Two Republics in China - Page 17


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Thread: Two Republics in China

  1. #161
    Thered guards went to private houses and ransacked and destroyed or tookaway all the valuable personal belongings. They even beat people todeath. Statistics showed that in one month from the 18thday of August, 1966, in Beijing only, houses of 114,000 families wereransacked, and 85,198 individuals were driven to where they came fromin the countryside or other towns. From the 23rdday of August to the 8thday of September, in Shanghai, 84,222 families were openly robbed.And in Tianjin City, 12,000 families suffered the same disaster.Another statistics showed that during August and September, inBeijing only, the red guards got 103,000 taels of gold, equivalent to5.7 tons, 345,200 taels of silver, 55,000,000 yuan Chinese papercurrency, and 613,600 curios. In Shanghai, between the 23rdday of August and the 8thday of September, besides large quantity of gold, silver and gems,etc., they got 3,340,000 US dollars and other foreign currenciesworth 3,300,000 Chinese currency, 2,400,000 yuan of silver coins and3,700,000,000 yuan of Chinese currency. A Party document confessedthat even before that, the red guards already got 1,180,000 taels ofgold, equivalent to 65 tons. That was really the aim of “destroyfour old things.” That's what Mao and CPC really wanted, in such aname, to rob people of their valuables. A broad daylight robbery! Therobbed could not resist, nor even report to the police. The robberywas lawful, supported by CPC and Mao. That was also unprecedented inthe robbery field of the world. What was the use of laws in such acountry? Peng Zhen once said that the Party (supported by gun, ofcourse) was above the law. Now all the valuables in possession ofcommon people were taken. After that, they had nothing worth to betaken away by the Party. They were safe now, as poor as a lazysquirrel with nothing in store for winter. The pillaging action evenaffected some old workers who had something worth a little moneysaved through their hard work in the old time, before CPC came toreign.

  2. #162
    Andmany antiques were destroyed, worth billions. From the 9thday of November to the 7thday of December, 1966, during less than a month, more than 6,000articles of curio, more than 2,700 volumes of ancient edition, morethan 900 rolls of paintings and calligraphy by famous ancient people,and more than 1,000 stone tablets, were destroyed. Who should beresponsible for all the loss? The red guards or Mao and CPC?
    Asto death rate during the red terrorism, the official statisticsshowed that only in Beijing, the capital city, 1,700 people werebeaten to death. A massacre took place in Daxing Town outside Beijingand during three days, 325 persons were killed by cruel means,including some buried alive, like the massacre in Nanking by theJapanese army. Those who made suicide reached 200,000. In the wholeperiod of the cultural revolution, the estimate of the death rate inthe whole country was between 2 million and 7 million, one percent ofthe whole population in China at that time. Who should be responsiblefor it? The red guards or Mao and CPC?
    InShanghai, the red guards of Shanghai Museum went to all thecollectors on their list to take all the curios to the museum, theysaid, for the sake of protecting them, or the red guards from Beijingmight destroy them. Some collectors even called the museum, asking itto send their red guards to their homes and take their curios away.Fortune sometimes means misfortune.
    Otherthings happened in Shanghai during the red guards movement. At first,their action was only limited in the streets, destroying old shopsigns. When they saw some women wearing high-heeled or pointed shoes,they would force them to take off and they would cut through themwith scissors they seemed always carrying with them. They called itcapitalist life style, included in the four old things. Once some redguards saw a girl wearing trousers in jeans. They thought it was thecapitalist life style and forced the girl to take it off, and thegirl had to run home in underwear. They laughed after her.

  3. #163
    Thenwhen they heard what their fellow red guards did in Beijing, theystarted to attack private houses, too. Mostly they went to bighouses, generally belonging to the capitalists. Some stayed in onebig house for months, eating their canned food and chocolate instore. Some embezzled gold and silver articles and diamond rings.Others took away the interesting novels for their own enjoyment. Thestupid ones they were deemed. Some of the capitalists were forced tokneel on the ground and beaten or abused. Lots of red guards went toCanton and tried to break past the border sentinels to rush intoHongkong. They declared that they wanted to make revolution there,but were stopped by the Chinese army. The red guards even blamed KimIl-Sung, leader of North Korea, as going the capitalist road andwanted to go to Korea to arrest him. So when Kim Il-Sung learned it,he was so enraged that he ordered the graves of the Chinese People'sVolunteers broken, including the tomb of Mao's son, which wasrepaired after the cultural revolution.

  4. #164
    In1967, in Canton, there raised a wave to kill the released prisonersfrom labor reform camps, who were thought as bad people and deservedto die. From the 27thday of August to the 1stday of September, in six days, 325 of those people and their familymembers were killed. The oldest was 80 years of age and the youngestwas only 38 days. What a nation for that!
    Allthe professors in universities and old teachers in middle schoolswere criticized or even beaten. Some professors were forced to crawlaround on the college playground. Some were made stand for long hoursin a bowing posture with two arms stretching straight behind, lookinglike a jet airplane. Some were ordered to bow before the picture ofMao for a long time, too. In Shanghai Conservatory of Music, theprofessors were forced to slap each other's faces in public. Neversay that Chinese people are not wise enough for invention. Since oldtime, they have invented a lot of new torture equipment and styles. Astanding cage was one of them. Any offender would be put inside withhis head on the top of it, the neck in a small hole so that he couldnot move his head down into the cage. He must keep in a standingposition for how long he was sentenced to be. It was a trivialtorment. For a prisoner, if he rejected to confess his crime what thegovernment official wanted him to confess, two thick wooden stickswould be put on his forelegs, one above and one under, with ropes onboth ends. When the ropes were tightened, the pressure on theforelegs through the wooden sticks inflicted pain to the prisoner.The tighter the ropes were, the acuter the pain grew, till theprisoner fainted. For women, small sticks were used between herfingers, with the same effect on her. Another invention was to use aniron piece, made hot in the fire, then put on the chest of theprisoner. His skin on that part would be burned. No one can imaginethe pain this torment caused without experience. Brutal inventions ofwise Chinese people!

  5. #165
    IV.Power-seizing stage of great cultural revolution


    Then,the target of the cultural revolution changed to the authorities ofthe local governments, under Mao's instruction. Mao thought that mostof them were supporters of Liu and Deng. Therefore, so-called rebelsrose and attacked the local government leaders. They seized powerfrom the leaders and organized so-called Revolutionary Committees toreplace the local governments.
    Nowthe cultural revolution was on the power-seizing stage, which wasreally what Mao aimed at. It began with a movement targeting thepetty cadres, really a false move of Mao to set up a snare for Liu;then it went to a stage to openly criticize a play to get rid of someimportant supporters of Liu in the capital Beijing; then it developedto the red guards stage to cause chaos in the country; then in thechaos, it got to the power seizing stage. It was the critical stage.If successful, smoothly, the last stage would be easy to tide over.The last stage was to put all the supporters of Mao in the localgovernments after getting rid of all Liu's supporters. The culturalrevolution would thus end as planned by Mao and as we can see,looking back. On this critical stage, if Chiang Kai-shek had orderedhis army to attack the mainland, no one could tell what would be thefuture of China. But the stupid Chiang Kai-shek let the opportunitygo like sands through his fingers.

  6. #166
    Manyrebellious groups were organized and fought each other to vie fortaking over the power. Generally, at first, they got into a debate.At that time, people all over the country were learning The LittleRed Book. Every time people wanted to say something, anything, theymust quote something from the Little Red Book first. Even when anyonewas to write some self-criticism paper, he must also begin with aquotation from it. Sound ridiculous? That's the fact at the time. Sowhen a debate began between two groups, the debater in each groupmust quote something from the Little Red Book to prove that what hewas saying was in accordance with Mao's instruction. Then the debaterfrom the other group followed suit. But no one could persuade theother. It was called “Quotation Battle” since both sides usedMao's quotations to prove they were the right side. Debates oftencontinued in a fight. But it seemed that quotations from the LittleRed Book contradicted each other, or how could the opposite groupsboth cite from it to support their different opinions?
    Therebels among workers in Shanghai called their organization asShanghai Worker Revolutionary Rebellious Headquarters. Thecommander-in-chief of this headquarters was Pan Guoping, a youngworker from a factory. The famous Wang Hongwen was, at the beginning,the vice commander-in-chief, who was a Party member and a cadre ofthe lowest rank. On the 3rd of January, 1967, Zhang Chunqiao and YaoWenyuan, two members of the Gang of Four, came back to Shanghai fromBeijing and supported Wang Hongwen to seize power from Shanghaimunicipal authorities. Pan, being too young, was out of power, andwas only made a member of the revolutionary committee. This event wascalled “January Storm”, which caused the power-seizing action todevelop to the whole nation. That was what Mao desired.

  7. #167
    V.Quarrel in Huairen Hall in Beijing in February


    HuairenHall is in Beijing, a gathering place for meetings of the leaders ofthe central committee of CPC. The event began like this: during the“January Storm” in Shanghai, Chen Pixuan, the first secretary ofShanghai municipal party, was afraid of the chaos to paralyze themunicipal administration and called Tao Zhu, a member of the centralcultural revolutionary group on the 3rdday of January, 1967. Previously on the 25thday of December, 1966, to protect those old revolutionary cadres, TaoZhu had had a severe quarrel with Jiang Qing, Kang Sheng, and ZhangChunqiao, who were those tools Mao used to fight Liu and Deng, andtheir local supporters. After the power seizing, Zhang Chunqiaobecame the head of Shanghai.
    WhenTao Zhu received the call from Chen in Shanghai, he went to see Maoand reported it. Mao looked like supporting Tao when Tao was in hispresence. But Tao was soon removed from office. Then, premier ZhouEnlai, said to be instructed by Mao, drafted a list of old cadres forprotection, including all the first secretaries of provinces. Theywere escorted to Beijing so that no one could harm them. But ChenPixuan, the first secretary of Shanghai, was detained by ZhangChunqiao, which was the fuse of the dispute in Huairen Hall.

  8. #168
    Inthe afternoon on the 16thday of February, 1967, premier Zhou summoned a meeting in HuairenHall. When Tan Zhenlin met Zhang Chunqiao at the gate, Tan askedZhang why Chen Pixuan was not coming. Zhang said that Chen wasdetained by the revolutionary crowds in Shanghai. At the meeting, thequestion of Chen's absence was mentioned again and other old cadreswere also infuriated that the central cultural revolutionary groupwanted to push aside all the old cadres and take over power intotheir hands. They used the so-called revolutionary crowds who hadactually been organized by them as an excuse to fight old cadres. YeJianying, a leader of the liberation army, criticized Jiang Qing andZhang Chunqiao, etc., for their intention to let the revolutionarycrowds to attack the army and take over the command of the army fromthe old cadres. Ye broke his little finger when he slapped his handon the table in ire. If at the beginning of the cultural revolution,the old cadres did not yet realize what Mao and his supporterswanted, now they came to be clear that they wanted to push aside theold cadres, or even torture them to death so that they could ruleChina by themselves.
    Onthe 18thday of February, Mao summoned the central political bureau, andtaking off his two-faced mask, jumped forth to criticize old cadres,to the delight of Jiang Qing, Wang Hongwen, Zhang Chunqiao, and YaoWenyuan, the so-called “Gang of Four.” This event was literallycalled “Current against the (revolutionary) flow in February” bythe gang of four. Then the central political bureau stopped itsadministration and the central cultural revolutionary group replacedit, becoming the administrative center of the whole nation. That waswhat Mao wanted and long planned, but none of the gang of four hadthe abilities to run such a vast country like China, and so atlength, Mao had to let Zhou Enlai took charge of the state affairs.
    In1971, after the event of Lin Biao crashing in an military airplane inMongolia on the 13thday of September, the so-called “Current against the flow inFebruary” event was redressed. Mao said that the event was to aimat Lin Biao, which meant that as now Lin “betrayed” the Party andescaped to the Soviet Union, the event against Lin Biao was correctand so must be redressed.

  9. #169
    VI.How did armed fight start the country over?


    Onthe 6thday of May, 1967, the leftists pro the communist party in Hongkong,began a riot against Hongkong government. The riot started withstrike and demonstration, and developed to assassinations, bombingand gun fight. Luckily, it ended in October. 52 people died,including 10 policemen. 1,167 bombs exploded.
    Almosteverywhere in the country, rebels had benefit conflicts amongthemselves and they formed different groups and fought one another.Some, supported by the army, got guns. So gun fight began. Once, eventanks appeared in the streets. The most serious fights were those:
    Fromthe 26thday of February to the 5thday of March, 1967, in XiNing Town of Qinghai province, T55 tanksappeared in the streets and 822 persons died and 1,355 personswounded. From the 2ndday to the 25thday of August, 1967, in Yichun Town of Heilongjiang province, 37government buildings were destroyed and two military camps weregunned down in cannonade. 1,944 persons died and 1,806 personswounded. From August to November, the rebels in Huaihua Town of HuNanprovince occupied some labor-reform farms and factories and resistedthe attack of the army. 37,700 persons died and wounded, including430 military men. The death was 13,300. From June, 1967, to March,1968, in Yibin Town of Sichuan province, more than 170,000 peoplejoined in the fight, including two army regiments. 43,800 personsdied and wounded, the death was 21,100. From October, 1967, to theend of May, 1969, in Inner Mongolia, 56,200 persons were killed, andover 377,000 persons imprisoned, and over 3,550,000 involved,one-fourth of the population of the Inner Mongolia. From April toJuly, 1968, in Nanning Town of Guuangxi province, 22 battles tookplace. Over 101,000 persons died, and 74,000 people wounded. FromDecember, 1968, to February, 1969, in eight ammunition factories inBaoji area of Shaanxi province, out of 70,000 staff, over 45,400workers were judged as reactionaries and 297 among them wereexecuted, which caused rebellion. Tanks, armored cars, cannons, andfire-throwers were used. Over 13,300 persons died, including somegovernment leaders. Later, Mao and the Party strictly forbade thisand the fight gradually subsided in August, 1968, and no more fightafter 1969.

  10. #170
    Theclimax of fighting happened in WuHan City of Hubei province, called7.20 event. At that time, many cities had set up so-calledRevolutionary Committees to replace the local governments, but therewere still places where the fight was going on. WuHan city was one ofthem. The largest group named themselves as “Million HeroicDivision”, though they didn't have a million members. They wereagainst the local authorities supported by the Independent ArmyDivision. It was arranged that on the 16thday of July, 1967, Mao wanted to go to WuHan to swim in the YangtzeRiver. The health of the communist leaders is always a secret, andalso a concern of the nation, or even of the world. At such acritical moment, Mao decided to swim in the river to show that he wasstill healthy at the age of over seventy. But in reality, he wentthere to solve the fighting problem himself. He never had a chance toswim that time. Openly there was a delegation sent there by thecentral committee of CPC to solve the problem. Later, Zhou Enlai wentthere too. But one of the delegation member by name of Wang Li wasdetained and beaten by the revolutionary people of Million HeroicDivision, because they were deemed in the wrong. Their detention of amember of the delegation from the central committee of CPC wasthereby defined as reactionary action. Once they were thought byauthorities to be in the wrong, their doom was already sealed. Andsome other groups supporting the local authorities were in the right.That was the reason for fighting. As a rule, the wrong side would bepersecuted. Therefore, they wanted to keep on fighting in the hope ofturning the table. Why the central committee didn't think much ofthem was because they were mostly common people while their oppositegroups were mostly veterans. When Mao and Zhou stayed in the city,crowds of Million Heroic Division were seen almost everywhere,carrying long swords and guns. So Mao and Zhou felt a danger andthreat. Mao escaped secretly under the protection of his bodyguards.Then Zhou and his followers disguised themselves as members bywearing armbands of Million Heroic Division. When they met the realmembers in the streets, they even shouted, “Final victory isMillion Heroic Division's!” Such things never happened before. Inthe Chinese idea, it is a shame for leaders to escape like this.Anyway, they safely reached the military airport and flew back toBeijing. Once in Beijing, Mao and Zhou maneuvered troops to WuHan forarmed suppression. Wang Li, the member of the delegation, was safelyback to Beijing at last. Thus ended the 7.20 event.

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