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  1. #21
    On the 23rdof April, Sun Yat-sen gathered his generals for a meeting in hispresidential residence to decide what to do next. There were twooptions. One was to first annihilate Chen’s army so that he couldnot give the Revolutionary Army a stab from behind. Chiang Kai-shekheld this opinion. The other was to immediately march north, whiledoing their best to avoid any conflict with Chen’s army. Sun tendedtoward the second opinion, as he thought that Chen had not reallybetrayed him, at least not yet. He had no reason to attack Chen.Chiang Kai-shek thought that Chen would at long last betray Sun.Since Sun did not believe him, he left Guangdong province, whilewriting a letter to Chen advising him not to betray Sun.
    When Sun Yat-sen came backto Canton, he still allowed Chen to be the commander of the firstarmy. But Chen refused to take the appointment. On the 28thof April, Zhang Zuolin, Duan Qirui and Sun Yat-sen formed an allianceto fight Wu Peifu. Sun thought that this created an opportunity forhim to go north.
    On the 4thof May, Zhang’s army was beaten by Wu’s, and Zhang had to retreatback to where he had come from, northeastern China. Wu took controlin Peking. Wu had a secret agreement with Chen Jiongming that hewould drive away the current president, Xu Shichang, and Chen woulddrive away Sun Yat-sen. Then the first step was to let Li Yuanhongback into the presidency and get him to wipe out all the warlordseverywhere, except of course the two of them. If Li failed to do so,he would be the scapegoat. If he succeeded, Wu and Chen would use thecongress to have themselves elected as the president and the vicepresident.
    So they announced that thecurrent president Xu was illegal. Xu resigned on the 2ndof June. Once back in the presidency, Li denounced that warrant thatwas out for Sun Yat-sen and invited him to Peking to discuss nationalaffairs. He also appointed many warlords in the south, but none ofthem accepted his appointments. Afterwards, as Wu and Chen saw thatLi could do nothing for them, they forced Li to quit the presidencyagain. Li went back to Tianjin City.
    On the 9thof May, Sun issued an order for a general attack, and on the 13thof June, the Revolutionary Army put Wu’s army to rout in Jiangxiprovince. Wu sent his man to Chen and asked him to take action assoon as possible.

  2. #22
    ChenJiongming Turns Traitor in Canton

    When Chen went back to hishometown, he took with him a lot of guns and ammunition, enough toarm 40 battalions. On the 20thof May, Chen’s subordinate, Ye Ju, led his troops into Canton andstarted a treasonous action. By the 1stof June, the situation had become acute. Liao Zhongkai, a faithfulfollower of Sun, sent a telegram to Sun Yat-sen asking him to comeback to Canton. When Sun was back in Canton, he summoned Chen, butChen refused to come.
    On the 12thof June, Sun Yat-sen ordered Ye Ju out of Canton. Next day, Chen andYe secretly met at Shilong. They knew that, to prevent Sun from goingnorth to fight Wu, they would have to cut off his access tofinancing. Liao was the person who provided Sun with everything. Sothey decided to kidnap Liao. On the 14thday, Chen sent a telegram to Liao to invite him to his hometown forsome important business. On the fifth day, Liao went there and wasdetained. Then Ye Ju maneuvered his troops and planned to attackSun’s residence with cannons. On the 16thday, Sun was informed of this and took refuge on a warship.
    On the 19th,Sun Yat-sen sent a telegram to the Revolutionary Army at the frontierto come back to Guangdong province. On the 2ndof July, the Revolutionary Army started to assail Chen’s army inGuangdong province, and beat the betraying army. Chen sent a telegramto Wu seeking assistance. Wu sent some troops to Guangdong province.On the 26th ofJuly, the Revolutionary Army was chasing after Chen’s retreatingarmy but met with the reinforcements sent by Wu. Therefore, theRevolutionary Army had to withdraw. When Sun Yat-sen learned this, hehad to leave Guangdong province and go to Shanghai. Liao was releasedand left Canton. When Chen attempted to assassinate him afterwards,he was already gone.

  3. #23
    On the 16thof August, 1922, Sun Yat-sen made a statement accusing Chen ofbetrayal. To annihilate the treacherous army, Sun determined to allywith Duan. In October, he appointed Xu Chongzhi as thecommander-in-chief and Chiang Kai-shek as the chief of staff. On oneside, the Revolutionary Army together with Duan’s army vanquishedWu’s army. On the other, the armies of Yunnan and Guangxiprovinces, who supported Sun, defeated Chen’s army. On the 14thof January, 1923, troops in Guangdong province turned over to Sun andattacked Chen, who escaped to his hometown, Huizhou.
    On the 15thof February, Sun Yat-sen returned to Canton. In April, Chen Hongying,a warlord in Guangxi province, accepted the appointment of the Pekinggovernment to be the governor of Guangdong province, and came toattack Canton, but was soon subdued. He escaped to Hong Kong.
    At the end of 1924, Sunwent to Peking to discuss national affairs, but he was fatally ill.In February the Revolutionary Army, now under the full command ofChiang Kai-shek, marched east to wipe out the warlords there. Sundied on the 12thof March, 1925. He famously wrote, in his will, “The revolution isnot successful yet; comrades must still make efforts.” That June,Chen Jiongming betrayed the cause again, but he was soon wiped out byChiang Kai-shek.

  4. #24
    EarlyHistory of the Communist Party of China

    The organization of the Communist Party of China

    In April 1920, theCommunist International sent Grigori Voitinsky to China. In May, hefound Chen Duxiu, 42 at the time, and sought to contact somerevolutionary young men in other cities to establish the CommunistParty of China, the CPC. Chen was the professor who had been arrestedin the May 4 student movement in 1919. In August 1920, underinstructions of the Soviet Communist Party, the Communist Party ofChina was established in Shanghai. At that time, it was calledCommunist Group with Chen Duxiu as the general secretary.
    But after the CommunisstParty took over the reign of the mainland, public data they issuedstate that the first meeting of the Communist Party was held about ayear later, in Shanghai, on the 1stof July, 1921. Why was the earlier date concealed from the public?There might be two reasons. One was that they wanted to cover up thefact that the Communist International had had a hand in it. The otheris that Mao attended the meeting in Shanghai, so by emphasizing thatmeeting they could say that Mao was one of the founders, enhancinghis image. But the meeting was in 1920, not in 1921 in Shanghai.
    Fifteen people attendedthe meeting on the 23rdof July, 1921, at 106 Wangzhi Road (presently 76 Xingye Road) inShanghai. These included Mao Zedong (1893–1976); Dong Biwu(1886–1975, later the vice chairman of the People’s Republic ofChina); Zhang Guotao (1897–1979, later commander of the Red 4thArmy in the Long March); Chen Gongbo (1890–1946); and Zhou Fohai(1897–194. The last two later defected to Japanese invaders inSino–Japanese War (1937—1945). Also present were Malin and NicoChhabra (representatives from the Communist International).

  5. #25
    Soon some suspicious menwere found lurking outside the house. The meeting broke up andeveryone discretely slipped away. And the next day, they met on aboat on the South Lake in Jiaxing Town, casually playing mahjongwhile in fact continuing their meeting. Thus the Communist Party ofChina was established. At that time it had only 50 members.
    On the 23rdof December, 1921, accompanied by an interpreter, Malin went to seeSun Yat-sen in Guilin City of Guangxi province. He stayed there fornine days and concluded that Communist Party members could join theNational Party while still maintaining their status in the CommunistParty. This would help the Communist Party to develop. But his ideawas strongly opposed by some party members, especially Chen Duxiu whowas then the leader of the party. So on the 23rdof April, 1922, Malin left Shanghai for Holland, by sea, and then,through Berlin, made it to Moscow. He reported his work in China tothe Soviet Communist Party, which consented to his idea. On the 27thof July, the Soviet Union sent a representative to China, togetherwith Malin, with instructions. Malin typed the instructions on theshirt he wore. In Shanghai, Malin met Chen Duxiu and gave him hisshirt.
    Chen Duxiu had to obey thedecision of the Communist International because at the second meetingof the Communist Party, held from July 16–23, 1922, at 625 SouthChengdu Road in Shanghai, they had decided to join the CommunistInternational. Chen Duxiu and Zhang Guotao attended the meeting withten other representatives. Then the Communist Party of China gotfinancial aid from the Communist International.
    On the 29thand 30th ofAugust, 1922, the Communist Party of China (CPC) held a centralmeeting on the West Lake in Hangzhou City and decided to found theFirst United Front, an alliance between the National Party and theCommunist Party.

  6. #26
    In June 1923, theCommunist Party had its third meeting in Canton, and 40representatives, representing 420 party members, discussed the issueof the First United Front. They elected Chen Duxiu, Li Dazhao(1889–1927), Mao Zedong, and Xiang Ying (1898–1941, who laterbecame commander of the New 4thArmy in the Sino–Japanese War), and five others, as members of theCentral Committee.
    It was said that after themeeting, at the urging of the Communist Party, Sun Yat-sen proposedhis three great policies: Alliance with Russia, Co-operation with theCommunist Party, and Assistance to Peasants and Workers. But as amatter of fact, Sun never identified with such policies. This wasjust invented by Mikhail Markovich Borodin, a Russian counselor tothe Communist Party of China, to make them look good. Then theCommunist Party used this invention as a fact for its own purposes.
    Why did Sun agree to theUnited Front notion? It was because Sun always held to his ideal ofThree Principles for the People: the Principle of Nationalism, thePrinciple of Democracy, and the Principle of People’s Livelihood.Ironically, this party, which was also called Kuomintang by thepronunciations of the Chinese characters “National Party,”evolved into a highly centralized, hierarchical, and authoritarianparty. Sun thought that the ideal of communism was closest to histhree principles and so he wanted to unite with the Communist Partyagainst their common enemies—warlords who were still takingadvantage of the power void left when the imperial order crumbled.
    From the 20thto the 30th ofJanuary, 1924, the 196 representatives of the National Party heldtheir first conference in Canton (now Guangzhou). Sun was thechairman and the Russian counselor Borodin was in attendance. SomeCommunist Party members were elected into the executive committee ofthe National Party. Li Dazhao and a few others were members and MaoZedong, Zhang Guotao were alternate members.

  7. #27
    In the autumn of 1924,General Feng Yuxiang (1882–194 launched a coup d’état and tookcontrol of the Peking government. He invited Sun Yat-sen to Peking todiscuss national affairs. In the morning of November 5, Feng sent histroops to surround the Forbidden City and ordered the abdicatedemperor to move out. So Henry gathered his precious belongings andmoved to Tianjin City with his family. A few faithful old courtiersfollowed him there.
    On November 13, 1924, SunYat-sen started from Canton and arrived in Peking on the 31stof December. It was soon found that he was suffering from livercancer and he died on March 12, 1925. Sun had been in Peking threetimes. First, in 1894, he went to Peking with the intention ofadvising the Qing officials on how it might reform the government.But when he saw how serious the corruption was, he realized that noreform could be enough to save China. So he decided to make arevolution. His second visit was in 1912 when the Republic of Chinawas founded. He went to Peking to advise Yuan Shikai that if Yuancould carry on the revolution, he would resign from the temporarypresidency. This was his third time.
    On the 15thof September, Zhang Zuolin came with his forces from the northeasternprovinces towards Peking and allied with Feng Yuxiang. Then a battlebroke out between Zhang, Feng and Wu Peifu. Wu’s army was put torout and Wu escaped south to Hunan and Hubei provinces. Thereafter,Peking fell under the control of Zhang Zuolin, who was always backedby Japan.

  8. #28
    Whampoamilitary academy

    The Whampoa MilitaryAcademy was founded on the 16thof June, 1924, on the instruction of Sun Yat-sen, to train officersfor the Revolutionary Army. It was situated on Changzhou Island inthe Whampoa District of Canton. Afterwards, branches were founded inWuhan, Changsha, Chaoshan, and Nanning cities. In preparation for theestablishment of this academy, Sun had sent Chiang Kai-shek to theSoviet Union in September of 1923 to learn from their experience. Sothe academy was modeled after those in the Soviet Union. And ChiangKai-shek was appointed President of the academy. Quite a fewCommunist Party (CPC) members were appointed leaders of departments,such as Ye Jianying (1897–1986), deputy director of the trainingdepartment, and Zhou Enlai (1898–1976), deputy director of thepolitical department.
    In May of 1924, theacademy began to take in students. Out of 1200 applicants, 350students were enrolled and 120 were accepted as alternate studentsfor the first term. In 1927, the academy was relocated in Nanking andrenamed the Central Army Officer Academy. Later, in 1949, it moved toTaiwan, for reasons that will become apparent later. From 1924 to1949, there were 23 terms, and including the terms held in Taiwan,the academy was functioning for 78 terms. The academy graduated41,386 students, including many famous generals.

  9. #29
    TheBreak-Up of the National Party and the Communist Party

    After the death of SunYat-sen, Chiang Kai-shek took the full command of the RevolutionaryArmy. Unlike Sun Yat-sen, Chiang Kai-shek had no confidence in theCPC, especially after their fourth conference.
    That fourth conference ofthe Communist Party was held from the 11thto the 22nd ofJanuary, 1925, with 20 representatives gathered in Shanghai. ChenDuxiu, Zhang Guotao, Zhou Enlai, and Xiang Ying, and many othersattended. Chen was the chairman. During the conference, Chen waselected the general secretary of the central bureau, consisting offive persons. They decided that the Communist Party had to takecharge of the revolution, and that laid the ground for majordisruptions.
    On the 20thof March, 1926, the warship Yat-senplanned an artillery attack on the Whanpoa Military Academy to driveaway Chiang Kai-shek. Chiang gave orders to arrest the captain, LiZhilong, a member of the Communist Party. Then Chiang ordered ZhouEnlai and all their party members to get out of the academy. Thestudents now faced a problem as to which party they would follow. Onestudent quit the National Party and 39 students quit the CommunistParty. The others remained in the academy.
    Meanwhile within theNational Party, Wang Jingwei (1883–1944, who later treacherouslywent over to the Japanese during the Sino–Japanese War) wanted totake over the leadership of the National Party. He organized anothergovernment in Wuhan City, close to Wuchang City, the cradle of the1911 revolution, and held the third conference of the National Partywithout the attendance of Chiang. This was called Wuhan government.
    At that time Chiang onlyhad command of the Revolution Army and held no position in thegovernment. The Wuhan government wanted Chiang to continue to thenorth to wipe out the warlords there. But Chiang planned to go eastto occupy the eastern provinces first, including Shanghai, becausethose eastern provinces were also under the control of warlords.
    During those years, theland problem was serious. Peasants wanted to have their own land sothat they would not be exploited by landowners. When peasants workedland owned by those in the ownership class, they had to give part ofthe harvest to the landowners, as in any feudal system. As theimperial system had been demolished, they wanted land reforms too.Under instigation by the Communist Party, they began to demand thismore and more aggressively.

  10. #30
    Stalin, head of the SovietUnion, asked the Communist Party of China in October of 1926 to curbthe action of peasants, to reduce the violence. In March of 1927, theCommunist Party established legal penalties for landowners. Anylandowners who resisted the revolution would be put to death.
    On the 2ndof April, 1927, the Central Committee of the National Party held ameeting in Wuhan, inviting two members of the Communist Party, one ofwhom was Mao Zedong. They were considering a bill about the landproblem. The government would confiscate the land of “reactionaries”(those who preferred the old ways as opposed to the revolution) suchas property owners, officials who had a stake in the old system, andwarlords. The definition of reactionary landowners was to be based onthe amount of land they owned, measured by the mu (about 0.165acres). Anyone who had more than 30 mus, about 5 acres, was dubbed areactionary. All landowners would be classified into rich peasants,small and middle landowners, and large landowners, according to theamount of terrain they possessed. This standard was still used in theland reform when the Communist Party later established theirrepublic.
    On the 22ndof April, when this bill was under discussion, the National Party andthe CPC had different opinions. That was one of the reasons for theirfalling out, because many members of the National Party came fromfamilies who owned land. Then on the 26thof April, Chen Duxiu and Zhang Guotao were invited to attend themeeting, and also Borodin, the Russian counselor. On the 6thof May, the bill was at last passed. Only the large landowners wouldsee their land confiscated. The land belonging to small landownersand families of revolutionary officials would remain the same.However, once the peasants had been instigated, it was hard to checktheir zeal to take possession of the land.

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