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  1. #31
    Victoryof the Revolutionary Army and the final break between the two parties

    In July of 1926, theNational Party decided that the Revolutionary Army should head northto annihilate the warlords there. As Chiang was thecommander-in-chief, he led the army north, fighting all the way alongthe route. The plan was for the Revolutionary Army to attack Wu Peifufirst, and then Sun Chuanfang, occupying Jiangxi, Fujian, Anhui,Jiangsu, and Zhejiang, five provinces. Finally the Revolutionary Armywould attack Zhang Zuolin in Peking.
    In August of 1926, theRevolutionary Army assaulted the main force of Wu Peifu and wiped itout; they took over Wuchang city on the 10thof September. In November, the Revolutionary Army annihilated themain force of Sun Chuanfang, another warlord, and occupied Jiujiangand Nanchang cities. At the same time, Feng Yuxiang gained control ofthe northwestern region of China. A warlord, Yan Xishan (1883–1960),ruled Shanxi province. Observing the rapid advance of theRevolutionary Army, both Feng and Yan joined it. Now only the warlordZhang from the northeastern provinces remained in Peking.
    In October, the CommunistParty organized workers in Shanghai to rise to arms against thewarlord government 675 miles north in Peking, but they failed. InNovember, the Revolutionary Army took control of the area of theYangtze River. So the national Government decided to establish itscapital in Wuhan City, but Chiang wanted the capital in Nanchang,which was then under his control. Anyway, on the 9thof December, the national Government moved to Wuhan City.
    On the 21stof February, 1927, the Central Committee of the National Party held ameeting of the 80 members, one third belonged to the Communist Partyand one third were communist-leaning. Among the leaders of all thedepartments of the National Party, half of them were members of theCommunist Party. This meant that the CPC controlled the nationalParty. And the Communist Party was organizing its own army.
    Chiang Kai-shek decided hehad to found another government. He had many supporters, like thebrothers Chen Guofu (1892–1951) and Chen Lifu (1900–2001) andothers in his army. All were young men.
    On the 19thof February, General Bai Chongxi (1893–1966) took over Hangzhoucity as he marched east with his detachment of the RevolutionaryArmy. On the 22nd,the Communist Party fomented a second riot in Shanghai but failedonce more. On the 10thof March, the Central Committee of the National Party had anothermeeting to openly declare their break with Chiang, and he cut off allrelations with the Communist Party.

  2. #32
    Then Wang Jingwei cameback from France, where he attended classes in the University of Lyonand reorganized the National Party by expelling the Russian counselorand members of the Communist Party. He also suggested that thenational government and the headquarters of the National Party bemoved to Nanking.
    On the 22ndof March, the east detachment of the Revolutionary Army under BaiChongxi entered Shanghai. On the 24th,the middle detachment occupied Nanking. A few members of theCommunist Party instigated the soldiers of the Revolutionary Army torob and kill foreigners in order to incite foreign governments totake action against the national government. But the consuls ofEngland, the United States and Japan had evidence that the CommunistParty was responsible for the trouble.
    On the fifth of April, theCentral Committee of the National Party divided the RevolutionaryArmy into two military blocs. Chiang was re-appointed thecommander-in-chief of the first military bloc and Feng Yuxiang wasthe commander-in-chief of the second. On the same day, Chiangcontacted the heads of certain mafias in Shanghai and asked them toorganize a Shanghai business guild to oppose the Shanghai workers’general union, an armed group which was controlled by the CommunistParty.
    Meantime, Borodin secretlyurged General Guo Songling under the warlord government to fightZhang Zuolin, who had secret contacts with Chiang. On the 6thof April, Zhang suddenly attacked the embassy of the Soviet Union inPeking to arrest 58 members of the Communist Party hiding there,including Li Dazhao, one of the main founders of the Communist Party.They found secret documents which proved that the Soviet Unioninstructed the Communist Party to overthrow the Chinese government.On the 12th ofApril, Chiang sent the national 26tharmy to the Shanghai workers’ general union to order them tosurrender their weapons. But they refused, and many people werekilled in the conflict, which became known as the 4/12 event. ThenChiang ordered all the organizations controlled by the CommunistParty to disband.
    On the 17thof April, Chiang and other members of the Central Committee of theNational Party met in Nanking to issue warrant for the arrest of 197leading members of the Communist Party, including Borodin, ChenDuxiu, Mao Zedong, Zhou Enlai, Liu Shaoqi (1898–1969), ZhangGuotao, Deng Yingchao (1904–1992, wife of Zhou Enlai), and others.On the 28th, LiDazhao and others were hanged in Peking, accused of plotting tooverthrow the government.
    On the 20thof April, the Communist Party issued a statement saying that Chiangwas the open foe of the revolutionary people and called upon thepeople to overthrow him. On the 22ndday, Wang Jingwei and other members of the National Party whosupported the Communist Party, together with Mao Zedong and someCommunist Party members, openly blamed Chiang for the disruption.Chiang founded the national government in Nanking in opposition tothe government in Wuhan City.
    On the fifth of June whenIndian revolutionary M.N. Roy, a representative of the CommunistInternational, asked Wang Jingwei to allow the Communist Party tocontrol the Wuhan government, Wang began to disband the CommunistParty. Therefore, on the 1stof August, the Communist Party called for riots in Nanchang. Thatmarked the final rupture between the National Party and the CommunistParty.

  3. #33
    Chapter2. The First Civil War Between The National Party and the CommunistParty

    Communist Party Riots

    The Riot in Nanchang City

    Wang Jingwei learned thatthe Soviet Union was planning to help the Communist Party of China totake over power from Wuhan government in July 1927. He expelled allthe members of the Communist Party that were in the National Partyand the Wuhan government. This led the Central Committee of theCommunist Party in Jiujiang City (Jiangxi province) to foment a riotin Nanchang City, where they controlled some of the army. On the 26thof July, Zhou Enlai was sent to organize the riot. Several hoursafter Zhou left, they got a telegram from the CommunistInternational, instructing them not to start it if there was nochance of winning. So Zhang Guotao was sent after Zhou. When Zhangreached Nanchang, all the preparations were already in place, andbesides, most of the representatives refused to take these orders.The 11th army andthe 20th armyunder the command of He Long (1896–1969) had already come toNanchang from Jiujiang City, and were welcomed by Zhu De (1886–1976),commander of the 9tharmy and head of the city police.
    At two o’clock in themorning of August 1, 1927, the rebels began to attack the NationalRevolutionary Army guarding the city. After fighting for four hours,they occupied the city. But the national government gathered moretroops to surround Nanchang. The rebellious army had to beat aretreat from the city and went south. On the way, Zhou Enlai, He Longand other leaders deserted their troops and escaped to Hong Kong andShanghai. Only Zhu De led the rest of the army to Guangdong province.They had to adopt the stratagems of guerrilla warfare. In January of1928, Zhu De started another riot and led his army to Mt. JingGang inJiangxi province, where he met Mao Zedong. Their troops formed theRed 4th Army.

  4. #34
    MaoZedong resorts to rebellion

    As Wang Jingwei expelledthe members of the Communist Party from the National Party and theWuhan government, Mao Zedong went to Changsha City on the 12thof August to arm peasants and mine workers in that area inpreparation for a riot. He had an army of 8,000 soldiers. On the 9thof September, they started their rebellion and set out to attackChangsha City. There were many Communist Party members in the city,scheming to let the attackers in by making a sudden assault on thenational government army guarding the city. But their plan was leakedby insiders and became known to the national government. The traitorshad to escape or they would be arrested and killed. Mao had to changehis plan of attack and marched towards Mt JingGang, where his forcesunited with Zhu De’s army.
    On the 4thof June in 1928, Zhang was forced to withdraw from Peking to go backto his original location. As he could not always accomplish whatJapan demanded, Japan was not satisfied with him. On the fifth day,when Zhang was on board a train and passed through the railwaystation at Huanggutun, his train was exploded with gunpowder setthere by the Japanese. He was severely injured and died when hereached Shenyang City. His son Zhang Xueliang (1901–2001) succeededhim in his position.
    He declared he was joiningthe Revolutionary Army on the 29thof December, 1928. There were no more warlords, and China was thusunited.

  5. #35
    ChiangKai-Shek Besieges The Red Army Five Times

    The first siege

    Since Chiang Kai-shek hadcleared all the warlords from China, he began to deal with theCommunist Party and the Red Army in October of 1930. Chiang sent hisarmy, 300,000 strong, against the Red Army (the Chinese Workers andPeasants Red Army), 40,000 soldiers. If Chiang could surround the RedArmy, he could easily wipe it out. But Mao’s strategy was wiserthan Chiang’s. On November 1, Mao faked some maneuvers so that theChinese Red Army seemed to be advancing in different directions,leading Chiang’s commander-in-chief to think that the Red Armywould escape. Therefore, the National Army split up in order to chasedown the enemies in different directions. Then the Red Army gatheredtogether again and annihilated a small national division of 9,000soldiers that had been cut off from the main force on December 30,1930. And the other divisions had to fall back. Thus ended the firstsiege.


    The second siege

    On the 1stof April, 1931, the second siege began. Considering the failure ofthe first siege due to the failed tactic of attempting to surroundthe Red Army, Chiang Kai-shek decided instead to move slowly with allthe troops keeping close. On the 13thof May, the 28thdivision of the fifth army of the national forces left Futian andmarched eastward. On the fifth day, Zhu De and Mao directed their 3rdmilitary bloc and the 35thRed Army to form a left wing, and the 3rdRed Army to head up the middle, while the 4thRed Army and 12thRed Army made up the right wing, to surround the fifth national army.The commander of this army committed the same mistake. He should nothave marched separately from others. Zhu De and Mao ordered their 7thRed division and 35thRed division to block the advance of the reinforcements from the 19thnational army. As a result, on the 16thday, the 28thdivision of the national army was annihilated by the overwhelmingnumber of enemy forces. On the 19thday, the 12th Redarmy attacked the 54thnational division, which escaped. The 19thnational army had no information about what was happening to theother armies and had to retreat. Thus ended the second siege.

  6. #36
    Thethird siege

    On the 21stof June, 1931, after the two failed sieges, Chiang Kai-shek formedtwo military blocs 300,000 strong for the third siege. On the July10, the Communist Party also made all possible preparations forbattle. The National Army had started to march on July 1, but couldnot ascertain the location of the Red Army. Towards the end of themonth, the main forces of the Red Army were found taking a back routeto a place called XingGuo. From the enemy’s location, ChiangKai-shek judged that the Red Army planned to go west to cross the GanRiver. He wanted to wipe it out on the east bank of the river. Maoand Zhu’s original plan was to ignore the main forces of theNational Army, and use the Red Army to break through the encirclementat Futian to assail the detachment remaining in the rear; but thisplan was detected. The 11thand the 14thdivisions of the National Army marched faster to occupy Futian toblock the Red Army’s escape route. This time, it looked good forChiang. But Mao changed to a bold plan. He ordered the 35thRed Army to disguise itself as the main force, and to cross the GanRiver to distract the National Army. On the 4thof August, his main forces stole through the gap between the twomilitary blocs of the National Army before they closed like a vise.(That gap is said to have been 40 liwide. The li, or“Chinese mile,” creates some difficulties as this traditionalunit of distance was only recently standardized. It now means half akilometer or about a third of a mile.) This strategy was successfuland the Red Army arrived at a safe place and annihilated a brigade ofthe National Army there on August 7. Then the Red Army moved toHuangpo and wiped out four national regiments on the 11th.
    Then Chiang Kai-shek foundout that what he was pursuing was not the main force of the Red Army.When the national troops turned back to march north, the fatiguedarmy was like an arrow at the end of its flight. On the 18thof September, the 9/18 event happened, so Chiang had to go back toNanking to take charge of the situation. Thus ended the third siege.
    The strategies Mao used inthe previous three battles would be seen repeated and repeated.Chiang was defeated three times by the same stratagem. ChiangKai-shek never learned from his failures and made little improvement.It could be said that he deserved to be driven away from the mainlandto Taiwan, after all.

  7. #37
    Theestablishment of the red government in Ruijin

    After a few victories, theCommunist Party founded their Red government in Ruijin City ofJiangxi province. It was located in a basin with mountains on threesides. Nanchang City, the capital of the province, under the nationalgovernment, was 300 li (just over 90 miles) away.
    On the 7thof November, 1931, they celebrated the founding of the Redgovernment. Mao was the Chairman of the government and Zhu De was theCommander of the army. In the area of the Red government, almosteveryone was in an organization of some sort. The organization forsix-year-olds and up was called the “children’s league.” Thatof the youngsters of fifteen-year-oldand up was called young pioneers. Youngadults joined the “Red Guard Army.” They printed their own papermoney and used terrorist methods to control people. Even their owncomrades were killed. Li Wenlin, also a leader in the party, wasmurdered. Peasants in that area did not have to give part of theirharvest to any landowners, but they did have to support the Redgovernment in order to support the Red Army.
    No one could leave thearea without a pass. There were sentinels everywhere, 24 hours a day.Whoever was caught leaving secretly would be executed. War time ornot, under such drastic terrorism even the intimatesubordinate Yang Yuebin deserted Mao andwent to the national government to give away Mao’s location.Airplanes were sent to bombard the place and Mao had to move.

  8. #38
    Thefourth siege

    After the 9/18 and 12/8events (detailed in Chapter 3) were over, with the signing of theSonghu armistice agreement in May of 1932, Chiang Kai-shek plannedfor the fourth siege. This time he attacked the district of Hubei,Hunan and Anhui provinces where the Red Army was weak and was soonvanquished. Then in February of 1933, Chiang concentrated his forcesto push forwards to where the main forces of the Red Army camped. Theleadership of the Red Army had been changed at the meeting in NingduTown in October of 1932. Mao Zedong was dismissed from the commandingposition. The leader was Bogu, who came from Shanghai on the 7thof January, 1933, but the actual commanders of the Red Army were ZhuDe, Zhou Enlai and Peng Dehuai (1898–1974).
    They used the same ruseMao had used. They ordered the 11thRed army to disguise themselves as the main forces to attract andlead off the middle, second and third columns of the National Army toLichuan area, while their actual main forces rested at Guangchang.Then they laid ambushes by the 1stRed military bloc and 3rdRed military bloc and 21stRed army to attack the 52ndnational army, while the 5thRed military bloc and 22ndRed army would attack the 59thnational army. On March 1, both national armies were annihilated andthe commanders were captured. So the National Army was forced towithdraw. Thus ended the fourth siege.

  9. #39
    Thefifth siege

    In May of 1933, ChiangKai-shek set up his headquarters in Nanchang City and assumed theresponsibility of commander-in-chief himself for the fifth siege ofthe Red Army. Since the last siege, the Red Army had grownconsiderably. Chiang Kai-shek therefore gathered an army a millionstrong, including the 300,000 soldiers of Chen Jitang in Guangdongprovince. Chen had been a warlord there, and then had subordinatedhimself to the national government when he saw all the other warlordshad been wiped out.
    The siege began onSeptember 25, 1933, and ended on October 14, 1934, lasting for 385days. Chiang Kai-shek used artillery and airplanes. On the 25thday, the National Army attacked Lichuan Town. After three days, theytook the town. On the 9thof October, the 24thRed division went to attack Xiaoshi, but the National Army had astrong defense there with fortresses and trenches. For several days,the Red Army could not take the town, and suffered heavy casualties.That was the first stage.
    In November, there was acoup d’état in Fujian province against Chiang Kai-shek. Theleaders of this coup founded another government, but they had littlesupport. Even the Communist Party declared this new governmentunlawful. So the coup ended in failure.
    On the 11thof December, the National Army in town changed from defense tocounterattack. The Red Army fought back under the command of theCentral Committee of the Communist Party, regardless of the fact thatthe National Army was far better equipped. The Red Army was conqueredand retreated. That was the second stage.
    On April 10, 1934, ChiangKai-shek sent 11 divisions divided into two columns marching towardsGuangchang. The Communist Party used 9 divisions to prevent theNational Army from attacking the town. Battles broke out in manyother places, too. The Red Army lost in those places and had towithdraw to Guangchang. On the 27thof April, the National Army attacked the town and occupied it in theevening. The Red Army had to escape, leaving 5,500 casualties. Thatwas the third stage.
    In June of 1934, theCommunist Party made up its mind to resist the National Army assaultto the last man. Even so, on August 5, nine divisions of the NationalArmy, with air support, defeated the Red Army. The remnants of theRed Army had to escape and began the famous Long March. That was thefinal stage of the fifth siege.
    The Red Army failedbecause the commanders changed from the right strategy to a wrongone. During this period Mao Zedong was not in the Red Army. He hadbeen sent somewhere else. The failure drove home the obvious pointthat strategy is more important than many other factors; strategy canbe decisive; and especially in politics and war, strategy iseverything.

  10. #40
    TheFamous Long March

    The central Red Army,86,000 in all, began marching on the 21stof October, 1934. This wound up being a 2,500-li march, that is, some775 miles. They were headed to the western Hunan province where the2nd and 6thRed military blocs encamped. Chiang Kai-shek deduced what route theywere likely to take and laid four blockade lines to stop them. ZhouEnlai and Zhu De went to have a talk with Chen Jitang, a formerwarlord, and bribed him to let them go through his blockade line. Sothere was no fighting at the first three lines, as the Red Army neverwent there. However, they had to fight the National Army when theyattempted to break through the fourth line. They made a heavysacrifice after the rest of the Red Army fought through the fourthlines. Only 30,000 were left out of the 86,000.
    The Long March could bedivided in four stages. Firstly, the escaped Red Army wanted to go toa place at the border of Sichuan, Hunan and Guizhou provinces, wherethe geographic features were easy to defend and hard to attack. Inthese areas there were still some local small warlords that theycould mingle amongst them for safety and the central nationalgovernment would not easily reach them. In early December, theyclimbed over some mountains and occupied Liping town in Guizhouprovince on the 14thof December, 1934.
    Secondly, at a meeting inLiping on the 28thof December, Mao Zedong strongly opposed the plan to unite with the2nd and 6thRed military blocs, and proposed to go to the border of Sichuan andGuizhou provinces to occupy the area round Zunyi town as a newmilitary base. His proposition was accepted by the Central Committee,because from their present location, it was difficult to communicatewith the two Red blocs. On the 7thof January, 1935, they took Zunyi town.
    Here they held the famousZunyi meeting, in which Mao was appointed to the command of the RedArmy again.

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