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Thread: Two Republics in China

  1. #51
    You can find this same thread at The Literature Network website forums. Same person?

  2. #52
    Thebattles in Shanxi province

    The Japanese army from north marchedtoward Pingxing Pass in Shanxi province on the 24th ofSeptember, 1937, but the Chinese army was lying in wait for them. AJapanese regiment entered the ambush zone and was annihilated. OnSeptember 29, the Japanese army broke through the Chinese army’sdefensive line at Ruyuekou and attacked the rear of Chinese army atPingxing Pass. The Chinese army had to beat a retreat to TaiyuanCity, capital of Shanxi province. Qikou was an important strategicplace, the gate to Taiyuan. On October 14, the Japanese army used avise ruse to attack Qikou from two wings, but met with strongresistance. There were heavy casualties on both sides. On October 21,the Japanese army sent a division to attack Niangzi Pass with theintention of going in as an indirect route to take Taiyuan from thenorth side. On October 26, a Japanese division sent a detachment togo round to the back of the Chinese army defending Niangzi Pass. TheChinese army in the Pass had to withdraw. The Japanese army tookNiangzi Pass and chased the retreating Chinese to Yangquan. Then theJapanese army occupied Yangquan and marched toward Shouyang, closerto Taiyuan, on the 2nd of November.
    Another Japanese military bloc took adifferent route and took Xiyang on its way to Taiyuan on November 2.The two Japanese blocs converged on Taiyuan. On November 3, theJapanese 5th bloc reached the northern edges of Taiyuan.On November 5, the Japanese broke through the Chinese defensive lineand approached the city wall on November 6. In the meantime, theJapanese 20th military bloc penetrated the Chinesedefensive line in the southern perimeter. On November 7, the Japanesearmy surrounded Taiyuan and on the 8th they began anonslaught on the city; at night they entered the city from thenorthern side. The Chinese army had to escape and then the Japanesearmy took the whole city.
    In February of 1938, the Japanese 108thmilitary bloc took Dongyang Pass and then another two towns. In earlyMarch, more towns were taken. By then all the important cities andtowns in Shanxi province had fallen into the hands of Japan. Out of105 cities and towns in Shanxi province, 102 of them were occupied byJapanese army.

  3. #53
    Theslaughter in Nanking

    By October 1937, Nanking, the capitalof the national government, was exposed to the attack of Japanesearmy. Therefore, Chiang Kai-shek decided to set up a temporarycapital in Chongqing City in Sichuan province in southwestern China,at a safe distance from the Japanese army.
    At first some generals persisted indefending Nanking at any cost. So the national government gathered100,000 soldiers for that purpose. No matter, as Japanese armyapproached Nanking, the government at last had to declare that thegovernment was moving to Chongqing City on the 20th ofNovember. Government offices, universities and schools moved inland,one after another. Even residents of the city escaped from Nanking.In June, there were 1,015,000 residents in the city, but in December,only 468,000 or 568,000 remained. On the 20th of December,for humanitarian reasons, over 20 Westerners were still thereorganizing the international committee of the Nanjing safety zone totake in and protect refugees.
    The Chinese national governmentrecognized their efforts and supplied them with cash, food and policeprotection. Japan was far from pleased, but declared that if therewere no Chinese soldiers hiding there, they would not attack it. Butafter they took the city, their soldiers forced entry into the zone,stealing private belongings, raping women and arresting and killingyoung men. Several times the international committee made protests tothe Japanese embassy and Japanese army authorities, but in vain.During this slaughter, the committee protected 250,000 refugees. Onthe 18th of February, 1938, the organization was renamedthe Nanking international rescue committee, acting only in a rescuerole. By June, it was closed entirely.
    On the 7th of November,Tokyo gave orders to limit the action of the Japanese army to theeast of Suzhou and Jiaxing region. But the army ignored the order andpursued the retreating Chinese army, intending to occupy Nanking.They advanced quickly as no Chinese army fought them on the way.Seeing this, Tokyo issued orders to take Nanking on December 1.
    The Japanese army marched so fast thattheir supply units were left far behind. When they were approachingNanking, food was scarce. The soldiers pillaged the Chinese villagesfor anything edible and wantonly violated women. To cover theircrimes, they even slew all the people in the village and burnedeverything. As they came to Nanking, at least 30,000 Chinese peoplewere killed along the way. It was a rehearsal for the slaughter inNanking.
    On December 8, the Japanese army tookall the defensive sites outside Nanking. The worst battle took placeat Yuhua Terrace outside the city. Two Chinese brigades were guardingthe place. From December 9–11, the Japanese army kept on sendingreinforcements for the attack, aided by their artillery and airraids, until every Chinese soldier was killed. When the Japanesetroops reached the terrace, no one was alive. Then the Japanese armycleared all the defensive lines outside the city, and the Chinesearmy in the city had to retreat. On December 13, the Japanese armyentered the city. Some Chinese soldiers who did not have time toescape stripped off their uniforms and disguised themselves ascivilians. Some ten thousand Chinese were taken captive. They wereall killed on instructions from the Japanese army authorities. Theyalso searched for other Chinese soldiers in disguise. Anyone theysuspected was killed. Many of them were really unarmed civilians.They even murdered old people and children. They killed all the womenthey had raped.
    On December 13, 1937, a Japanesenewspaper, Tokyo nichi nichi (mainichi shimbun), reported that twoJapanese officers, Mukai Ming and Noda Takeshi, had a competition tosee who could kill more Chinese people. Encouraged by theirsuperiors, they declared that whoever was first to kill 100 Chinesepeople was a hero. They practiced this slaying from Gourong toTangshan, and Mukai Ming killed 89 while Noda Takeshi killed 78.Certainly, we can all agree they were not heroes. However, thecompetition continued. When they met at Mt. Zinjin, both had dentedthe blades of their swords. Noda Takeshi said that he had killed 105and Mukai Ming said that he had killed 106. However, there was nowitness. So they started the competition anew, aiming at 150. Thenewspaper ran pictures with captions. Both these brave men wereexecuted in Nanking for their crimes after the surrender of Japan.
    Statistics showthat during the two months the Japanese occupied Nanking, about80,000 women were raped, some of them pregnant, from girls as youngas 12 to women as old as 65. Many died after the violence. They rapedwomen right in front of their families. Many people were buriedalive. The victims were forced by the Japanese soldiers to dig theirown pits. During the six weeks of the occupation, 23.8% of structuresinside and outside the city were destroyed by fire, 63% had beenplundered and 88.5% were structurally damaged. They used militarytrucks to carry away their loot. By some estimates, 26,584 antiquecurios or artifacts were missing, such as bronze wares from the ShangDynasty (1765–1122 BC), along with 7,720 paintings and 45,979valuable books. Some 109,000 casualties were found and buried. TheNanking branch of the World Red Swastika Society gave out statisticsin 1945 claiming that from December 22, 1937 to October 30, 1938,they found and buried 43,123 bodies—1,793 inside the city and41,330 outside the city, including 75 women and 20 children. Thosestatistics were from just one organization. The victims totaled300,000 in all.

  4. #54
    Thebattles in Shandong province

    Now the Japanese army occupied thenorth of China and also Shanghai and the Nanking area. What morecould they want? Well, the Shandong province, which is between thenorthern provinces and the southern area. Shandong province was thenstill under the control of the Chinese army. Xuzhou City was a placeof strategic importance. So battles were waged in its vicinity andexpanding into adjoining provinces. If the Japanese army occupiedXuzhou, they could go west along the Longhai railway to attackZhengzhou in Henan province and then go south along the Pinghanrailway to attack Wuhan in Hubei province. So the Japanese army camedown from the north and came up from the south.
    At the beginning of the Anti-JapaneseWar in 1937, Han Fuju, the chairman of the government of Shandongprovince, was ordered to take charge of the defensive line along theYellow River and prevent the Japanese army from crossing the river.But when the Japanese army rushed down upon him from the north, hefled as if to open the gate and invite the enemy in. The Japanesearmy easily crossed the river. In early March 1938, they occupiedJiNan, the capital of Shandong province.
    On the 26th of January,1938, the 13th division of the Japanese army marched fromthe south towards Fengyang and Bangbu in Anhui province. The Chinesearmy stationed there, after efforts at resistance, fell back towardsthe west. On the 3rd of February, the Japanese divisiontook Linhuai Pass and Bangbu. On February 9–10, the 13thdivision crossed the Huai River to the north. The 51stChinese army stationed itself on the north bank and fought theJapanese army.
    Between March 1–17, the Japanese armyattacked Teng Town in the southern Shandong province. On March 14,the battle reached its climax. The Japanese army used 30 cannons. OnMarch 17, Teng Town was lost.
    Meanwhile in late February, theJapanese 5th military bloc came down to the south, aftertaking over a few towns, and approached Linqi Town where the 40tharmy of the national government held the defense. Then the 59thChinese army came for reinforcement. From February 14to18, the 59th Chinese army attacked the Japanese bloc fromthe rear and one wing. The Japanese had to retreat this time, leavingbehind heavy casualties.
    On March 20 a Japanese brigade, aftertaking a few towns, approached TaiEr village area, which was thefront defensive line to Xuzhou. The brigade attacked alone withoutwaiting for the 5th division and another brigade of theirarmy; they were supposed to break through the defensive lines on theleft wing and on the right wing. From March 24, the Japanese armyassailed fiercely. The 2nd Chinese military bloc held theline. Then the 20th Chinese bloc attacked the Japanesearmy from behind. The 59th Chinese army arrived in time tocontribute their endeavors. They surrounded the Japanese army. The10th Japanese corps was wiped out and the 5thJapanese corps was put to rout. It was the first and only time thatthe Chinese army defeated the Japanese army in the early period ofAnti-Japanese War.
    Anyway, Japan aimed at taking Xuzhou.On the 18th of April, two Japanese divisions attacked the20th, the 3rd and the 59th Chinesearmies. On the 5th of May, the main forces of the Japanesearmy divided into two detachments and went from west side of Xuzhouto the north and south sides of the city, intending to surround it.On May 14, the 14th Japanese division came from Puyang inHenan province, and crossing the Yellow River, occupied Heze. On May15, the Japanese army surrounded Xuzhou. So under the command ofChiang Kai-shek, the Chinese army in Xuzhou broke through the circleand escaped to the mountainous area in Henan and Anhui provinces.Xuzhou was at length taken by the Japanese army on May 19.
    Now the Japanese army marched westalong the Longhai railway and on the 6th of June occupiedKaifeng City in Henan province. To prevent the Japanese army from anyfurther advance, Chiang ordered his men to blow up the south dike ofthe Yellow River at Huayuankou on May 9, on the northeastern side ofZhengzhou in Henan province. The water from the river flooded southand the Japanese army had to flee eastward. Thus ended the battles inShandong province. Han Fuju was executed for running away from thebattlefield and allowing the Japanese to cross the Yellow Riverunopposed.

  5. #55
    Thebattles at Wuhan City area

    After taking Nanking, the Japanese armywanted to conquer China in three months with blitzkrieg attacks likeHitler did in Europe. They marched along the Yangtze River towardsWuhan, gathering large numbers of troops, amounting to 300,000strong. If they took Wuhan, half of China would be in theirpossession. But they neglected to consider that even so, they onlyoccupied the cities and towns in this half of China, not the wholearea. They had no manpower to control the countryside. As they pushedforward, they had to leave some of their troops to guard the citiesand towns they had captured. And so they could use less and lesstroops, and then there were those lost in battle. Poor strategy.
    The Chinese army totaled 1,100,000 indefense. The whole defensive line extended for 250 miles. Thefighting went on for four and a half months, the longest in terms oftime and the largest in scale of all the battles between Japan andChina. The Japanese casualties were 35,500 while those of the Chinesearmy were 256,000. After that, the Japanese did not have enoughforces in China to make the lightning attacks they preferred; nowthey had to change their strategy and concentrate on keeping a holdon what they had secured so far.
    On the night of the 11th ofJune, 1938, a Japanese brigade, under the cover of a rainy night,gave a surprise attack and took Anqin the following day. Anqin wasthe first defensive spot en route to Wuhan. Then they went west bywater, riding their warships. In late June, they arrived at Madang,where the Chinese army had built a strong defensive line. ChiangKai-shek hoped that this line could block their advance for at leastone month.
    At first, the Japanese army wanted toget through the line by water. On June 22, they approached Madang andfound that the water was full up mines, sunken ships, and artificialreefs so that their warships could not go through. They had toadvance by land and break through the line through the mountainousareas.

  6. #56
    Li Yunheng, the Chinese commander incharge of the defense in Madang, wished to show that he was a clevergeneral—without realizing how serious the situation was. Heorganized a training class for officers in charge of regiments,battalions, companies and platoons in his army for two weeks startingon June 10. And at 8 o’clock in the morning June 24, he thought hewould hold a ceremony marking the completion of the class. So on the23rd, all the officers went to the headquarters and stayedthere for the ceremony next morning. Someone in the training classwas spying for the Japanese and gave this information to the Japanesearmy. So they sent surprise squads to attack some of the fortressesalong the front. As there were no officers to direct the action ofthe soldiers, there was chaos and the squads took the fortresseseasily. But when the squads went on to attack Changshan, theyencountered strong resistance, because the officers there had refusedto attend the ceremony. The fight lasted for two days and the Chinesetroops were short of ammunition and telegrammed headquarters. The167th division was sent as reinforcement. But Xue Weiying,the commander of this division, was a coward and approached slowly toavoid being killed in the battle. At dawn on the 26th, theJapanese squads stole through a thick patch of reeds to attackanother frontier post. They used poisonous gas and killed all thedefensive soldiers there. Then the Japanese army cleared all mines inthe water by firing at them and got rid of other barriers. Theyshipped mariners to attack Changshan and broke through the defensiveline there. The Chinese defense had to withdraw out of Madang and theJapanese army occupied it. Madang was the ‘gate’ in the middle ofthe Yangtze River to Wuhan. Commander Li Yunheng was severelypunished and the division leader Xue Weiying was executed for neglectof his duties.
    After taking Madang, the Japanese armycontinued west. On the 29th of June, they took Pengze.Under orders from Wuhan headquarters, the 64th Chinesearmy came in hopes of taking back the town, but it was defeated andchased to Hukou, which was soon taken by the Japanese army on the 4thof July. The 64th Chinese army then went to Jiujiang,which was situated by the Poyang Lake. On July 22, the Japanese armyattacked the city. At dawn on July 23, the Japanese army stole intothe lake in the rain and set foot on the shore at noon. The Chinesedefensive army did not see them coming. They spotted the enemy andreported to headquarters only at 4 o’clock. By then, the Japanesearmy had surrounded the city. The Chinese army inside had to fightthrough the circle and escape. The city fell into the hands of theJapanese army on July 24.
    The next goal of the Japanese army wasTianjia Town. The hilly ground was easy to defend and hard to attack.The river was only 500 meters wide. The Chinese army set up a strongdefense here with artillery. On the 21st of August, theJapanese army attacked Matou Town, about 10 miles downstream fromTianjia Town, and took it after more than 20 days of struggle. On the26th, the Japanese army sailed in warships upstreamtowards the town. There were more barriers in the water, so theJapanese army advanced very slowly. On August 29, another Japanesedetachment went to attack Guangji. If they could take this town, theycould go on to attack Tainjia from behind. Tianjia Town was about 25miles northeast of Guangji Town. The attack began on August 30and lasted until September 6. Between Guangji Town and TianjiaTown there was only a narrow road between two small lakes. TheJapanese army followed that road on September 15. There were somedefensive outposts set along this road. Coming to a roadblock, theyused poisonous gas again. Some Chinese soldiers were injured and theChinese army had to retreat.

  7. #57
    The Japanese mariners went to Wuxue,some distance from Tianjia. Wuxue was defended only by a company ofChinese soldiers. In the evening of September 15, the mariners beganthe offensive. The defensive soldiers fought the invaders alley byalley till only a few soldiers left, and they slipped away. Butbefore they left, they destroyed the dike at the river bank and thewater flooded Wuxue area, which hindered the advance of the mariners.
    A Japanese brigade that was surroundedby the Chinese army was running short of rations and ammunition. AJapanese commander learned about this and called for an air lift tore-supply them. So Japanese airplanes dropped the necessities andammunition to the brigade. But as the fighting continued, theirammunition was soon used up. The Japanese soldiers were reduced tothrowing stones at the Chinese attackers and sometimes threw back thegrenades the Chinese soldiers cast at them. The Chinese army figuredout that the enemy was in a tight spot and marched forth in adownpour of rain to wipe them out. However, more Japanese troops cameto the rescue and assailed the Chinese army from behind, so they hadto withdraw. Few men in the Japanese brigade were left alive.
    On September23,some of the wounded Japanese soldiers were shipped away, but thefirst field hospital was still full. Because of the lack of helpinghands, those who were lightly wounded and who could still walk, wentto the field hospital by themselves. Sometimes they had to crawl inthe rain and in the mud. By the time they reached the hospital, theywere almost dying. Some died on the way owing to the loss of blood.The hospital had little food to spare and could only give them whatthey had. War is cruel to all participants.
    After the sunset on the 26th,the 4th Japanese battalion attacked Xinwo. Their soldiersall put on gas masks and cleared out the Chinese company there,except about ten of them who had already escaped. The Japanesesoldiers then went in and used bayonets to kill any Chinese soldiersthat had not died yet.
    The 4th battalion wenttowards Lujia Mountain without leaving any soldiers to guard Xinwo.It was dark and the mountain contours were complicated. The 4thbattalion lost its way in the mountains. The 339th Chineseregiment was taking shelter on this mountain. But after a fewbattles, only one battalion was left. As Xinwo was lost, the regimentcommander chose some hundred soldiers to form an expendable squad tomake one last try at Xinwo. When they reached there, they found noJapanese soldiers guarding the place. But by coincidence the 2ndJapanese battalion came into their firing zone. The Japanese troopsthought that their 4th battalion had already wiped out bythe Chinese soldiers defending the city, but now they encountered theChinese squad by surprise. So 61 soldiers of the 2ndJapanese battalion were killed and 17 escaped. At daybreak, the 4thbattalion found that they were at the foot of Lujia Mountain and theyclimbed up to attack the Chinese soldiers on the top, who were justready for breakfast. When they detected Japanese soldiers creeping upthe mountainside, they disappeared.
    In the early morning of September28, the cannons from the warships on the river and from landpoured heavy fire upon Tianjia and all the defensive structures andweaponry were destroyed. It looked like a sea of flames. At the sametime, all the outer defensive spots were lost. The Chinese army inTianjia was ordered to withdraw. At 10 o’clock on September29,when the Japanese army entered the town, the Chinese defenders werenowhere to be seen.

  8. #58
    At the same time, the 106thJapanese military bloc had been marching south along Nanxun railroadto Nanchang. On the August 20, this bloc, aided by the 101thJapanese bloc, broke through the Chinese defensive line at Xingzi.But the Chinese army had a second defensive line. The two Japaneseblocs could not go further this time. In September 1938, a Japanesereconnaissance airplane found that there was a gap in the defensiveline after the fight had been going on for a month. So the 106thJapanese bloc was sent to go stealthily through that gap and comeupon the Chinese defensive army to attack them from behind. OnSeptember 25, the 106th bloc began to steal through thegap, but lost their way in the mountains. They were soon discoveredand surrounded by Chinese soldiers. On October 7, the Chinese armyattacked and the fight went on for three days. The bloc had noreinforcements and ran out of ammunition. On September 10, 3,000Japanese soldiers died. The rest escaped.
    On the August 27, the 2ndJapanese army attacked Dabie Mountain area and took LiuAn andHuoshan. They split into two detachments. The first went through theDabie Mountain area to approach Wuhan directly. The second detachmentwent to Lushan through a circuitous route to Wuhan. But Mt. Fujin wasright on their way to Wuhan. They had to occupy Mt. Fujin first. Asevere battle commenced. They failed to take the mountain bySeptember 6. On September 11, the 16th Japanese bloc camefor reinforcement. The Chinese defensive army in the mountains had towithdraw. As the Japanese army approached Wuhan, there was no moreChinese army seen. The Chinese army already retreated from Wuhan,leaving the city to the Japanese army.
    Although the Japanese army took controlof many cities and towns, they really did not annihilate the Chinesearmy, which still had enough strength to fight back when needed. Onthe contrary, the Japanese army suffered great losses and had no morestrength to wage battles on a large scale. As China is such a hugecountry, even with all the Japanese armies thrown into the territoryof China, they could not cover the whole area of the nation. Besides,when they took a city, they took on an additional burden. As theyacquired more and more burdens, they had less and less strength tofight. That has to be factored into any military strategy.

  9. #59
    TheJapanese army takes Canton in the south

    The top brass of the Japanese army hada meeting on September 7 and decided to overrun southern China asthey had already occupied the northern and middle China. Their finalgoal was to occupy the whole of China and then occupy all thecountries in East Asia to establish what they called Great East AsiaCoprosperity Sphere.
    However, historians question why theyattacked Pearl Harbor, since Hawaii was not in East Asia. Thisill-advised action, or ill-advised stratagem, made them pay heavilywhen America declared war against them. of course, even if theyhadn’t attacked Pearl Harbor, the United States would finally havejoined the war in East Asia after Germany was conquered, becauseJapan was one of the axis countries, just as the Soviet Union enterednortheastern China to fight the Japanese army.
    Anyway, Chiang Kai-shek misjudged thesituation, thinking that since Japan was still fighting in theYangtze River area, they could not go south to Canton. So hemaneuvered four divisions from the Canton area to support thosebattling in Wuhan. In other words, he weakened the defensive forcesin Canton. But Canton was a harbor city, an outlet to the sea, aplace of strategic importance.
    On October 12, 1938, the Japanese 18thand 104th blocs set out for Canton by sea and air from thePescadores Islands (located between the mainland and Taiwan, whichwas known at the time by the name Formosa, given by the Portuguese)with the aid of four aircraft carriers. They entered Daya Bay in theGuangdong province. The next day, they dropped bombs on Huiyang Townand after three days, they took it. On October 19, they suddenlyattacked Zengcheng and put the Chinese defenders to rout. On October21, the Chinese army withdrew from Canton and the Japanese army tookit. Another burden. On October 22, 110 Japanese airplanes and the 5thfleet pounced upon Humen, a very important strategic spot. Within tendays, they occupied Canton and Human.

  10. #60
    TheJapanese army attacks Changsha City three times

    Although the Japanese army occupiedNanking and Wuhan, two big, important cities, there were otherimportant cities in between that had not taken yet. Changsha was oneof them. On the 14th of September, 1939, they gathered100,000 soldiers and marched towards Changsha. But they had to fightthrough one Chinese defensive line after another.
    The 101th Japanese blocattacked GaoAn on September 18. On the 19th, the Chinesegave up the town after a severe fight and receded to Shiguling. Then,the Chinese 32nd army counterattacked in GaoAn onSeptember 21. On September 22, the Chinese army took back GaoAn. TheJapanese 106th bloc took Ganfang on September 24. The nextday, the Chinese counterattacked in Ganfang. On the 6th ofOctober, two Chinese blocs surrounded the Japanese army, who fledback to where they had come from. The Chinese army chased them andtook back a few towns that had been captured by the Japanese army. OnOctober 13, Chinese army stopped its pursuit. Thus ended theChanghsha battle for the first time, and the people there had amoment to recover.
    In early September of 1941, Japangathered 120,000 men, with artillery and air support, and marched onChanghai once more. On September 7, the Japanese 6th blocattacked Dayun Mountain as a decoy to screen the gathering of their3rd, 4th, and 40th blocs on theright bank of the Xinqiang River. The 4th Chinese armygave up the front line on the mountain. On September 10, the Chinese58th army came as reinforcements and took back themountain position. At the daybreak on September 18, the Japanese 3rd,6th, and 40th blocs crossed the Xinqiang Riverand the next day they reached the north bank of the Miluo River. TheChinese 37th and 99th armies were stationed onthe south bank of the river and they prevented the Japanese army fromcrossing. Meantime, the Chinese 20th, 58th ,and 4th armies went to attack the wing side of theJapanese army. But a telegram from headquarters to the armies at thefront was intercepted and deciphered by the Japanese, who changedtheir original plan and went to assail the Chinese army coming fromtheir wing side. On September 24, the Japanese army crossed the MiluoRiver. On the 26th, the Japanese 4th bloccrossed Laodao river and the next day crossed Liuyang River andapproached Changsha. On the afternoon of September 27, they enteredthe city from the southeast side and shortly occupied the whole city.
    But Chinese armies came from all sidesand surrounded the city. The Japanese supply lines were cut andprovisions inside the city ran short. On October 1, they had toescape north. So the Chinese army pursued them. On October 5, theycaught up with the runaways on the south side of the Miluo River andfought there. The Japanese army had to cross the river to the northside. On October 6, the Chinese army crossed the river, too, keepingup the chase, and they crossed the Xinqiang River on October 8. OnOctober 11, the Chinese army restored all the positions taken by thefoe. The second battle for Changsha was over.
    After the 7th of December,1941, when Japan made their semi-secret bombardment of Pearl Harbor,Japan was scheming to attack the Chinese army in Changsha area againlest they should go south to assist the Britain in the defense ofHong Kong.
    On December 23, the Japanese armycrossed the Xinqiang River once again to pounce upon the Chinese armyin Changsha, who put up a firm resistance. Other Chinese armiesaround the area came to surround the Japanese army, who gradually ranlow on ammunition and their supply line was cut off. On January 15,1942, the Japanese army had to break through the encirclement andescape. They lost 50,000 soldiers.
    The victory in these battles made adeep international impression just when the situation appearedunfavorable to the Allies in East Asia. On January 1, 1942,twenty-six nations held an assembly in Washington D.C., and made ajoint declaration. The United States, Great Britain, the SovietUnion, and China, the four greatest powers in the world, signed thedeclaration. And Xue Yue, the commander of the Chinese army in theChangsha defensive war, was conferred a Medal of Honor by Americangovernment.

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