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First Stones of Stonehenge (1 Viewer)

G

Garry Denke

Chronology of Stonehenge Construction Materials:

1) The oldest limestone sedimentary rocks at Stonehenge are the Early Carboniferous Period, Arundian
Age, calcium carbonates. The Early Carboniferous Period limestone sedimentary rocks comprise the first (1st)
foreign construction material used by the Stonehenge builders. This material is approximately 340 million
years old. These rocks are locally called the Birnbeck Limestone Formation (Stonehenge Whitestones).

2) The outcrop sedimentary rocks at Stonehenge are the Late Cretaceous Period, Santonian Age, calcium
carbonates. The Late Cretaceous Period outcrop sedimentary rocks comprise the first (1st) local in situ
construction material used by the Stonehenge builders. This material is approximately 85 million years old.
These rocks are locally called the Seaford Chalk Formation (Stonehenge White Chalk).

3) The volcanic rocks (oldest geologically) at Stonehenge are the Ordovician Period intrusive igneous
diabases (dolerites), and extrusive igneous felsites (rhyolites) and tuffs (basic). The Ordovician Period
igneous rocks comprise the second (2nd) foreign construction material used by the Stonehenge builders.
This material is approximately 470 million years old. These rocks are locally called the Ordovician Volcanics
(Stonehenge Bluestones).

4) The oldest sandstone sedimentary rocks at Stonehenge are the Silurian-Devonian Period micaceous
sandstones. The Silurian-Devonian Period sedimentary sandstone rocks comprise the third (3rd) foreign
construction material used by the Stonehenge builders. This material is approximately 417 million years old.
These rocks are locally called the Old Red Sandstone Formation (Stonehenge Coshestons).

5) The youngest sandstone sedimentary rocks at Stonehenge are the Oligocene-Miocene (Tertiary) Period
silicates. The Oligocene-Miocene Period sandstone sedimentary rocks comprise the fourth (4th) foreign
construction material used by the Stonehenge builders. This material is approximately 24 million years old.
These rocks are locally called the Reading Formation (Stonehenge Sarsens).


Current Locations of First Stones of Stonehenge:

a) 1/4 Counterscarp still in place is foreign Early Carboniferous Waulsortian facies High Tor Limestone
(Birnbeck Limestone) Formation rock, not local Late Cretaceous Seaford Chalk Formation rock.

b) 3/4 Counterscarp remnants are foreign Early Carboniferous Waulsortian facies High Tor Limestone
(Birnbeck Limestone) Formation rock, not local Late Cretaceous Seaford Chalk Formation rock. Note: 3/4
Counterscarp rebuilt with local earth soil after 3/4 Counterscarp limestone was removed and piled at
Stonehenge mound located 100 meters East-Southeast of Heel Stone.

c) E-SE Stonehenge mound is foreign Early Carboniferous Waulsortian facies High Tor Limestone (Birnbeck
Limestone) Formation rock, not local Late Cretaceous Seaford Chalk Formation rock. Source: 3/4 of the
original complete circle of Counterscarp limestone first (1st) stone hedge of Stonehenge.

d) 56 Aubrey Hole remnants are foreign Early Carboniferous Waulsortian facies High Tor Limestone
(Birnbeck Limestone) Formation rock, not local Late Cretaceous Seaford Chalk Formation rock.

e) Heel Stone ditch bottom-half is foreign Early Carboniferous Waulsortian facies High Tor Limestone
(Birnbeck Limestone) Formation rock, not local Late Cretaceous Seaford Chalk Formation rock, and not
silted in fill. Source area: Counterscarp causeway or Stonehenge mound. Elder fossils:

01) Aclisina
02) Aviculopecten
03) Bellerophon
04) Caninia cornucopiae
05) Chondrites
06) Cleiothyridina roissyi
07) Composita
08) Conocardium
09) Delepinea (Daviesiella) destinezi
10) Euphemites
11) Girvanella
12) Hapsiphyllum (Zaphrentis) konincki
13) Linoproductus
14) Megachonetes papilionaceous
15) Michelina grandis
16) Mourlonia
17) Murchisonia
18) Palaeosmilia
19) Plicochonetes
20) Rhipidomella michelini
21) Schellwienella cf. S. crenistria
22) Straparollus
23) Syringopora
24) Zoophycos



Comment:

The many tons of first stones brought to Stonehenge to construct its first earthwork are of no interest to
British authors as evidenced by no mention of them in their Stonehenge literature. Interesting to British
authors are the second, third, and fourth types of stones hauled to Stonehenge, but not the first. Perhaps
one day a British author will find the many tons of first stones transported by the original builders to the
most famous ancient monument in all of Europe interesting enough to record in their Stonehenge literature.


South-Wales-map-1300.jpg


1) Denke, G.W. 1975. Invertibrate Paleontology of the High Tor Limestone (Lower Carboniferous) and the
Upper Senonian Chalk (Late Cretaceous) of Stonehenge. (Arizona State University) GDG, 75: 1-7.

2) Denke, G.W. 1977. Possible Source Areas of the High Tor Limestone (Early Mississippian) Fill of the
Aubrey Holes and Heel Stone Ditch in Europe. (Arizona State University) GDG, 77: 1-24.

3) Beus, S.S. 1984. Fossil Associations in the High Tor Limestone (Lower Carboniferous) of South Wales.
(Northern Arizona University) Journal of Paleontology, 58: 3; 651-667.

4) Denke, G.W. 1984. Mid-Dinantian (Waulsortian Facies) High Tor Limestone: The First Stones Transported
to Stonehenge from the South Wales Coast. (Arizona State University) GDG, 84: 1-4.

5) Denke, G. 1984. Magnetic and Electromagnetic Surveys at Heelstone, Stonehenge, United Kingdom.
(Indiana University of Pennsylvania) GDG, 84: 5-42.

6) Lees, A. and Miller, J. 1985. Facies variatian in Waulsortian buildups, Part 2; Mid-Dinantian buildups
from Europe and North America. (Revised) Geological Journal, 20: 159-180.

7) Geologist, Denke, G. 1986. The Paleontology of Stonehenge, England. (Arizona State University) GDG,
86: 1-3. (State of Texas, County of Stonewall, Deed Records, Volume 393, Page 851-853)
 

Kimberly Bird

Senior Member
Hi Garry, I found this quite fascinating. I knew there were two different eras concerning the limestones, but four different periods? When you think of it like that you have to think about how old the culture was.

Best of luck with this.

Kimberly
 

americanwriter

Senior Member
Well, that's just too cool.
I learned something new today.
And there's a whole bunch of new words
in here I haven't read before.
I love this forum. Oh, have I said that
before? Must be an echo.

:)
 
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