/SUP] and 6[SUP]th[/SUP]Red military blocs, and proposed to go to the border of Sichuan andGuizhou provinces to occupy the area round Zunyi town as a newmilitary base. His proposition was accepted by the Central Committee,because from their present location, it was difficult to communicatewith the two Red blocs. On the 7[SUP]th[/SUP]of January, 1935, they took Zunyi town.
Here they held the famousZunyi meeting, in which Mao was appointed to the command of the RedArmy again.
 
Top