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  1. #41
    Thirdly, though theywanted to establish a new military base in the vicinity of Zunyitown, the National Army continued to harass them. They had to escapeto the northern Sichuan province, where Zhang Guotao, in command ofthe 4th Redmilitary bloc, already set up a base. But that was far away, and theywould have to cross various streams. From January to May of 1935,they ran here and there to avoid being destroyed by the NationalArmy. They failed three times in crossing the Chishui Stream. Oncethey were forced to go back to Zunyi town. On the fourth try, theystole across the stream, then crossed Jinsha Stream and Dadu Stream.They met Zhang Guotao on the 16thof June. Then Mao suggested that they should march towards thenorthern Gansu province so that they might escape into the SovietUnion when necessary. But Zhang Guotao had three plans. The firstplan was that they should go to create a base in northern Sichuanprovince, southern Gansu province and Xikang province. The secondplan was that they should go to the northern Shaanxi province. Thethird plan was to go west into Xinjiang province.
    Fourthly, the two blocs(the central Red Army, renamed as the 1stred military bloc) went together north from the 12thof June to the 7thof July. Then as both Mao and Zhang were in disagreement as to thefuture plan, each went his own way. Zhang, after marching through thegrasslands, refused to keep going north but went back through thegrasslands again to Xikang province and wanted to establish his basethere. And Mao Zedong, together with Peng Dehuai, Lin Biao(1907–1971), and Ye Jianying (1897–1986), went to southwesternGansu province. In October 1935, Mao and his men, only about 3,000left, surmounted the Liupan Mountain and reached the northern part ofShaanxi province. To their surprise, Liu Zhidan was there with his7,000 men. So they settled there.
    As for Zhang Guotao, whohad started with 80,000 men, he wanted to found a new CentralCommittee of the Communist Party and to be the chairman himself. Butmost of his men had died through the Long March. He had no hope forhis personal ambitions. So he turned himself in to the NationalParty. The Communist Party called him a traitor.
    It happened like this: onApril 4, 1938, leaders of both the National Party and the CommunistParty were to go to worship at the mausoleum of Emperor Huang, alegendary hero recorded in Chinese history books, supposed to havelived five thousand years ago. Zhang went there as the chairman ofthe Communist Party and met Jiang Dingwen, a leader of the NationalParty. After the rites were concluded, Zhang told his attendants togo back first as he had something else to deal with. But he jumpedinto a car the National Party provided for him. And he was gone. Hewas no longer a member of the Communist Party. At the end of 1948, hearrived in Taiwan in poverty. He seemed to be a forgotten man. In thewinter of 1949, he went to Hong Kong with his wife and three sons. In1958, he went to Canada where his eldest son lived. In 1976 he had astroke and was paralyzed on the right side. He died on December 2,1979, at the age of 82.
    An interesting note fromrecent times: People doubted the actual distance the Red Armycovered. Therefore, on November 3, 2003, two young Englishmen startedon their way to retrace the route the Red Army had covered. Theyspent 384 days and covered 13,000 li, not 25,000 li.

  2. #42
    Themilitary coup d’état in XiAn City

    As Japan invadednortheastern China (details in Chapter 3), the Communist Party seizedthis opportunity to demand that the Communist Party and the NationalParty unify against Japan in January, 1936. And as Japan occupied thenortheastern China, Zhang Xueliang was driven out. Therefore, ChiangKai-shek ordered Zhang to besiege the Communist Party in northernShaanxi province on the 20thof September, 1935. But on the 1stof October, in the battle at Mt. Lao, the Red Army annihilated tworegiments of Zhang’s army. On the 29th,in another battle, the 107thdivision and the 619thregiment of Zhang’s army were wiped out, too. On the 22ndof November, his 109thdivision went alone towards Wuqi Town and camped on the way at ZhiluTown for the night. The division commander thought that the Red Armywas far away and could not attack him, and so he let down hisvigilance. However, the Red Army took a quick march all night longand surrounded the division. In the morning, the Red Army put thedivision to rout.
    After these defeats, ZhangXueliang made secret contact with the Communist Party seeking atruce. On the 9thof April, 1936, Zhang went to YanAn city to talk with Zhou Enlai, therepresentative of the Communist Party. Zhang Xueliang accepted theCommunist Party’s demand to unite against Japan. Zhang Xueliangeven put in a request to join the Communist Party. Nevertheless, hisrequest was not granted because his father, Zhang Zuolin, a warlordin the northeastern China, had killed some Communist Party members.Anyway, when Deng Xiaoping (1904–1997), an important leader of theCommunist Party, was dangerously ill, Zhang procured medication forhim and saved his life.
    Chiang Kai-shek heardabout the situation and was upset with Zhang Xueliang. But at thetime, an event happened in Canton, on the 1stof June, 1936, called the 6/1 event. Chen Jitang in Guangdongprovince and Li Zongren (1891–1969) in Guangxi province wanted tobe independent from the central national government, and on that daythey sent a telegram from Canton to the central government askingpermission to go north to fight Japan. But their real aim was tooverthrow the central government.

  3. #43
    Chiang Kai-shek sent hisarmy to conquer Chen in Guangdong province and simultaneously broughtover Chen’s subordinates. In July, the commander of Chen’s airforce betrayed him and turned over to Chiang Kai-shek by flying 70airplanes under his command to Nanking. Then the commander of his 1starmy declared his loyalty to Chiang Kai-shek. So on the 18thof July, Chen Jitang escaped to Hong Kong. Then Li Zongren in Guangxiprovince had to announce his obedience to the central government.
    On the 22ndof October, Chiang Kai-shek flew from Nanking to XiAn city to urgeZhang to continue the attack of the Red Army, but Zhang raisedobjections. They had a quarrel and Chiang went to Luoyang City. Onthe 29th day,Zhang went to Luoyang for the celebration of Chiang Kai-shek’sbirthday. He wanted to persuade Chiang to unite with the CommunistParty against Japan, but Chiang refused. On the 27thof November, Zhang asked to go and fight Japan, but was rejected byChiang. On the 2ndof December, Zhang flew to Luoyang to inform Chiang that his armymight riot and asked Chiang to go to XiAn to talk to his soldiers.This was really a trick to lure Chiang there for a certain purpose.Chiang Kai-shek, unwise as ever, agreed and flew to XiAn with Zhangon the 4th ofDecember. He lodged at Huaqing Pool on Lishan Mountain. Huaqing Poolwas a resort built around a bathing pool with hot spring water.Actually the bathing pool was also inside a room. It was built inTang Dynasty (AD 618–907) for the famous Yang, imperial concubineof Emperor Xuanzong (AD 685–762).
    On December 9, theCommunist Party organized a demonstration with crowds. A boy was saidto be injured by the police, which incited the wrath of the mob.Zhang went to see Chiang Kai-shek, who wanted Zhang to stop thedemonstration, but Zhang did not follow Chiang’s instruction. OnDecember 11, at night, Zhang summoned his generals and asked them tomake preparations for a military coup the next day. Accordingly, inthe morning of December 12, Zhang went to see Chiang Kai-shek withsoldiers and took him into custody.

  4. #44
    That evening, MailingSoong, Chiang Kai-shek’s wife, was told of the event andimmediately thought of Donald William Henry (1875–1946, died inShanghai), an Australian reporter, who was a friend of both Chiangand Zhang. Soong and Henry immediately took the train to Nanking. At8 o’clock in the morning on December 13, Soong sent Zhang atelegram and Henry did, too, saying that they would be flying to XiAnCity. On December 16, the national government ordered Zhang torelease Chiang at once, but Zhang declined. So the governmentgathered, intending to attack XiAn, and prepared to send bombers. TheCommunist Party suggested killing Chiang. But on the 17th,Stalin wrote to the Communist Party saying that he was opposed tokilling Chiang, who, in his opinion, would be a qualified leader inresisting Japan. He demanded that Chiang Kai-shek be released. So theCommunist Party agreed.
    When Soong and Henryarrived in XiAn, they went to see Chiang Kai-shek at once. Soongpersuaded Chiang to go along with the plan, saying that it would bebetter to act against Japan than to be killed by the Communist Party.As a player in the anti-Japan resistance, he would be a hero. Killedby the Communist Party, he would be nothing. So Chiang Kai-shekaccepted the agreement on the 24thday about the unity with the Communist Party to fight Japan, etc. Buthe did not sign on the agreement. Some of Zhang’s subordinates werenot satisfied. Zhang said that if Chiang wanted to go back from theagreement once he was released, he would do that even if he signedthe agreement. If Chiang kept his promise, what did it matter that hesigned it or not.
    Chiang Kai-shek was let goin the afternoon of December 25, and Zhang accompanied him back toNanking. He was kept in secret confinement till Chiang Kai-shek diedon April 5, 1975. Then he was restored to freedom and died on October15, 2001, in Hawaii. This event ended the war between the CommunistParty and the National Party and began the Sino–Japanese war allover China.

  5. #45
    Chapter3. The Japanese Invasion of China

    Events Leading Up to the Sino–Japanese War in 1937

    The 9/18 event

    The Japanese army had begun enteringChina even during the latter stages of the Qing Dynasty. Around thebeginning of the 20th century. Russia had built a railroadin northeastern China. In 1905, Russia and Japan had had a war there,on the territory of China, and Japan took control of the part of therailroad from Changchun City south, called the South ManchuriaRailway.
    A legend about the origin of theJapanese says that 2,000 years ago, when the first emperor of the QinDynasty was on the throne, his next ambition was to live eternally.He sent a man by name of Xu Fu to go east in ships together with 100boys and 100 girls. It was said that there were islands in theeastern seas on which dwelt immortals. The errand of Xu Fu was tofind these immortals and ask for an elixir. Once he got it, he was tobring it back to the emperor. Xu Fu reached the Japanese islands andlived there with boys and girls, never returning to China. Those weresaid to be the earliest inhabitants and the earliest ancestors of theJapanese.
    About 10:22PM on September 18, 1931,some Japanese soldiers laid gunpowder under the rails of the SouthManchuria railway for blew it up. This part of the line went by theLiutiao Lake, a bit north of Shenyang City. Then they left threeChinese corpses in the uniform of Chinese soldiers as evidence thatit was Chinese soldiers who had blown up the rails. On this excuse,the Japanese army attacked the Chinese army in Shenyang City. TheChinese army was ordered not to cause trouble with the Japanese army;so two of the three Chinese regiments guarding the city withdrew. Butthe third 620th regiment did not receive the order, and ofcourse, resisted the attack. The next afternoon, Japanesereinforcements came and the Japanese army entered the city. Theyencountered resistance and fought street by street till all theregiment fled the city. This was called the Liutiao Lake Incident (orMukden Incident, by foreigners), and was the beginning of the whole9/18 event. But this was not really counted as the beginning of theSino-Japanese War as the Chinese central government did not declarewar against Japan yet.
    On September 19, Japanese army attackedand conquered 18 towns along the South Manchuria Railway. Thedefensive Chinese army in Changchun City also counterattacked theJapanese army, but on the next day, the city fell into Japanesehands. On September 21, Xie, chief-of-staff of the headquarters ofthe Chinese army in Jilin province, changed sides and went over toJapan. So the Japanese army took Jilin. On October 1, Zhang Haipeng,guarding Tiaoliao Town, changed sides, and under instruction from theJapanese sent three regiments of his army to assault Qiqihar City,but on October 16,theywere defeated by theChinese defenders. By the 26th of October, the Japanesearmy had occupied the chief towns along the Sitiao Railroad. FromNovember 4 to 18, the Chinese army in Heilongjiang province foughtthe Japanese army. Then they had to retreat from Qiqihar afterleaving heavy casualties, and the next day, the Japanese army enteredit.
    At the start of the 9/18 event, ZhangXueliang, who was responsible for all the northeastern provinces,left Shenyang for Jinzhou. On the 8th of October, theJapanese army sent 12 bombers to raid Jinzhou. On the 15thof December, after occupying the important towns of Heilongjiangprovince, the Japanese army began to attack Jinzhou. On the 17th,reinforcement came directly from Japan. On December 28, the 2nddivision of the Japanese army crossed Liao River to attack Jinzhou.On January 3, 1932, the Japanese army took Jinzhou. On February 5,the Japanese army occupied Harbin City. These battles were still notwritten in Chinese history as the outbreak of Sino-Japanese War.
    The army in the northeastern provincesunder the command of Zhang Xueliang had 18 brigades of foot soldiers,five independent brigades of cavalry, and four regiments and abattalion of artillery, plus 262 airplanes and fleets. They couldhave fought off the Japanese invaders, but they simply abandoned thenortheastern provinces. A shameful strategy.

  6. #46
    The1/28 event

    After Japan occupied northeasternChina, it took aim at southeastern China.
    Shanghai was an ideal place for Japan.At 4 o’clock in the afternoon on January 18, 1932, five Japanesemonks were instructed by the traitor Kawashima Yoshiko, formerly theLast Princess of Manchuria and now a Japanese spy using a Japanesename, to throw stones at workers at a Chinese factory. This caused afight to break out. But some thugs were sent by the Japanese, andthey beat one of the five monks to death and severely injuredanother. Then 50 Japanese young men went to the factory at midnighton January 19 and burned the factory down and murdered threepolicemen.
    On January 20, around a thousandoverseas Japanese in Shanghai held a demonstration to demand theJapanese consulate and the Japanese Mariner headquarters take revengeon the Chinese. But on the way there, they began to riot and smashedChinese shops.
    On January 21, the Japanese generalconsul demanded the Mayor of Shanghai to apologize, punish themurderers, make compensation for the losses, and disband all theanti-Japanese organizations. Although the mayor accepted all of thesedemands, the consul further ordered that the Chinese army back awayfrom Zhabei district on the pretext that they posed a threat to theoverseas Japanese. He added that if Chinese army did not leave before6:00PM on January 28, they would attack. On January 24, more Japanesemariners came to Shanghai. At 11:30 at night on January 28, Japanesemariners attacked the Zhabei district in Shanghai, which was in thecontrol of the 19th army of the national government. The19th army fearlessly resisted the Japanese attack with thesupport of the people of Shanghai, which forced the Japanese toaccept the mediation of England and America for a truce. But onFebruary 3, the fight started anew. On the 23rd, a fiercebattle took place and 3,000 Japanese mariners and 2,000 Chinesesoldiers were killed. On February 24, two more divisions from Japanarrived in Shanghai as reinforcements. Only the 5th armyof the national government came to the aid. On March 3, with themediation of England and America, the Songhu armistice was signed.The Chinese army were to be stationed in the region from Shanghai toSuzhou City. But Japan could still have their army in Shanghai.
    One episode during all this took placeon April 29 when Japan held a military parade in Hongkou Park tocelebrate the birthday of the Japanese emperor, or “Sumera mikoto,”and their victory. A Korean hero, disguised as a Japanese man,entered the park with a grenade in the shape of a water flask. Whenthe Japanese were singing their anthem, he flung the grenade onto theplatform, where it exploded. The chairman of the committee for theJapanese in Shanghai died on the spot. The commander of the Japanesearmy in Shanghai for the event was severely injured and died in thehospital. A regiment commander and the Japanese envoy for China eachbroke a leg. And one eye of the commander of the 3rd fleetwas blinded. The Korean hero was caught and sentenced to death; hewas sent to Japan and executed at a Japanese army base. After WorldWar II, his remains were taken back to Korea and a monument waserected in his honor in Hongkou Park in Shanghai.

  7. #47
    Theestablishment of Manchukuo

    Afraid of international interference,Japan desired to establish a puppet government in northeastern China,and they thought of the abdicated emperor Henry. He was 18 years oldwhen he was driven out of the Forbidden City on November 5, 1924; heescaped to the Japanese embassy and traveled to Tianjin City, andlived under the protection of Japan ever since. So he was their firstchoice for the puppet government.
    Therefore,Henry was escorted from Tianjin City on the 10th ofNovember, 1931, to Changchun City, where Manchukuo (meaning the stateof Manchuria) was established on March 1, 1932, with Changchun as itscapital and Henry as the head of Manchukuo.

    On the 15th of September,1932, the Japan–Manchukuo Protocol was signed, in which Manchukuoasked that Japan station its army on its territory. On September 23,1932, the Soviet Union consented to allow Manchukuo to set upconsulates in Moscow and New Siberia. But the League of Nationsreproved Japan for this and disavowed Manchukuo as an illegal entity.On February 24, 1933, the League of Nations declared that Manchuriabelonged to the Republic of China, as the establishment of Manchukuohad not been decided by popular vote but by the government of Japan.The League of Nations adopted the “Stimson Doctrine” specifyingthat new states created by force of arms would not gain internationalrecognition. Japan protested and withdrew from the League. Of course,the national government in Nanking also refused to recognize it.
    On March 1, 1934, the designationManchukuo was changed to Manchu Empire, and Henry got to be Emperoronce again. On May 24, 1934, El Salvador recognized the ManchuEmpire. On April 6, 1935, Emperor Henry visited Tokyo, Japan, for thefirst time and the Sumera mikoto came to welcome him at the railwaystation. On November 28, 1936, Italy signed a protocol with Japanrecognizing the Manchu Empire. On February 20, 1937, Germanyrecognized it and signed a treaty in Berlin on the 12th ofMay. In August of 1940, Denmark recognized the Manchu Empire. Ahandful of other nations also recognized it.

    Changchun City,as the capital of this empire, had expanded to cover an area of 30square miles by 1944 and its population reached 1,217,000, largerthan the population of Tokyo at the time. The population was composedof Manchus, Han, Mongolians, Koreans, Russians, and of course, twomillion Japanese (as Japanese citizens, not subjects of the ManchuEmpire). The total population was divided into different classesaccording to their different tribes. Among the regulations thatreflected this stratification was one prohibiting non-Japaneseresidents from eating rice and white flour. Any non-Japaneseresident, if found to have rice or white flour, was taken in as an“economical criminal.” Three languages were used officially:Chinese (Han), Mandarin (the language of Manchu officials) andJapanese. As the population was mostly of the Han tribe, Chinese wasthe chief official language.
    However, onFebruary 24, 1942, Poland abolished its recognition of the so-calledempire and in August, 1945, the empire came to an end when Japansurrendered and the Soviet Army occupied its territory. Henryabdicated once again on August 17 and was captured by the Soviet armyas a prisoner of war.
    He was handedover to the Communist Party of China. He was released on December 4,1959, and died of uremia on October 17, 1967.

  8. #48
    The12/9 event

    After Japanseized the northeastern provinces, they wanted to encroach moreprovinces further south such as Chahar and Hebei. They intended toestablish another puppet government in these provinces. But theChinese people had had enough. The students rose up in protest. At10:00AM on December 9, 1935, three thousand students fromuniversities and high schools in Peking demonstrated in opposition tosuch Japanese aggression. They fought with the police. Many studentswere injured and at least ten students were arrested. On December 10,all the students in Peking went on strike.
    Students inHangzhou followed suit. On December 11, the Peking government (stillcontrolled by the Republic of China) sent policemen to theuniversities and schools to forbid the students going out todemonstrate. On December 12, students in Shanghai, Nanking, Wuhan,Canton, and many other big cities gave their support. The next day,the principals of six universities in Peking told the students thatthey must go back to classes since those who had been in custody wereall released. On the 15th, the mayor of Peking invitedstudent representatives to have a talk. On the 16th, thePeking government and the university authorities announced that anystudents who refused to attend class would be punished. But on thesame day, 10,000 students went out to demonstrate again, and around30 students were arrested and about 400 injured. Then 20,000 Pekingresidents joined in. Workers and shop owners all went on strike. OnDecember 17, the mayor asserted that the students were beinginstigated by the Communist Party.
    In January,1936, students in Peking and Tianjin organized propaganda groups togo south among the workers and peasants to let them know about theinvasion by Japan and calling on them to rise up against theJapanese. On March 31, Guo Qing, a student at the 17thhigh school in Peking, died in prison. Students indignantly crowdedinto the streets, carrying his coffin. On May 28, all Peking wasprotesting, with the slogans “Down with Japan” and “The 29tharmy must fight Japan.” On May 30, the commander of the 29tharmy announced that if the Japanese army moved any further, it wouldface resistance. On June 13, students in Peking demonstrated again,and this time the police did not interfere; on the contrary, theyshowed their sympathy. On December 12, students held the fifthdemonstration. These student protests, though not enough to preventthe Japanese from trespassing further into China, roused the Chinesepeople at large to resist the invaders.

  9. #49
    TheOutbreak of the Sino–Japanese War, Or the Anti-Japanese War

    The double 7s event—Lugou Bridge event

    At 7:30PM onthe 7th of July (07/07), 1937, the Japanese army,stationed at the other side of Lugou Bridge over the Yongding River(with the Chinese army on this side of the bridge), 15 km fromPeking, began to exercise, conducting a sham battle in the desertedfields under their control close to Wanping Town. (Wanping had beenfounded in 1540 in the Ming Dynasty as a satellite town for thedefense of Peking.) At about 12:40 that night, reports of gun shotswere heard by the Chinese soldiers across the river. Japaneseofficers said that a soldier in their army had gone missing in theexercise and they heard reports of guns, so the soldier must havebeen killed by Chinese soldiers. On this pretext they tried to comeinto Wanping town to search for him. The Chinese army guarding thetown, of course, refused their request, answering that everyone inthe town was asleep and must not be disturbed, and besides, noChinese soldier had fired a shot. Therefore, at 5 o’clock in themorning on July 8, they opened fire on the defensive Chinese army atthis side of the bridge and also blasted the town with artillery. TheChinese army had to fight back. Historians consider this is the eventthat lit the fuse of the Sino–Japanese War.
    Next day, theCommunist Party sent out a public telegram to call on people toresist the Japanese invaders. And Chiang Kai-shek made a speech,saying, “No matter where you are, in the south or in the north, nomatter who you are, old or young, everyone has the responsibility toresist, everyone must be determined to make a sacrifice.” in theprevious six years Chiang Kai-shek had stuck to a policy of notfighting the Japanese because he was not confident they could achievethe final victory, and he needed time to prepare. He had hired Germanadvisors to train his officers and soldiers up to German standards.He stored ammunition and expanded his air force. He communicated withEngland, the US and Russia seeking diplomatic support. Though helacked the self-confidence to win the war, he foresaw that the finalvictory belonged to China. As a small country, however strongmilitarily, Japan could never occupy such a big country like China.
    In the firsttwo days of fighting, Japan could see that they were not going totake the bridge easily. So they proposed peace talks to make time togather more troops. Japan maneuvered its army from Korea andnortheastern China to where the battles were, amassing 400,000troops. On July 9, 11and 19, peace agreements were signedthree times, but they were useless, only serving to numb the Chinesearmy with a false outlook of peace.
    On July 25, theJapanese army suddenly attacked the Chinese army stationed atLangfang, and 14 Japanese airplanes raided the barracks of theChinese army. At noon on July 26, the Japanese army occupiedLangfang. Then Japan demanded the Chinese army to withdraw from theregion of Peking and Tianjin City, a demand that was of courserejected. At 1:00AM on July 26, a Japanese regiment started fromTianjin City and arrived at Fengtai, close to Peking, at 2:00PM. Theyasked to enter Peking to protect their citizens in the city. Theywere permitted in. When just half of the regiment was inside the citygates, the Chinese army fired at them. The regiment was cut in two,half inside and half outside the city. The inside half escaped to theembassy area, into the Japanese barracks in the Japanese embassy. Theother half returned to Fengtai. On July 28, the Japanese army startedto assault Peking. Chinese army resisted and suffered hugesacrifices. In the night of July 28, the Chinese army had to retreatfrom Peking. The next day, Japan took Peking, and the day after,Tianjin City fell into their hands as well.

  10. #50
    The8/13 event—battle in Shanghai

    In southernChina, Japan wanted to occupy Shanghai. On August 9, two Japanesemariners in Shanghai drove a car and trespassed into the Hongqiaoairport area to fire guns, but they were shot dead by the Chineseguards. On August 13, Japanese mariners following their tanksattacked the Chinese army stationed along the Songhu railway, butthey were beaten. On August 14, the national government made astatement calling for self-defense in resistance of Japan. Thestatement was really a general mobilization order to all Chinesepeople. The central national government organized several militaryblocs to defend Shanghai. On August 15, the Japanese governmentissued a statement, too, saying that in order to punish the Chinesearmy for its rash action and to urge the Nanking government not totake severe steps, the Japanese government had to resort to war. Theysent more troops by sea to the Shanghai area. In joint action withthe mariners, the Japanese army planned to occupy the strategicallyimportant zone in the north of Shanghai.
    Chiang Kai-shekdivided the warring area into five zones. Shanghai was in the thirdzone. On August 17, the Chinese army counterattacked and the 87thdivision took the Japanese sailors’ club. The 88thdivision fought Japanese troops in Hongkou park. The two divisionsjointly broke through the Japanese defensive line to Huishan wharf.At the same time, the Chinese air force attacked that of Japan andalso their warships. They downed 47 Japanese airplanes and sank oneJapanese cruiser. Two divisions sailed from Japan to the easternregion of Shanghai, arriving on the 22nd. And on the 23rd,they landed at Wusong district. On August 24, the Chinese 15thmilitary bloc entered Shanghai and assailed the two Japanesedivisions just as they were setting foot on land. On September 1, athousand Japanese soldiers attacked the Chinese cannon site and bothhad heavy casualties. Japan gathered 30 warships to support theirarmy in an attack at Baoshan.
    After September11, Chiang Kai-shek himself took the command of the third zone. Fromthen till the beginning of October, the Japanese army increased to200,000 strong. But they did not have a decisive advantage over theChinese army till early November. At dawn on November 5, under thecover of heavy fog and lifted by the rising tide, Japanese armylanded at Hangzhou Bay. On November 6, they took Jinshan and used avise strategy to attack the Chinese army from two sides. On November8, under such unfavorable conditions, Chiang had to give order toretreat. On November 9, the Japanese army occupied Songjiang Town andon November 12 they took Shanghai. During the battles, the people ofShanghai had contributed 3.3 million yuan to support the Chinesearmy.


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