Two Republics in China - Page 7


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Thread: Two Republics in China

  1. #61
    Thebattles in Nanning City

    On the 1st of September,1939, Germany invaded Poland. World War II broke out in Europe. Japanthought that it would be best to speed up the process of conqueringChina. Considering that China got all its supplies from internationalsupport through its southwestern border, Japan understood it had tocut off this supply line and China would soon surrender. Japan sentarmy and navy forces to occupy Nanning City in Guangxi province andtook control of the railroads there. And the Chinese defensive forceswere not so strong there as around Changsha.
    On the 9th of November,1939, the Japanese attackers gathered at Shanya Bay, ready foraction. On the 13th, a Japanese fleet started out fromShanya Bay and arrived at Beihai on the 14th. As theChinese army there was not ready to fight, Beihai soon fell to Japan.On November 17, the Japanese army took Qinzhou and continued north.Guided by bandits through the mountains in that area, the Japanesearmy accelerated its advance. On November 22, they reached the southbank of the Yong River in the vicinity of Nanning City. But at thetime, Chinese armies had already arrived in the city and itsoutskirts.
    On November 23, the Japanese armycrossed the Yong River with air cover. At dawn on November 24, theattack on the city began. The Japanese army saw strong resistance,but took the city at last in the afternoon. The Chinese armyretreated to Gaofeng Pass. On November 26, the Japanese army attackedthe pass, and they captured it by December 1. Three days later theyhad Kunlun Pass as well. Then, both sides held their respectivepositions for a while. No fighting went on.
    On December 7, the Chinese army beganto attack the invaders. On December 16, the Chinese army surroundedKunlun Pass. The newly organized Chinese 22nd divisionwent round the pass from its right side to block Japanesereinforcements from Nanning. Two regiments went round from its leftside to block the Japanese army’s escape route. At daybreak onDecember 18, the Chinese army commenced the assault and took KunlunPass. At the noon the next day, the Japanese army came back and tookthe Pass again. It changed hands several times. On December 18th,the Chinese 170th division attacked the Gaofeng Passdefended by the Japanese army and took a hilltop nearby, but thatsame night, the Japanese army gave a surprise attack and occupied thehilltop again. On December 20, the Japanese army at Kunlun Pass couldnot hold out anymore. And the reinforcements were blocked. In theafternoon of December 26, both Japanese forces escaped and safelyarrived in Nanning.
    At night on December 28, the Chinesearmy attacked Jieshou Highland, the gate to the Kunlun Pass. Thefollowing morning, the Chinese army took the highlands, and on the30th of December, the Chinese army took Kunlun Pass. OnDecember 31, they wiped out all enemies in the area of Kunlun Pass.If the Chinese army could have advanced in the pursuit of theirenemies at the time, the situation might have been different.

  2. #62
    On January 1, 1940, Japan sentreinforcements, and the warfare continued. On the 7th,Chiang Kai-shek flew to Huilin City and on January 10, went to theheadquarters at Qian River to hold a meeting with all the frontiercommanders. At that time, Japan had not gathered all the forces itneeded. So at the request of some of the commanders, Chiang decidedto launch an attack, but next day, when he returned to Liuzhou, hechanged his mind and missed the chance to annihilate the remainingfoe in that area, which proved that Chiang was not a good militaryleader.
    On January 14, 3,000 Japanese soldierslanded in Qinzhou, and two days later, they began to assail theChinese army. On the 27th, the Japanese army resumed theirassault. The Chinese commanders did not have enough information aboutthe maneuvers of the Japanese army and made a terrible mistake. Theydid not have enough time to make proper arrangements.
    On February 1, the Japanese army madetheir all-out attack. But Chiang changed the commander-in-chief atthe front, which really runs counter to the fundamental rules of theart of war. In the afternoon on February 2, the Japanese army enteredBinyang Town. On February 3, they took Kunlun Pass and other spots.The Battles for Nanning City ended in failure for the Chinese.
    It was actually Chiang Kai-shek’sfault, as he often changed orders, confusing his subordinates. ChiangKai-shek was not really a good commander himself, though he hadgraduated from a famous military academy in Japan. He should havebeen able to beat Mao, who had no such advantage but only learned histactics from Chinese history books. This leads to the inevitableconclusion that Mao was more intelligent than Chiang Kai-shek. EveryChinese person knows that Chiang Kai-shek’s rulership was bad, butmany found that the rule of the Communist Party under Mao was worse.Part of this is due to personal characteristics of the leaders, partof it is due to the fact that under Mao China remained on amore-or-less war footing under constant menace from the West, andsome of it depends on the position of the people talking. Obviously,when the Communists started expropriating private property, those whohad something to lose were never going to forgive them. Somehistorians said that if Chiang could have beaten Mao, the Chinesepeople wouldn’t have suffered so much during all the cruelpolitical movements under Mao, some of which were quite poorlythought-out and highly destructive. Even so, no one can claim thatthe regime in Taiwan, after Chiang Kai-shek’s eventual defeat, waseither democratic or open.

  3. #63
    Thebattles of 100 regiments of the Communist Party

    In the Anti-Japanese War, most battleswere waged between the Japanese army and the army of the nationalgovernment. The Communist Party, though having their own army, didtheir best to shun any major fights with Japan so that they wouldstill have enough forces to fight Chiang Kai-shek after theAnti-Japanese War; this way, they could seize power and rule China.
    That was why Mao Zedong thanked thefirst Japanese delegation when they came to China for saving theCommunist Party, and himself too, from the destruction Chiang mighthave inflicted on them, if Japan hadn’t invaded China. Maograciously gave up the right to war indemnities from Japan,regardless of the demands of the Chinese people for some compensationfor their extraordinary losses.
    Anyway, at that time, Japan also wantedto occupy the territory the Communist Party possessed. So warfare didbreak out at last between the Japanese army and the army of theCommunist Party, from the 20th of August to the 10thof September, 1940, in the first stage. The Japanese army was 300,000strong, while the Communist Party had gathered 105 regiments. Theycalled this the “100 regiments battles.” Their commander-in-chiefwas Peng Dehuai. At that time, the Red Army changed their name to the8th Route army, included in the military system of thenational government. Their aim was to damage the railroads so thatthe Japanese army could not get supplies by train. They attackedZhengtai railway, Tongpu railway, Pinghan railway, and Jinpu railway,especially Zhengtai railway, the main route for the traffic of theJapanese army. Japan in the northern China didn’t have so manysoldiers to guard every inch of the rails and as a result, all thefour railways did not function any more after the attacks.

  4. #64
    From the 22nd of Septemberto the 10th of October, for the second stage, the 8thRoute Army attacked some important strategic spots controlled byJapan. At 8:00PM that day, the 8th Route Army began toattack the Lailing area and took some Japanese front fortresses roundLaiyuan Town, but they could not break through the defense of thetown itself because they did not have effective weapons for that kindof attack. On September 23, they stopped besieging the town andchanged their stratagem to first seize the defensive spots outsidethe town.
    On September 25, they turned to attackthe stronghold at Dongyuan. The Japanese army inside gave a robustresistance, even using poison gas. However, they were forced towithdraw to the central redout, which the 8th Route Armythen surrounded. As the Japanese soldiers knew that they could neverescape, they committed suicide by self immolating.
    On September 28, 3,000 Japanesesoldiers came as reinforcements. That changed the situation and itwas no longer possible to attack the town and so the Chinese forceswithdrew. On October 1, the Japanese army took back most of theplaces that the 8th Route Army had occupied. On October 7,the Japanese army at Lingqiu got some intelligence indicating thatthe 8th Route Army was planning to attack their position,and so the Japanese just headed out to meet the right wing detachmentof the 8th Route Army and give them a trouncing. From thenight of October 8to dawn, the left wing detachment ofthe 8th Route Army took their chances now that theJapanese army had left their position; they took it over as well asother positions in the vicinity. But on October 10, the 8thRoute Army learned that the Japanese army had gathered together andwould clean out the area where the 8th Route Army was inplace, so they withdrew from the combat. Thus ended another 18 daysof warfare.
    In this period, the 8thRoute Army had suffered heavy casualties, more than the Japanese armyhad lost. After the combat, Mao Zedong criticized Peng Dehuai forlosing so many soldiers. Mao’s intention was to keep his losses aslow as possible so that he could fight Chiang Kai-shek after theAnti-Japanese War.
    But during the Japanese army’sclean-up operation, the 8th Route Army always retreated toelude any fight with the Japanese army. They called this the mobilewarfare strategy. So the Japanese army just vented theirdisappointment and wrath on the common Chinese people who hadsupported the 8th Route Army. Records show that on the25th of January, 1941, when the Japanese army ran aclean-up operation without finding any 8th Route Armysoldiers in the northern Hebei province, they just encircled avillage called Panjiayu in the area of Fengrun Town and slaughtered1,237 villagers and burned 1,000 houses there. The 8thRoute Army had already escaped, deserting the villagers.

  5. #65
    Thecampaigns in northern Burma and western Yunnan province

    In 1942, a detachment of the Chinesenational government army went to Burma through Yunnan province tohelp fight the Japanese army, who had entered Burma through Thailandon the 4th of January, 1942, and occupied Rangoon (Yongon)on the 8th of March. Japan’s goal was first to cut offthe supply line to China from western countries, and second to enterIndia in the future. The British army was in Burma at that time andfought the Japanese army. The Chinese detachment went to Burma toassist the British army and secure the supply lines.
    The Chinese detachment went into Burmain 1942, but at first was defeated by the Japanese army. A section ofit escaped to India and was trained there by US advisors, and theother section returned to the western Yunnan province. Both sectionswould attack the Japanese army in Burma when they were ready.
    On October 24, 1943, the 112thregiment of the new 38th division began to attack theJapanese army and on October 29, took Shinbwinyang and enteredHukawng Valley. When the Japanese army there found the regiment, theysurrounded it. In resistance, the regiment lived on Japanese bananasand on food delivered by air drops. The Japanese army could not breakthrough their defense. On November 24, the new 38thdivision came to assist and on November 29, they took the position ofthe Japanese army, who lost round 1,000 soldiers.
    The campaign continued in January 1944,when the Japanese army receded into the valley and made theirdefensive line at Dalou and Tabajia. The Chinese new 38thdivision came to attack Tabajia, and the new 22nd divisioncame to attack Dalou. At dawn on January 28, the American air forcecame to bombard the Japanese position at Dalou and the tanks of thenew 22nd division ran through the Japanese defensive line.The new 22nd division took all the fortresses outsideDalou. On January 31,, Chinese tanks entered Dalou andcrushed the Japanese headquarters. On that day, the new 38thdivision attacked Tabajia. The American air force raided the Japanesearmy there, who had to retreat. On the 1st of February,the new 38th division occupied Tabajia.
    The Japanese army retreated to Mengguanand Walupan, 8 miles apart. They wanted to induce the Chinese army toattack Walupan so that another section of their army could attackfrom the back. The new 22nd division assaulted Mengguanwith artillery and tanks. The new 38th division stationedat the left rear to protect its back. The Japanese section came toattack the new 22th division from behind, but was blockedby the new 38th division. As the new 22nddivision attacked for a week and could not secure the place, the new38th division sent its 113th regiment to attackWalupan to distract the attention of the Japanese army. On March 1,the American 5307 corps reached them and launched their onslaught. Sothe 22nd division broke through the Japanese defensiveline. On the 4th of March, the new 22nddivision took Mengguan. Now the Japanese army was surrounded in thenarrow strip of Walupan. At noon of the 8th of March, theChinese army and the American corps jointly attacked Walupan and tookit on the 9th of March. Thus ended the campaign in thisarea.

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