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Thread: Two Republics in China

  1. #71
    Mao’smarriage history and his other women

    Mao had four formal marriages. Hisfirst wife was Ms. Luo (no given name known), whom Mao married inaccordance with arrangements made by his parents. She was then 20years old while Mao was only 16. The Mao family and Luo family wererelatives. Though she was a pleasant woman, Mao did not like her.They married in 1907. But in February of 1910, she died of somedisease. Using this as a pretext, Mao left his family and went toPeking.
    His second wife was Yang Kaihui(1901–1930), whose father, Yang Changji, was a graduate returnedfrom England who became a professor of ethics at Peking University.At that time Mao worked in the library and studied as a gueststudent. He and Yang Kaihui were classmates. In 1919, Mao began tocourt Yang Kaihui, and in 1920, they lived together without legallymarrying. At that time Mao was 26 years old and Yang was only 18. Shebore three sons for Mao. In 1921, Yang joined the Communist Party,but afterwards she was arrested by the national government and wasexecuted on the 14th of November, 1930. Her first son, MaoAnying (1922–1950), died in the Korean War. Her second son, MaoAnqing (1923–2007), was escorted by Kang Sheng to Moscow. He joinedthe Communist Party in 1947. In July of 1949, he was given the rankof Lieutenant Colonel, but he was engaged in research work in theAcademy of Military Sciences, not combat. He died of heart disease.Yang’s third son, Mao Anlong, was a riddle. It was said that hewent missing as a child and no one knew what became of him even now.And no one ever appeared claiming that he was Mao’s third son.

  2. #72
    Mao’s third wife was He Zizhen(1910–1984), sister of marshal He Long. In 1927 when Mao went toJinggang Mountain after the riot, he met He Zizhen there. That year,Mao was 35 years old while she was only 17. In June of 1928, they gotmarried while his second wife Yang Kaihui was in prison. It has neverbeen said that Mao had endeavored to rescue her from the prison. WhenHe Zizhen grew up, she became the secretary of the frontier committeeof the Red Army and director of the women’s league in thesouthwestern Jiangxi province. In the Long March, while protectingthe wounded soldiers from air raids, she was wounded herself. InJanuary of 1938, she went to study in Moscow and returned to China inthe summer of 1947. Then she took up offices like director of thewomen’s league in Hangzhou City. He Zizhen had her first child withMao in 1929, and when they had to escape, He Zizhen left her daughterwith a local family. The child was called Mao Jinhua. In April, 1932,when He Zizhen wanted to find the child, she was told that the childhad died. In fact, the child did not die. At that time some agents ofthe National Party had come to inquire about the child and so theadoptive family lied, saying the child had died, lest they kill it.The child grew up and was named Yang Yuehua. In 1973, an old Red Armyman came to the place and learned something about Yang Yuehua and henotified He Zizhen’s brother, who informed his sister of the truth.However, it was during the Cultural Revolution when Jiang Qing was inpower, so the mother and the daughter could not see each other. Thedaughter is alive now in retirement. He Zizhen had another daughtercalled Mao Jiaojiao. But afterwards when Mao Zedong changed his nameto Li Desheng to avoid being arrested by the national government,this daughter changed her name to Li Min, which is used now. HeZizhen died in Shanghai at the age 75.

  3. #73
    His fourth wife was Jiang Qing (seeabove). But he had many other women outside of marriage. The firstone we know about was Tao Siyong, from a rich family. She was knownas a woman of talent and a beauty, too. From 1919 to 1920, she andMao opened a bookstore in Changsha. Mao wrote many love letters toher. Five of them were found later. In 1921, she went to study inJinling College in Nanking. As her father did not like Mao, she didnot marry him. She died in 1931 at the age of 36 without marryinganyone. The next one was Ding Ling, a so-called red writer. She wasborn on the 12th of October, 1904. She was a classmate ofYang Kaihui in high school. She joined the Communist Party in 1932and was arrested too, but in September of 1936, with the assistanceof the Communist Party, escaped from prison in Nanking and went toYanAn. Mao loved her at first sight. She was the chief editor ofJournal of Literature and Arts, and then the party secretaryof the Chinese Writers Association, and the chief editor of People’sLiterature, etc. But in the anti-rightist movement in 1957, shewas declared a rightist and was exiled to a cold region innortheastern China. She died on March 4, 1986.
    Another was Wu Lili, born in 1912. Shewent to America for further studies after graduation from the NormalUniversity in Peking. When she learned of the outbreak of theAnti-Japanese War, she came back to China, to YanAn, to fight Japan.She became Mao’s interpreter and they fell in love. But when HeZizhen heard about this, she went there and caught them together. Shewanted to kill them both. This became such a big scandal that theCentral Committee of the Communist Party had to intervene. Wu Liliwas sent away. Afterwards, she married an officer of the NationalParty and went to live in Taiwan.

  4. #74
    Sun Weishi was also one, whose fatherwas a fellow fighter of Premier Zhou. When he died in 1927, SunWeishi was only 5. So Premier Zhou took care of her and looked uponher as his adopted daughter, but openly known as his niece. Then shewent with Zhou Enlai to YanAn. She was called the red princess. In1939, she went with Zhou Enlai to Moscow to study drama. In December1949, Mao went to the Soviet Union with Zhou; Sun Weishi was theirinterpreter and also taught Mao some Russian. Mao had a carriage ofhis own in the train. One night Mao raped her in his carriage. Suntold Zhou about it, but Zhou did not dare to say anything. In theCultural Revolution, her brother was tragically beaten to death andSun wrote to Jiang Qing to ask for an investigation. She also wroteto Zhou. Both without result. In December 1967, her husband was putin prison on spying charges. Her home was searched and some lettersto Mao were found. Jiang Qing took these letters to see Zhou Enlaiand blamed him for it. Jiang even slapped Zhou’s face in wrath.Zhou could not do anything to her. Before long Sun Weishi was put ina secret prison on the orders of Jiang Qing and was tortured todeath. A long nail was driven into her head. Jiang Qing wanted ZhouEnlai to sign an order to execute Sun Weishi; Zhou did not dare torefuse and signed it. No comment needed here. Everyone can see what aman Zhou was.
    Feng Fengming was a returned overseasChinese and was talented in drama. When she arrived in YanAn, she wasenrolled in the Lu Xun Arts College and then became an actress. Oneday after a performance, Mao invited her to his place to discussacting. Then and there, he violated her. She was so infuriated thatshe left YanAn. No one knew where she went.
    In 1962, Mao went to Shanghai. Themayor Ke Qingshi at the time made arrangements for Mao to meet thefamous movie star Shangguan Yunzhu. A friend of hers had witnessed anote Mao had written to Shangguan. Mao wrote that “A hero loved abeauty since the olden days. I am the hero. You are the beauty.”The next year, Mao came to Shanghai again and met her again. Everytime, they would stay together for several days. In 1965, she wasbrought to Zhongnanhai (literally, central south sea) in Beijing,where Mao lived. They openly lived together. Not long later, Mao tookher back to Shanghai and she never saw him again. In 1966, she wasarrested under orders of Jiang Qing and she died in jail.
    In Mao’s late years, Zhang Yufengworked as Mao’s secretary and looked after him day and night. Zhangwas born in 1944 to a poor family in northeastern China. In 1958,Zhang worked as a train attendant. Then she was transferred to thespecial train for Mao in 1962. In 1967, she was married to a manworking in the railway department. But in July 1970, Mao took aliking to her and she was sent to work in Zhongnanhai. She lookedafter Mao’s health and daily life. She lived with Mao till hisdeath. Then she moved out of Zhongnanhai. Now she’s enjoying aquiet retired life.

  5. #75
    ThePuppet Governments in China Under Japan

    The assassination of Wang Jingwei

    Japan knew that for such a big countryas China, they would need to set up some puppet governments as theycould not rule all China by themselves. Manchukuo in the northeasternChina was the first puppet government Japan established. As Japanexpanded into other provinces, they founded other local puppetgovernments. From December 1937 to March 1938, puppet governmentswere set up in Peking and in Nanking.
    Japan always wanted to induce ChiangKai-shek and the national government to surrender to Japan and becamethe central puppet government, but never succeeded. In November,1938, Japan sent someone to talk to Wang Jingwei (1883—1944) andhis clique. His two important followers were Chen Gongbo (1892—1946)and Zhou Fohai (1897—194. Both were originally members of theCommunist Party. It was said that most of the members of any partywere mainly opportunists. They would go where personal benefitsbeckoned to them.
    Wang always wanted to be the head of agovernment, but he was no rival to Chiang Kai-shek who controlled thearmy. Now Japan offered him a chance to be one, though only the headof a puppet government. Better than nothing. So the representativesof both sides had a secret talk in Shanghai and signed an agreementstating that the new government recognized Manchukuo, and that Japanhad priority over any natural resources in China, etc. On the 18thof December, 1938, Wang Jingwei, Chen Gongbo and Zhou Fohaistealthily left Chongqing, the temporary war-time capital, and wentto Kunming, where they took a plane to Hanoi in Vietnam.

  6. #76
    On December 29, 1938, Wang sent out apublic telegram stating three points as his principles fornegotiating with Japan: firstly, be friendly to the adjacentcountries; secondly, to cooperate with Japan against the CommunistParty; thirdly, to get financial assistance from Japan. The nationalgovernment and the Communist Party both saw Wang’s statement as abetrayal of China and a capitulation to Japan. So Wang and hisfollowers were defined as traitors.
    Therefore, on New Year’s Day of 1939,Chiang Kai-shek had a meeting to announce that Wang was expelled fromthe National Party and dismiss from all his offices. Next he plannedto get rid of Wang physically. Some special agents were sent toassassinate him in Hanoi.
    Wang and his wife, Chen Bijun, andanother follower, hid in a house and seldom went out. The specialagents were composed of 18 experienced assassins, called “18Arhans,” which came from the Buddhist culture, but meant “strongmen” in Chinese culture. They arrived in Hanoi and got all theinformation they needed about Wang, and where he lived. They werewaiting for the final order from Chiang Kai-shek. Chiang stillharbored a hope that Wang would turn back to the national government.He sent an emissary to Hanoi to have a talk with Wang, but Wangrefused the request to go back. Wang and his wife knew that they werenow in danger of being killed.
    On the 19th of March, ChiangKai-shek gave the final order to rid of Wang. So the 18 Arhans gotready for action. At 9 o’clock on the 20th day, when theagents had a meeting to arrange for the action, they heard that Wangand his men were getting ready to leave the house. So the agents cameto chase them, riding in two cars. When Wang and his men found thatthey were being followed, they succeeded in shaking the agents off inthe heavy traffic at an intersection.
    At 4 o’clock the next day, Wang’snew location was disclosed. So six agents went there. They had to actfast because they were in a foreign country. Vietnam at that time wasunder French rule. Wang’s guards could not carry guns. But theagents secretly had guns carried in. So when the agents attacked, theguards were defenseless. One agent went to the room where Want wassupposed to be. The agent used an ax to make a hole in the door andsaw a man and a woman inside. He shot at the man three times. Hewitnessed the bullets hit home and left as fast as he could. Three ofthe agents escaped and three of them were arrested by the police inHanoi. Afterwards, while they were happy thinking that they hadfinished off Wang, information arrived that Wang was still alive.Only one of his followers was killed. Some of the agents left andsome remained behind for further action. But they never killed Wang.

  7. #77
    Theestablishment of the puppet government in Nanking

    On March 27, Wang published an articlerevealing the minutes of a national government meeting where theconditions of peace proposed by Japan were discussed. And ChiangKai-shek basically agreed to the conditions. Wang wanted to show toChinese people and the world that Chiang Kai-shek was the first tonegotiate with Japan, not he. But he did not know the differencethere. Chiang Kai-shek only wanted to negotiate with Japan for atruce while Wang himself was ready to surrender to Japan.
    On March 22, the Japanese generalconsulate reported to the Japanese government about the assassinationattempt on Wang. On March 25, Wang and his men went on board a Frenchship under the protection of Japan and then were transferred to aJapanese ship. He arrived in Shanghai on the 6th of May.Then Wang went to Tokyo to have a talk with the prime minister aboutthe establishment of a central puppet government in China. On the30th of March, 1940, the puppet government was founded inNanking, with Wang at its head.
    Japan called it the Nanking nationalgovernment, but Chiang Kai-shek refused to recognize it. But Germany,Italy, Hungary, Romania, Denmark, Spain, Croatia, Slovakia, andBulgaria recognized it. The puppet government imitated the nationalgovernment in organization and had its own puppet army, which wasthus called by people. But the puppet army took orders from theJapanese army, not directly from the Wang and his men. The puppetgovernment did everything under the supervision and command of Japan,just like the Manchurian puppet emperor in northeastern China.
    In March of 1944, Wang was very ill andwent to Japan for treatment. On the 10th of November, hedied in the hospital there. Then Chen Gongbo, one of the founders ofthe CPC, became the head of the puppet government. When Japansurrendered in 1945, Chen Gongbo and his wife flew to Japan but wereextradited to China on October 3. He and Chen Bijun, the wife ofWang, were put in prison in February of 1946 in Suzhou. On the 4thof June, Chen Gongbo was executed. Chen Bijun was sentenced to lifeand died in prison on the 17th of June, 1959. She pleadedfor herself, saying that she had wanted to save the nation in anindirect way. “Trying to save the nation in an indirect way” wasa common term of ridicule thereafter.
    As for Zhou Fohai, another foundingmember of the CPC, when he sensed that Japan would soon perish, hesecretly made contact with Chiang Kai-shek and the Nationalists.After the victory, Chiang Kai-shek appointed him ascommander-in-chief to maintain law and order in Nanking and Shanghaitill the national government army came. But on the September 30,1945, he was apprehended and sent to Chongqing, then brought back toNanking. On October 21, his case was tried in court, and on November7, he was sentenced to death. But in March of 1947, Chiang Kai-shekissued an order of amnesty for him, and the sentence was commuted tolife imprisonment. He died of heart disease in the jail on February28, 1948.

  8. #78
    Therectification campaign of the Communist Party in YanAn

    Besides the 8th Route Army,the new 4th army was also under the control of theCommunist Party. The new 4th army had their position inthe southern Anhui province. So the Communist Party had two armies oftheir own, one in the northwest and the other in the southeast. Maoalways hated Chiang Kai-shek and had once planned to attack ChiangKai-shek from behind with 150,000 men. But the plan was aborted whenthe Communist International objected to it. In 1941, an incidentflared up between the new 4th army and the 32ndmilitary bloc of the national government.
    On the night January 4, 1941, 9,000 ofthe new 4th army under the command of Xiang Yin maneuveredfrom the southern Anhui province to the north side of the YangtzeRiver through the southern Jiangsu province, without notifying thenational government. The National 32nd bloc thought thatthe new 4th army was trying to attack their 40thdivision, and on January 6, they surrounded it and assailed it.Several times, Xiang Yin telegrammed YanAn, but Mao never answered orgave any instruction what to do. On January 10, the new 4tharmy telegrammed Mao again. On January 12, Mao asked Zhou Enlai toprotest to the national government and request the withdrawal oftheir army. So the next day, Zhou protested to the nationalgovernment. The fight had already been going on for seven days. Ofthe 9,000 soldiers in the new 4th army, only 2,000escaped.
    After the incident, Mao decided thatthe Communist Party of China should not follow the guidance of theCommunist International any more. They should make decisions on theirown. Therefore, the Communist Party launched a rectificationcampaign, which is considered to have begun in May 1941 when Mao madea speech, “Reform Our Studies.” In June, the propagandadepartment of the Central Committee of the Communist Party issued adocument, “Instruction concerning how to wage the campaign ofstudies and rectification within the whole party.” But the campaignactually started in February, 1942, when Mao made another speech,“Rectify Our Style of Work,” and it ended when a bill was passedin a session of the Central Committee of the Communist Party, “Theresolution of some historical problems,” in April 1945.

  9. #79
    However, what really happened in therectification campaign was that everyone had to make some kind ofconfession about their inner thoughts to show loyalty to the party.Many people who had come to YanAn from the regions under the nationalgovernment were suspected of being spies of the National Party. Manyof those were forced to confess that they were indeed spies sent bythe National Party. If they wanted to be punished less severely, theyhad to expose others who were also spies. Mao hinted that to achievethis purpose, some harsh measures would be necessary. The most commonmethod was not to let the one being cross-examined get any sleep. Itwas called fatigue-torture. In American it’s called sleepdeprivation. Another method was to let those suspects watch someonebeing shot; just a little psychological pressure.
    In April 1943 alone, several thousandpeople were put under custody. Some were locked up in caves. Somewere just confined to their work places—“equivalent prisons,”they called them. There were not enough jailers to watch over theprisoners, so their colleagues assumed the task. This was a cleverinvention of Mao. To show their loyalty to the party, the colleagueshad to do their duties faithfully and keep watch over the prisoners.No one could escape their vigilance. About a thousand people died.Some committed suicide. To them this was not a political movement,but terrorism. Many people who had come to YanAn in hopes of fightingJapan died at the hands of their own comrades.
    On August 15, 1943, Mao said that insuch campaigns, some errors were unavoidable (like a bit of torture).The errors should not be corrected too early, or there would be notargets and that would hinder the development of the campaign. If theerrors were corrected too late, people would be very upset and itwould cause too much loss. So the principle was to watch the campaignclosely, calculating accurately, and stop it at the right time.
    As it became more apparent that Japanwas likely to lose the war, Mao liberated those prisoners who luckilyhad survived and who, in Mao’s calculation, could be sent to fightChiang Kai-shek after the victory. To assuage their enmity, Maoapologized several times, saying that the aim of the rectificationcampaign was to let them have a political bath to wash off the dustthey carried from the regions under Chiang’s government, but toomuch potassium permanganate (which can cause caustic burns) was used,which had hurt the tender skin of the new comers. He added that if ason was beaten by the father, he should not hate his father.

  10. #80
    Chapter4. The Second Civil War Between The National Party and the CommunistParty

    Conflicts Between The Two Parties to Take Over AreasOccupied By Japan

    After Japan surrendered, there arose aproblem as to who would take over the areas that had been occupied bythe Japanese army. The National Party thought that they were thelegal government and had the right to these areas. Afraid that theCommunist Party would take those areas when the Japanese armywithdrew, the national government ordered the Japanese army to remainin the areas they occupied till the army of the national governmentcame to take them. However, the Communist Party declared that theyhad the right to these areas. So regardless of any orders from thenational government, they marched to some of the areas controlled byJapan and took over by force.
    Now, most of the national governmentarmy was in the southwestern provinces and part of it was stationedto south of the Yangtze River. Almost no national Army forces were inthe areas north of the Yangtze river. And the army of the CommunistParty spread widely in the countryside north of the River and in thenortheastern provinces. But when the Communist Army commanded theJapanese army to surrender to them, the Japanese army refused as theyhad received orders not to surrender to the Communist Army.Therefore, the Communist Army had to fight the Japanese army and thepuppet army to occupy towns possessed by the Japanese army.
    Even before Japan surrendered, thenational government and the Soviet Union signed a treaty stipulatingthat the national government recognized the independence of OuterMongolia (as the Chinese called it), and the special rights of theSoviet Union in northeastern China, in exchange for the SovietUnion’s promise not to support the Communist Army in occupying thenortheastern provinces. From then on, Outer Mongolia became theMongolian Republic and Inner Mongolia still belonged to China.


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