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Two Republics in China (1 Viewer)

xlwoo

Senior Member
[FONT=Times New Roman, serif]2)The April-Fifth event on TianAnMen Square

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[FONT=Times New Roman, serif]Onthe 4[/FONT][SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]th[/FONT][/SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]day of April, 1976, the tomb-sweeping day for the dead, people inBeijing gathered on the TianAnMen Square in memory of Zhou Enlai andcriticized the gang of four without mentioning their names.Sometimes, the people gathering there amounted to over 2 million. Soin the night of that day, police were sent to clear the square of thewreaths and slogans and also began to arrest people, which prolongedtill the dawn of the 5[/FONT][SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]th[/FONT][/SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]day. There was a three-storeyed house in the southeast corner of thesquare used as a commanding center. Angry crowds burned some cars andsurrounded the house, demanding to have a talk with someone in chargein the commanding center, but was refused. So crowds set fire to thehouse, but those inside escaped and no one was hurt. At night of thatday, over 10,000 militiamen, five battalions of soldiers and 3,000policemen rushed to the square to disperse the throngs. As themilitiamen, soldiers and policemen only carried wooden sticks, noguns, there was no one bleeding. The gang of four thought that Dengwas behind this as the crowds on the square had shouted their supportof Deng, and so on the 7[/FONT][SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]th[/FONT][/SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]day of April, Deng was out of office again and put in confinement.Then Hua Guofeng was appointed the premier and the first vicechairman of the central committee of CPC. [/FONT]
[FONT=Times New Roman, serif]Noslaughter on TianAnMen Square happened this time, but this event wasdefined as a reactionary event. In November of 1978, the case wasredressed and all those who had been arrested and imprisoned were setfree. [/FONT]
 

xlwoo

Senior Member
[FONT=Times New Roman, serif]X.The arrest of the gang of four – end of cultural revolution[/FONT]

[FONT=Times New Roman, serif]1)The downfall of the gang of four with the death of Mao

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[FONT=Times New Roman, serif]Afterthe death of Lin Biao, the health of Mao turned bad. In 1972, he hada serious shock. Then he suffered from cataract and could not seelike blind. In 1975, after operation, he could see something. On the9[/FONT][SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]th[/FONT][/SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]day of September, 1976, he died at the age of 83, of some kind ofdisease, no definite diagnosis mentioned. His title at the time wasthe chairman of the central committee of CPC, the chairman of thecentral military committee of CPC, and the honorary chairman of theChinese People's Political Consultative Conference. So he was onlythe head of the communist party, not the head of the nation of China.But as he was the chairman of the military committee of CPC, he wasthe most powerful man in the country, because in China, the militaryforces were controlled by the communist party, not by the government,or the nation. That was why when he had given up the position of thechairman of the republic, but not the position of the militarycommittee of CPC. Before his death, he appointed Hua Guofeng as hissuccessor, as he clearly knew that none of the gang of four, not evenhis wife Jiang Qing, had abilities to administrate such a hugecountry like China. If he appointed his wife as his successor, theold cadres would surely oppose his decision. But if he appointed oneof the old cadres as his successor, the gang of four and theirfollowers would have objection, too. And Hua Guofeng, though alsowithout enough abilities for the position, was acceptable to bothsides. In any political play, a politician should make balance amongall sides, and then he could stay safely in the center.[/FONT]
[FONT=Times New Roman, serif]Chinesepeople knew that the gang of four was supported by Mao only. Now whenMao was out of the picture, the gang of four would not stay long inpower. And now there lay before Hua Guofeng a choice: on which sidehe must lean, the gang of four or the old cadres. A wise man couldsee which side he must choose. And Hua was a wise man and stood withthe old cadres. [/FONT]
 

xlwoo

Senior Member
[FONT=Times New Roman, serif]2)The cultural revolution ended with the arrest of the gang of four

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[FONT=Times New Roman, serif]Justafter the death of Mao, Jiang Qing, in the name of Mao's wife,demanded Zhang Yufeng, the personal secretary of Mao, to give her thekey to Mao's safe, but Zhang refused, saying the everything belongingto Mao belonged to the Party. She must give the key to the chairmanof the Party, Hua Guofeng at the time. Jiang had to leave without thekey. What was so important of Mao's safe? It contained the top secretdocuments of the Party and the state, and some delating letters toreveal some personal secrets of high-ranked cadres, etc., besidesMao's passbook and check book. Whoever controlled those documents andletters could control certain persons, or even the state power. Zhangreported it to Hua Guofeng afterwards, and Hua came to know theimportance of Mao's safe and sent Wang Dongxing, commander of thecentral security bureau for the safety of the Party and nationalleaders, to take care of it. [/FONT]
[FONT=Times New Roman, serif]Onthe 21[/FONT][SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]st[/FONT][/SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]day of September, Jiang Qing and Zhang Chunqiao recommended Li Xingas the commander of the central security regiment. They wanted Li toreport to them all the information of the security regiment andaddresses of all the members of the political bureau and conditionsof how to guard their residences, etc. Li promised to give them allthe information they wanted, but at the same time, he reported it toWang Dongxing, and then to Hua Guofeng. Both sensed the danger ofcoup d'etat from the gang of four. Before Mao's death, Mao's nephew,Mao Yuanxin, was appointed the liaison officer between Mao and thecentral political bureau of CPC. Naturally Mao Yuanxin worked underJiang Qing, Mao's wife. At dawn of the 4[/FONT][SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]th[/FONT][/SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]day of October, 1976, Li Xing heard Mao Yuanxin informing the gang offour at breakfast that he had maneuvered two divisions from Shenyangmilitary zone, which stationed now only one day's distance fromBeijing. If summoned, they could reach the capital in one day. Liimmediately reported it to Hua. Hua decided that he must take actionat once. So he went to see Li Xiannian and Ye Jianying, two oldcadres in charge of the army. They decided to notify the gang of fourto a meeting and would arrest them then and there. Meanwhile, theynotified the commander of the Shenyang military zone to order the twodivisions to return to their original camps. [/FONT]
 

xlwoo

Senior Member
[FONT=Times New Roman, serif]WangDongxing was entrusted for the apprehension of them. Zhang Chunqiaocame first and was caught in the dark corridor to the meeting roomwithout any trouble. Then Wang Hongwen was put under custody andpushed into the room when he suddenly struggled out of the hands ofthe security guards and dashed to Ye Jianying with the intention togrip Ye's neck, but was stopped and handcuffed only one meter fromYe. Yao Wenyuan did not make any resistance when arrested. Jiang Qingwas always quick-tempered and threw a porcelain vase to the guards,but was subdued at last. [/FONT]
[FONT=Times New Roman, serif]Inthe morning of the 25[/FONT][SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]th[/FONT][/SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]day of January, 1981, the gang of four were judged at court. JiangQing and Zhang Chunqiao got the death verdict, but suspended for twoyears, which generally meant that the prisoner would not be executedat the end of the suspended period, but the sentence would be changedfor life. Zhang Chunqiao said nothing at court, by which he showedhis contempt for the so-called people's court. After two years,Zhang's verdict was accordingly changed to life sentence in January,1983, and in March, 1993, hie verdict was changed again for 18 years,but in January, 1997, he was released for medical treatment. He diedof cancer on the 21[/FONT][SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]st[/FONT][/SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]day of April, 2005, at the age of 88. At court, Jiang Qing made a lotof protests and even gave a speech that sounded like reading thecomposition of a primary school girl. In January, 1983, her verdictwas also changed to life sentence. On the 4[/FONT][SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]th[/FONT][/SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]day of May, 1984, she was released for medical treatment of throatcancer. But on the 14[/FONT][SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]th[/FONT][/SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]day of May, 1991, she hanged herself in the bathroom using severalhandkerchiefs tied together. She died at the age of 77. Wang Hongwenwas sentenced for life and since 1986, he was moved to a hospital inBeijing and died of liver disease on the 3[/FONT][SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]rd[/FONT][/SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]day of August, 1992, at the age of 58. Yao Wenyuan was sentenced for20 years and was released after 20 years on the 6[/FONT][SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]th[/FONT][/SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]day of October, 1996, and died of diabetes on the 23[/FONT][SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]rd[/FONT][/SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]day of December, 2005.[/FONT]
[FONT=Times New Roman, serif]Chinesepeople watched the whole process on television like watching a drama.A political drama for people to enjoy. Nothing more. It was just afight within the communist party, like dogs fighting for abone—political power. Whoever won the game had nothing to do withcommon people. The winner became the king and the loser became theprisoner, as a Chinese saying goes. Thus ended the great culturalrevolution and began a new era for China. Good or bad for Chinesepeople? Wait and see.[/FONT]
 

xlwoo

Senior Member
[FONT=Times New Roman, serif]Chapter19 Birth control policy began in 1970[/FONT]

[FONT=Times New Roman, serif]I.The general regulations of the birth control policy

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[FONT=Times New Roman, serif]Theone-child policy is only limited in the Han tribe, especially in thetowns and cities. The party called upon young people to marry late,generally, boys after 30 and girls after 25, so that there would beless births. As to the minorities, there was no such a limit. Thepeasant families in the countryside, and the families of the couples,each of whom already was one child, could have a second birth. So theaccurate name for the policy should be the birth control policy, notthe one-child policy. The enforcement of the policy decreased thebirth rate in China. In 2000, the nationwide census showed thedecrease of 250 million child birth, and in 2010, the rate of thepopulation growth reduced to 0.57%. [/FONT]
[FONT=Times New Roman, serif]Whatwould the government do if a couple wanted to have a second birth andthe wife was already pregnant against the regulations? At first, thecadres of the resident committee would come to persuade them to haveabortion, and leaders of where the couple worked would do the same.They would even threaten the couple by stopping the pay of wages orsalary if the couple insisted to have the second birth. Withoutincome, how could the couple live? So generally, the couple had toyield and had abortion. There was a special example in Shanghai. Thewife did not have job and was pregnant again. And the governmentcould not stop her pay. The stop of the husband's pay was no use,because his father had been a capitalist and had money to support thecouple. As the regulations did not have any penalty to the father insuch a situation, the government could do nothing to the father. Sothe only way the cadres of the resident committee could adopt was togo to see the wife everyday and sat in her house to persuade her allday long. If the wife could not bear the bothering any longer, shemight have the abortion. But to the surprise of the local cadres, sheplayed disappearance. They could not get any information where shehad gone from the father and the husband. The wife went to hide in arelative's home in another town. She gave birth there and broughtchild back. The local cadres could not kill the child. No suchpolicy. Afterwards, the policy decided that the couple against theregulations to have the second birth must pay a fine. However, insmaller towns or countryside, things could be very different.[/FONT]
 

xlwoo

Senior Member
[FONT=Times New Roman, serif]II.Serious events happened concerning the one-child policy

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[FONT=Times New Roman, serif]Someillegal performance happened in carrying out the birth control policyin Shaoyang Town of HeNan province. The local cadres, in order to getmoney for government, “confiscated” by force the child bornunlawfully, i.e., taking the baby away from the parents. The familymust pay 10,000 yuan fine to get back the child within the timelimit. If the family did not hand in the money, the child would bedelivered to a local orphanage beyond the time due. They would makeup a document to change the status of the child into an orphan, whosesurname would be changed to Shao, which was the first word of thetown Shaoyang. Some of the orphans were really lawful children of theone-child policy. They took them away from the families by force. Theorphans stayed there to be adopted, often by foreigners throughlawful procedures, but they must pay 3,000 American dollars. $1,000would go to those local cadres as commission. This event began in2000 through 2005. It was revealed on the 21[/FONT][SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]st[/FONT][/SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]day of March, 2006, in the [/FONT][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]SouthChina Morning Post[/FONT][FONT=Times New Roman, serif] inHongkong. [/FONT]
[FONT=Times New Roman, serif]Anotherevent was that in Changli Town of Hebei province, where a couple mustapply for a “birth service certificate” to have the babydelivered in a hospital. Yang Zhongchen, the husband, and Jin Yani,the wife, got the marriage certificate on the 5[/FONT][SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]th[/FONT][/SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]day of May, 2000, and became lawful couple. Then when the wife waspregnant for 9 months and still did not get the birth servicecertificate, the local cadres forced her to go to the birth servicestation in the town and she was given an injection for abortion. The9-month old baby died in the womb, but the dead baby was too big tobe easily taken out. An instrument was put in the womb to crush thebaby's head and taken out bits by bits. The woman got serious injuredand was diagnosed to lose the ability to have child ever afterwards.And the couple was forced to pay the abortion service fee. On the16[/FONT][SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]th[/FONT][/SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]day of January, 2007, the couple sued them for some compensation.Although the court accepted the case, yet the court passed thejudgment to overrule the case on the 18[/FONT][SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]th[/FONT][/SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]day of May. A similar event happened in Ankang Town of Shaanxiprovince. [/FONT]
 

xlwoo

Senior Member
[FONT=Times New Roman, serif]Onthe 25[/FONT][SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]th[/FONT][/SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]day of February, 2007, an event took place in DunGu Town of Bobaicounty in Guangxi province. The town government decided to gatherfines from those families who had had the second birth since 1980.They must pay the fine in three days. Besides, every local cadre mustfulfill an allotted quota to have at least one married woman to havethe Fallopian tube tied up, which was demanded by the government asone way for efficient birth control. (Sometimes, the husbands weredemanded to tie up the seminal duct.) The quota also included thecollection of the fines for 500 yuan by the end of August. Thisdecision involved many families. So it developed on the 17[/FONT][SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]th[/FONT][/SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]day of May that more than 300 people gathered before the gate of thetown government. Some people attacked the government cadres andpolicemen. On the 18[/FONT][SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]th[/FONT][/SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]and the 19[/FONT][SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]th[/FONT][/SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]days, such things happened in other six towns. The people gatheringonce reached 3,000. The event was quieted down on the 23[/FONT][SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]rd[/FONT][/SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]day under the pressure of the local governments. Statistics showedthe the government income from the fine of the enforcement of theone-child policy reached more than 200 millions a year. [/FONT]
[FONT=Times New Roman, serif]SomeChinese husbands with feudal thinking like boys and hate girlsbecause boys can hand down the family name, in the countryside, someilliterate fathers will kill the baby girl so that he can have a boyborn to him next time, especially since 1971 when child controlpolicy was forcibly carried out. In the actual situation since Chinahas such a giant population, the one child policy is correct, orChina would have much more population than now, a heavy burden to thenation and to the world as well. What was wrong was Mao, who hadencouraged people to have more children like the Soviet Union haddone after the World War II. But the block-headed Mao never knewdifferences between different things. After the second world war, thepopulation in the Soviet Union was only 167 million while that in thefifties in China was round 600 million. The right policy at that timeshould not encourage people to give more birth. If so, the populationnowadays will not be so great. And one child policy is not needed.From all the facts in China, a conclusion can be easily drawn thatMao always made mistakes to bring China into all kinds of troubles:from economical plight to excessive population. Who can deny all thetruth? Looking back, in 1950, Ma Yinchu, the president of BeijingUniversity and the vice director of the central financial committee,had proposed the birth control, but Mao did not listen to him. In1970, the population in China reached 813 million while that in Indiawas only 549 million. If Mao listened to Ma Yinchu in 1950, thepopulation problem will not be so serious.[/FONT]
 

xlwoo

Senior Member
[h=1][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]Chapter 20 The economical reform and the open policy[/FONT][/h]
[FONT=Times New Roman, serif]I.Deng Xiaoping came into power again[/FONT]
[FONT=Times New Roman, serif]Afterthe chaos of the 10 years of the cultural revolution, the wholenation wished for restoration of peace and production of necessitiesfor living. At that time, the chief leader of the party and thecountry was Hua Guofeng, who had no abilities for the management ofthe national economy. And Ye Jianying was in charge of the army andwas not deemed as a person who could shoulder the responsibilitiesfor the national economy. Therefore, almost everyone, even Chinesepeople, thought of Deng Xiaoping, the famous person, in Mao's words,to go the capitalist road. Now China needed to go the capitalist roadfor the restoration of the national economy. [/FONT]
[FONT=Times New Roman, serif]Anold data showed that in 1820, the GDP of China was 32.4% of the worldtotal GDP, the first in all the countries; in 1919, GDP was 9.1%; in1952, GDP was 5.2%, while in 1978, after the cultural revolution, GDPfell to 1.8%. So the urgent task for China was to raise its GDP asfast as possible.[/FONT]
[FONT=Times New Roman, serif]Atthe beginning of 1977, after the downfall of the gang of four, therelay before China a big question mark: where China should go? HuaGuofeng, as the successor of Mao and the new leader of the countryand the party could not answer this question. He just put up hispolicy of “two whatevers”: “Whatever policies Mao had made, wemust support; whatever instructions Mao had given, we mush follow.”But all the old cadres opposed the two whatevers as they looked uponit like Hua wanted to continued what Mao had been doing. They thoughtthat China must get rid of Mao's leftist route and then could go therightist route—the capitalist road, as Mao had put it. Therefore,the two whatevers policy was criticized and Hua was criticizedlikewise at the meeting of the central political bureau on the 16[/FONT][SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]th[/FONT][/SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]day of November, 1980. But the most unforgivable fault of Hua wasthat he did not support the old cadres to restore to their formerpositions and work. So Chen Yun openly said that Hua was not suitableto be the leader. Therefore, Hua was forced to resign. On the 5[/FONT][SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]th[/FONT][/SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]day of December, his resignation was approved by the centralpolitical bureau of CPC. Naturally Deng became the new leader of theparty and the nation. Hua died of some kind of disease on the 20[/FONT][SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]th[/FONT][/SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]day of August, 2008.[/FONT]
[FONT=Times New Roman, serif]Denghad two famous quotations: One is “practice is the sole criterionto determine what is truth.” The other is “It doesn't matterwhether it is a white cat or a black cat, the cat that can catch themouse is a good cat.” The second quotation clearly reflects hispragmatism.[/FONT]
 

xlwoo

Senior Member
[FONT=Times New Roman, serif]II.Deng's goal to let part of Chinese people get rich first

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[FONT=Times New Roman, serif]Dengdid not say who could be get rich first. But from the laterdevelopment of the economy and cases of many individuals, who gotrich first, being then fined for tax evasion or whatever reasons thegovernment could think of to be poor anew. Some were even imprisonedfor violation of this law or that. But the family members andrelatives of the party leaders and government high officials were allsafe from penalty or jail though they were known publicly havingviolated laws.[/FONT]
[FONT=Times New Roman, serif]Anyway,though Deng wanted to go the capitalist road as against Mao'ssocialist road, he met with oppositions, because just after thecultural revolution, Mao's leftist thinking was still maintained bymany people. But it was the fault of Deng himself too, as he did notcriticize Mao's leftist thinking first before he went the capitalistroad. If he could have started a movement to criticize Mao's leftistthinking, it would be easier for him to go the capitalist road. Whydid he still want to keep Mao as the idol of the communist party andnot entirely abandon his influence? No one could have the answer.Since the signboard of Mao was still upheld in the present time, thereform, even in the economical field only, had certain limits, whichtied the hands and feet of the party leaders. If China wants to makefurther advance without a hitch, the idol of Mao must be overthrownforever. They must declare to be entire capitalism, not the initialstage of the socialism, but going the capitalist road financially andthe socialist road politically.[/FONT]
[FONT=Times New Roman, serif]Therewere debates about certain problems. When going the capitalist road,there would be private businesses and the owners of the privatebusinesses must hire employees. According to socialist thinking,there should not be exploitation of employees by the private businessowners. The debates went on for a couple of years. Finally, Deng madethe decision: Let there be exploitation if China must go thecapitalist road. Deng's decision is actually opposite to the idea ofsocialism, as Marxism decided that exploitation is typical ofcapitalism, though Chinese communist party repeatedly declares thatChina is a socialist country. Of course, the world knows that it is afalse declaration. And as the CPC always tells lies, it is nosurprise to the world.[/FONT]
 

xlwoo

Senior Member
[FONT=Times New Roman, serif]Inthe early 80s of the 20[/FONT][SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]th[/FONT][/SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]century, as approved by the central political committee of CPC andthe state council, Shenzhen, Zhuhai, Shantou, and Amoy in thesouthern coast area became the special economic zones. Therefore, thelocal governments invited the investment of the foreign capital forthe development of the local economy. Another problem arose. Theforeign businesses might employ some Chinese personnel as managers.Thus there would be a new compradore class, which reminded some oldpeople of the old China where the so-called imperialists had made theeconomical invasion.[/FONT]
[FONT=Times New Roman, serif]Onthe 24[/FONT][SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]th[/FONT][/SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]day of January, 1984, Deng went to inspect Shenzhen, Zhuhai, andAmoy, three special economic zones, and was satisfied with thesituation. He decided to open more harbor cities like Dalian andQingdao, as the special economic zones. At that time, Deng was thedirector of the central counselor committee and the chairman of thecentral military committee of CPC. It meant that he had the controlof the army. So every party leader must listen to him. His decisionwas the final, though he had no position in the central government.[/FONT]
[FONT=Times New Roman, serif]InApril of 1988, HaiNan Island was made an independent province andalso a special economic zone. In June, the local government and acompany from Hongkong signed an agreement that 30 square kilometersof land in Yangpu Peninsular would be leased to the company for 70years. The company could use it at its own discretion. It was thefirst time that the communist party adopted such a style in its openpolicy. It was called Yangpu Style. Some old people connected it withthe foreign settlements in old China, criticized it and opposed it.In March of 1989, this event developed into a so-called Yangpu Storm,politically. Many party leaders went there for inspection. Then Denginterfered and the storm quieted down. On the 9[/FONT][SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]th[/FONT][/SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]day of March, 1992, the state council approved the official set-up ofthe “Yangpu Economic Developing Zone.”[/FONT]
 

xlwoo

Senior Member
[FONT=Times New Roman, serif]III.How Hu Yuebang got into and out of power[/FONT]

[FONT=Times New Roman, serif]1)Hu Yuebang became general secretary of central secretariat of CPC

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[FONT=Times New Roman, serif]HuYuebang (11/20/1915—04/15/1989) was from a poor peasant family andjoined the communist party in 1933. When Hua Guofeng was forced toresign in June, 1981, there arose the question who would be thechairman of the party? Deng Xiaoping, 77 of age at the time, wantedto be the chairman, but Ye Jianying did not support him because hedid not like the resignation of Hua. Someone nominated Ye as thechairman, but Ye declined because he was over 80 then. Since HuYuebang had a lot of merits in his work to the party, he was agreedto be the chairman of the party. Zhao Ziyang (10/17/1919—01/17/2005)was made a vice chairman of the party. After Hua resigned all hispositions, Zhao was made the premier of the state council. Then HuYuebang proposed to have Hua as a vice chairman of the party and hisproposal was agreed upon. Deng was the chairman of the party militarycommittee.[/FONT]
[FONT=Times New Roman, serif]Inthe 12[/FONT][SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]th[/FONT][/SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]party conference, Hu Yuebang wanted to resign from the position ofthe chairman of the party and proposed Deng to be the chairman, andHu himself to be a vice chairman. Deng proposed Ye to be thechairman, but Ye declined once more and said, “You two dwarfs canwork together for the party.” (Deng Xxiaoping and Hu Yuebang bothhad short stature.) But Hu insisted in not being the chairman of theparty. He could take the position of the general secretary of theparty. Then the position of the party chairman was vacant for manyyears. The general secretary took charge of the party affairs.[/FONT]
[FONT=Times New Roman, serif]WhenHu had been the minister of the organization ministry of the centralcommittee of CPC, he had done a great job in the correction of manywrong cases, the biggest one being the case of the so-calledanti-rightists movement, which involved over 550,000 rightists.[/FONT]
 

xlwoo

Senior Member
[FONT=Times New Roman, serif]2)How Hu Yuebang was forced to resign from general secretary position

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[FONT=Times New Roman, serif]Thecause of Hu's resignation was his different opinion with Deng aboutDeng's full retirement from power. Since Mao had stayed in power tilldeath, Deng likewise wished to have power as long as possible. In Mayof 1986, Deng made a false move, a typical two-faced person like Mao.Maybe, he just learned it from Mao. Deng invited Hu to come to hishome for the discussion of the personnel arrangement of the partypositions in the 13[/FONT][SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]th[/FONT][/SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]party conference. Hu said that he was over 70 and must retire in the13[/FONT][SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]th[/FONT][/SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]party conference. Deng said, “Chen Yun, Li Xiannian, and I will allretire. You (Hu) can half retire, no longer to be the generalsecretary, but still can be the chairman of the military committee orof the nation for a term. Then you'll see what to do.”[/FONT]
[FONT=Times New Roman, serif]Onthe 22[/FONT][SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]nd[/FONT][/SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]day of August, 1986, Deng had a birthday party for his 81[/FONT][SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]st[/FONT][/SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]anniversary. At the party Deng said that he would retire in the 13[/FONT][SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]th[/FONT][/SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]party conference. Hu believed it. The stupid dwarf, Hu, was no matchfor the wise dwarf, Deng. In October, on the meeting of the centralpolitical bureau, Hu openly said that he supported Deng to retire andthen other old cadres would retire, too, so as to make way for theyounger comrades. He added that he would retire from the office ofthe general secretary at the end of the term. Some old cadres agreedwith Hu, including Wan Li. When Deng asked Wan why Hu wanted him toretire, which showed that Deng never actually wanted to retire, Wansaid that Hu might just have a slip of the tongue. Deng asked againif Hu wanted to show himself off by so doing. Wan replied that Hu wasnot such a sort of person.[/FONT]
[FONT=Times New Roman, serif]Anyway,on the 10[/FONT][SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]th[/FONT][/SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]day of January, 1987, on an informal meeting of the political bureau,some of Deng's supporters criticized Hu and asked him to resign rightaway. Therefore, He had to resign on the spot. But people rememberedhim for his integrity. In the 13[/FONT][SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]th[/FONT][/SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]party conference, he was elected the member of the central committeeof CPC by over 1,800 votes, and was elected the member of the centralpolitical bureau with almost the full votes less 7.[/FONT]
 

xlwoo

Senior Member
[FONT=Times New Roman, serif]Chapter21 The slaughter of students on TianAnMen Square[/FONT]

[FONT=Times New Roman, serif]I.The background of the TianAnMen event

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[FONT=Times New Roman, serif]In1986, there was a democratic atmosphere on the political stage inChina. As the economical reform had an obstacle from the politicalsystem and the economical system, the reform, though somewhat havingsome achievements in the countryside, met with difficulties incities. Prices of goods rose. Inflation happened. Officials becamecorrupt. Belief crisis worsened. Therefore, there originated theconflict of two different opinions among the party leaders. One wasto support the reform and the other objected the reform by opposingthe so-called bourgeois liberalization. Deng at first tended to theformer, but then turned over to the latter. He might be afraid thatthe bourgeois liberalization would endanger the tyrannical rule ofthe communist party.[/FONT]
[FONT=Times New Roman, serif]Afterthe resignation of Hu Yuebang, Zhao Ziyang became the generalsecretary. Li Peng was made the premier of the state council. On the13[/FONT][SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]th[/FONT][/SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]day of May, 1987, Zhao Ziyang, instructed by Deng, gave a speech toactually cease the anti-bourgeois-liberalization movement. Dengchanged his attitude again. At the suggestions of some economists,Zhao tried to carry on the reform from the prices of goods. The goodsprice reform caused a stampede of purchase that had an impact to theprice control. Those who opposed the reform thereby persuaded Deng tostop. Criminal cases of all kinds increased. [/FONT]
[FONT=Times New Roman, serif]Collegestudents had the sharpest sense to the change of the politicalsituations and the social conditions. Some renowned intellectuals,especially the university professors, demanded to release all thepolitical prisoners. On the 6[/FONT][SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]th[/FONT][/SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]day of January, 1989, Fang Lizi, a famous scientist, wrote an openletter to Deng for amnesty of political prisoners, especially WeiJingsheng, who later was allowed to leave China for the US. [/FONT]
 

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[FONT=Times New Roman, serif]Inuniversities in Beijing at the time, there was a wall,on whichstudents could openly post their opinions written on paper stuck onit. Since all the opinions could be openly expressed there, the wallwas called “Democracy Wall.” The famous wall was the XidanDemocracy Wall, located in Xidan of Beijing, not within any of theuniversity campus. It had developed from the big-character paper inthe cultural revolution stuck on the wall. In 1978, a lot of articlesand poems were posted there. On the 16[/FONT][SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]th[/FONT][/SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]day of November, an article posted with an alias of Mechanician #0538conveyed the criticism of the historic mistakes of Mao and requestedto abolish the tyranny, and to have democracy and the freedom ofspeech. There gathered sometimes as many as more than 10,000 people,including foreign press. [/FONT]
[FONT=Times New Roman, serif]Onthe 8[/FONT][SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]th[/FONT][/SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]day of January, 1979, Fu Yuehua, a female textile worker, had ademonstration on TianAnMen Square with thousands of other people forthe human rights. They held up a banner bearing the words: Democracyand human rights. On the 9[/FONT][SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]th[/FONT][/SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]day of January, Fu Yuehua was apprehended. On the 22[/FONT][SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]nd[/FONT][/SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]day of March, 1979, [/FONT][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]BeijingDaily[/FONT][FONT=Times New Roman, serif] published anarticle “Human rights are not the proletarian slogan.” On the25[/FONT][SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]th[/FONT][/SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]day of March, Wei Jingsheng posted his article on Xidan DemocracyWall titled “Democracy or new tyranny” to openly criticize Denggoing the tyrannical road. On the 29[/FONT][SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]th[/FONT][/SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]day, Wei was arrested. The reason for the arrest of Wei made open bythe government was that Wei sold military information to foreignersat the price of 20 yuan of Chinese currency. It meant that Wei was sodestitute in need of 20 yuan. Many Chinese people had 20 yuan at thattime. Who would care for 20 yuan? And did they mean that Wei did notknow the importance of military information and that he would sell itfor only 20 yuan? No wonder. The communist government always tellslies. On the same day, Beijing government put up a public notice toprohibit this, prohibit that, anything to criticize the governmentand the party. They also forbade the posting of the big word paperand demonstrations. [/FONT]
[FONT=Times New Roman, serif]Onthe Second Session of the Fifth National People's Congress in June,Hu Yuebang said that some comrades criticized him for supportingliberalization which would encourage anarchism, but he wanted tomaintain his own viewpoint. As to the apprehension of Wei Jingshengand others, Hu said that for these brave people, they did not care tobe imprisoned. If Wei Jingsheng died in the prison, he would bedeemed a martyr in the eye of people. Hu implied that it was notworth letting Wei die in prison. Hu's hint meant that politicalprisoners were always maltreated in jail. [/FONT]
 

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[FONT=Times New Roman, serif]II.The fuse to university students protesting on TianAnMen Square

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[FONT=Times New Roman, serif]Onthe 15[/FONT][SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]th[/FONT][/SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]day of April, 1989, Hu Yuebang died of heart disease. He was thoughtby Chinese people, especially university students, as a firmpolitical reformer. With the termination of the chaotic culturalrevolution, people pinned hope on Deng to go the capitalist road, butDeng disappointed them by going the capitalist road financially only,and refusing to go the capitalist road politically. Thedisappointment of Deng also lay in his rejection to redress theanti-rightist movement as a whole and in his forcing Hu to resign.[/FONT]
[FONT=Times New Roman, serif]Fromthe 15[/FONT][SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]th[/FONT][/SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]day to the 17[/FONT][SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]th[/FONT][/SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]day, people kept coming to the TianAnMen Square and put wreaths,white banners, white flowers and paper couplets around the Monumentof People's Heroes in memory of Hu. On the 16[/FONT][SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]th[/FONT][/SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]day, a student from Beijing University quietly sat there on a smallstool he had brought with a long slip of white paper on him bearingthe words: “Eternal farewell, (Hu) Yuebang!” In many universitiesin Shanghai and other cities, students put up slogans in memory ofHu. Everything was in order.[/FONT]
[FONT=Times New Roman, serif]OnTianAnMen Square, about 4 o'clock in the afternoon on the 17[/FONT][SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]th[/FONT][/SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]day, over 20 students played mourning music and shouted somethinglike “Long live freedom!” “Long live democracy!” “Long livelaw system!” (In communist China, law is only a decoration. Theparty decides everything even against the law they make.) And someother slogans. At 4:30, a parade came into the square, singingL'Internationale. Then they dispersed quietly. Round 7 o'clock, about3,000 people gathered there in memorial activities. Past 8 o'clock,the memorial service of the crowds reached its climax. Many studentschanted poems of their own composition and applause soundedvehemently. Just past midnight on the 18[/FONT][SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]th[/FONT][/SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]day, more than 1,000 students from Beijing University came, joined bystudents of other universities, totaling 3,000. They yelled withsomething like “Long live freedom!” “Long live democracy!”and “Down with bureaucratists!” while singing L'Internationale.[/FONT]
 

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[FONT=Times New Roman, serif]Inthe early morning of the 18[/FONT][SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]th[/FONT][/SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]day, hundreds of students sat before the Great Hall of the Peopledemanding the reception of the leaders to have a talk. They made7-items requisition:[/FONT]
[FONT=Times New Roman, serif]1,re-evaluate the merits and demerits of Hu Yuebang and acknowledge hispoints of view in democracy, freedom, leniency and harmony.[/FONT]
[FONT=Times New Roman, serif]2,thoroughly negate decisions of anti-bourgeois-liberalization andclearing spiritual pollution. Redress the wrong cases forintellectuals.[/FONT]
[FONT=Times New Roman, serif]3,yearly income from all sources of the national leaders and theirfamily members must be open to people. Oppose corruption andembezzlement.[/FONT]
[FONT=Times New Roman, serif]4,lift the ban and permit people to run private newspapers. Havefreedom of speech.[/FONT]
[FONT=Times New Roman, serif]5,increase the educational expenditure and pay of intellectuals.[/FONT]
[FONT=Times New Roman, serif]6,denounce the 10 regulations issued by Beijing government aboutdemonstration.[/FONT]
[FONT=Times New Roman, serif]7,demand government leaders to make open self-criticisms to people fortheir mistakes and re-elect part of the leaders through democraticmethod.[/FONT]
[FONT=Times New Roman, serif]Thestudents demanded that the government should put their requisitionson newspapers and make an open answer to people. Would the partyleaders meet the wishes of the students? Surely never. Most Chineserulers from the history always resorted to arms in their dealing withcommon people. How could the communist party be an exception, thoughthey said that they served people? Besides, all the requisitions werewhat they hated. They hated democracy, freedom of speech, ofpublication and of demonstration. The requisition they could notaccept mostly was to let their illegal income open to public.Supposing if they yielded to demand of students, it would make themlose face. In Chinese tradition, face is very important to theindividual, especially to those in power. They will never do anythingto lose face if they can help it. Moreover, they were never lenientto common people. Therefore, the result was foreseeable andpredictable. The bravery of the students was much admired by theworld as they certainly knew that when they were doing so, they weretaking the risk of imprisonment and even death.[/FONT]
[FONT=Times New Roman, serif]Atthe time, Zhao Ziyang was the general secretary. According to theoryand rules, he should be in charge of everything in the country. Heshould have the final say. So he sent someone to receive therepresentatives of the students and accept their letter of petition.However, he could not make the final decision about theirrequisitions. He had those old cadres over him or behind him. Thoseold cadres controlled the army while he did not. In communist Chinaonly those in control of the army had the final say to anything andeverything.[/FONT]
 

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[FONT=Times New Roman, serif]Inthe night of the 19[/FONT][SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]th[/FONT][/SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]day of April, 3,000 students gathered before Xinhua Gate, which isthe entrance to Zhongnanhai, where the party leaders lived. Therewere also 7,000 spectators. The whole day, no leaders came out to seethe students. So they yelled, “Come out, Li Peng!” Li Peng wasthe premier at the time. Leaders of the party and government dividedinto two different opinions towards the students. Zhao, the generalsecretary, wanted to have a talk with students while Li, the premier,and those old cadres, refused to talk with those youngsters. Theleaders of Beijing City handed in a report to the central committeeof CPC in a negative attitude.[/FONT]
[FONT=Times New Roman, serif]From11 o'clock at night of the 20[/FONT][SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]th[/FONT][/SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]day, to 1 o'clock in early morning of the 21[/FONT][SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]st[/FONT][/SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]day, students of Beijing University had a meeting to decide to set upthe “Preparatory Committee of Solidarity Student Association ofBeijing University” to organize the united action. They madeanother demand to release Wei Jingsheng. They contacted the studentsof other universities to set up a common organization for thepetition. It was because three students, when returning to dorm afterthe memorial activities in the night of the 19[/FONT][SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]th[/FONT][/SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]day, were attacked by police and one of the students, Wang Zhinyongwas severely hurt. The students required to punish those attackingthe students. They refused to go to classes like on strike. Somehundred students from Tianjin or other cities came to Beijing to joinin the memorial activities in support to Beijing students. Evenprofessors, writers, the press, and people of other callings,supported the students.[/FONT]
[FONT=Times New Roman, serif]Inthe morning of the 22[/FONT][SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]nd[/FONT][/SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]day of April, there was a funeral for Hu Yuebang in the People'sHall. During the whole process, till Hu's hearse went to thegraveyard, everything was in order. Students quietly mourned. Threestudents knelt before the People's Hall, holding the letter ofpetition, because no one came out to take the letter from them yet.In front of them there lined up armed police and soldiers. There weremore spectators than students. The crowds had somewhat body touchwith the police. Some students came to tell crowds to stand back andorder restored. Then two men came out to talk with the students. Atround 1:30 in the afternoon, students went back to their dorms, butthey still refused to have classes, as they were waiting for thereply from the government. News went round that the 38[/FONT][SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]th[/FONT][/SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]army was maneuvering to Beijing. At 2 o'clock in the afternoon on the23[/FONT][SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]rd[/FONT][/SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]day of April, there appeared the declaration of the ph.d. students inthe People's University of China, which read as follows:[/FONT]
 

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[FONT=Times New Roman, serif]1,entirely support the 7-items requisitions of the university studentsin Beijing, firmly support all the patriotic democratic movements ofpeople of all classes.[/FONT]
[FONT=Times New Roman, serif]2,all ph.d. students join the strike from this moment.[/FONT]
[FONT=Times New Roman, serif]3,(now that it is) “collective leadership, and the mistakes frompolicies made collectively,” (words of Li Peng) leaders shouldresign collectively to show the honesty of the “collectiveresponsibilities.” (words of Li Peng.) (This requisition meant thatLi Peng's cabinet must resign collectively.)[/FONT]
[FONT=Times New Roman, serif]4,strongly demand that all the leaders over 75 years old, either in theparty, or in the government, or in the army, should resign.[/FONT]
[FONT=Times New Roman, serif]5,stop violence, protect human rights. The army should not interferewith national affairs.[/FONT]
[FONT=Times New Roman, serif]6,the expenditure of the CPC should not be paid from the nationaltreasury.[/FONT]
[FONT=Times New Roman, serif]7,lift the ban to newspapers. Freedom of the press. Permit privatenewspapers, radio and TV stations.[/FONT]
[FONT=Times New Roman, serif]8,let people from different classes organize a probity committee tocheck the corruption among the leaders of the party and thegovernment. Investigate the unlawful business activities of thechildren and relatives of the old cadres and publicize the results.[/FONT]
[FONT=Times New Roman, serif]WhenLi Peng was reported about it, he said that this declaration wasopenly to challenge the party. In other cities students joined in thepatriotic movement to save China from corruption. In XiAn, somestudents in the demonstration were beaten and wounded. Some evendisappeared after arrest. In Shanghai, Jiang Zeming, the municipalparty secretary ordered Qin Benli, the chief editor of [/FONT][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]WorldEconomic Herald [/FONT][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]to bedismissed from office because he supported the students' movement.Jiang's suppression of the [/FONT][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]WorldEconomic Herald[/FONT][FONT=Times New Roman, serif] wasmuch appreciated by the old cadres and that was why he was later tobe selected as the general secretary to replace Zhao Ziyang. HuJintao was selected as the successor of Jiang Zeming because hesuppressed the Tibetans when he was the party secretary there. Fromthis, the world can see that the Chinese communist party selectedtheir successors by the rule that the successors should be firmlyagainst the people, never for the people. Those for the people mustgo down from power like Hu Yuebang and Zhao Ziyang.[/FONT]
 

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[FONT=Times New Roman, serif]Onthe 26[/FONT][SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]th[/FONT][/SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]day of April, the [/FONT][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]PeopleDaily [/FONT][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]published aneditorial to define the students' petition as a riot. The bugle forkilling sounded, but the students ignored. Maybe, they were too youngto be aware of such dirty political plots. A student told his familythat he would sacrifice his dear life to save the country. Hedetermined that once he left home, he would never come back alive. Onthe 27[/FONT][SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]th[/FONT][/SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]day, besides in Beijing, students in many main cities helddemonstrations. Under the approval of Deng, a tank division of the38[/FONT][SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]th[/FONT][/SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]corps maneuvered towards Beijing. But at the time, no soldiersinterfered with students' demonstrations. Anyway, party leaders haddifferent opinions about the students' movement. The generalsecretary Zhao maintained the idea to talk with students to solve theproblems and to have press reform for freedom of report while LiPeng, the premier, opposed it, supported by Deng and old cadres.[/FONT]
[FONT=Times New Roman, serif]Onthe 4[/FONT][SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]th[/FONT][/SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]day of May, 1919, university students in Peking had a demonstration.Therefore, the 4[/FONT][SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]th[/FONT][/SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]day of May was set as Youth Day when the communist party began theirrule in mainland, China. Every Youth Day, students will have someactivities for celebration. Now the Youth Day would soon come in1989. The authorities knew that students would have a parade. So thegeneral secretary Zhao would make a speech. The premier Li wantedZhao to add “anti-bourgeois liberalization” in Zhao's speech, butZhao said that it was not appropriate to add such a phrase in thespeech at the time. Now it's time to appease but not to enragestudents. The reasonable speech was welcomed by students, but someold cadres criticized Zhao for so saying. They wanted strong words tothreaten students so that students could be quieted and go back totheir desks. Therefore some leaders from Beijing governmentcriticized the letter of petition handed in by students and declaredthat there were some evil conspirators behind all this. That was notthe truth. Students could not accept it. As a matter of fact, this isthe old ruse the communist party often uses. Whenever there are someriots among people for maintaining their lawful rights harmed by thelocal governments or those supported by local governments, thecommunist party will say that there must be some internationalplotters or imperialists behind the riots.[/FONT]
[FONT=Times New Roman, serif]ThisMay-4[/FONT][SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]th[/FONT][/SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]was the 70[/FONT][SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]th[/FONT][/SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]anniversary of May-4[/FONT][SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]th[/FONT][/SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]movement in 1919. Students in Beijing and in other main cities heldparades. Even newspapers staff took part in. General secretary Zhaogave an impromptu speech in order to assuage the students. Butpremier Li thought that Zhao's speech was against the spirit of theApril-26[/FONT][SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]th[/FONT][/SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]editorial, which had already defined the students' movement as ariot. In the communist notion, any riot should be suppressed byforce, not smoothed off by talk and yielding.[/FONT]
[FONT=Times New Roman, serif]Inthe afternoon of the 9[/FONT][SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]th[/FONT][/SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]day of May, two newspaper reporters handed in a letter of petitionwith 1,013 signatures to the leaders in charge of the party'spropaganda work to ask for a talk how to restore Qin Benli to be thechief editor of the [/FONT][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]WorldEconomic Herald[/FONT][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]. Ofcourse, it had no result.[/FONT]
 

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[FONT=Times New Roman, serif]III.The students' hunger strike began[/FONT]
[FONT=Times New Roman, serif]Sincethe government did not give students a reasonable answer, thestudents decided to go on the hunger strike. Their slogan was “Ilove food, but I love truth more.” They did not say how long thehunger strike would be. A student said that it would be timeless,meaning till they got satisfactory answer from the government.[/FONT]
[FONT=Times New Roman, serif]Onthe 13[/FONT][SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]th[/FONT][/SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]day of May, in the morning, they made a Declaration of Hunger Strike,which read in the following (extract):[/FONT]
“[FONT=Times New Roman, serif]Inthe sunshiny May, we go on hunger strike. In the best time ofyouthfulness, we have to leave behind us all the beauties of life. Weare so unwilling, so reluctant. ...[/FONT]
[FONT=Times New Roman, serif]Democracyin life is the greatest emotion for living. Liberty is the humanrights endowed by Heaven with birth. So for these we will use ouryoung lives to exchange. Is this the pride of the Chinese nation? …[/FONT]
[FONT=Times New Roman, serif]Weare still children, we are still children! Mother China, open thyeyes to look at thy children! Although hunger's mercilesslydestroying their young lives, and Death's approaching them, how canstthou not be moved?[/FONT]
[FONT=Times New Roman, serif]Wedon't want to die. We want to live happily, because we are in theprime of our years. We don't want to die. We want to learn more, asour motherland is still so short of things. We are not so heartlessto die thus, leaving our motherland behind like this. Death is notwhat we are in pursuit of. But if death of someone, or some ones canmake most people live better, can make our motherland flourishing, wehave no reason to treasure our lives.[/FONT]
[FONT=Times New Roman, serif]Fathersand mothers, when we are suffering from hunger, do not lament. Unclesand aunties, when we bid farewell to our lives, do not cry. We haveonly one wish to make you live better. We have only one request:don't forget what we are going after is not death. …[/FONT]
[FONT=Times New Roman, serif]Farewell,our people, please allow us to have to thus end our lives to show ourloyalty! ...”[/FONT]
[FONT=Times New Roman, serif]Amongthose on hunger strike was the world-renowned Liu Xiaobo, the winnerof Nobel peace prize. The communist government refused him to bepresent at the ceremony and receive it. In the evening of that day,300 professors and young teachers of Beijing university wrote an openletter to the central committee of CPC, the Standing Committee of theNational People's Congress, and the state council. On the 14[/FONT][SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]th[/FONT][/SUP][FONT=Times New Roman, serif]day, part of the teaching staff of some universities proposedteachers' strike. Some government leaders did have a talk with thestudent representatives, who requested that for a good commence ofthe talk, the first question that should be solved was that thisevent was a patriotic movement to save the country from corruptionand embezzlement, not a riot against the party and government. Butthe government leaders did not make a positive reply so that the talkcould not be continued.[/FONT]
 
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