Two Republics in China - Page 13

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Thread: Two Republics in China

  1. #121
    On March 21, North Korean truce negotiators expressed their willingness to observe the provisions of the Geneva Convention and exchange sick and wounded prisoners. At the same time they hinted that the exchange might lead to a resolution of other issues that had hindered the armistice so far.
    On March 30, Zhou Enlai, the foreign minister of China, suggested that prisoners of war not desiring repatriation might be placed in the temporary custody of a neutral nation until negotiations determined their final status. Before his proposal, they had insisted on repatriating all the prisoners of war. Their new flexibility on this issue provided an opportunity to resume truce negotiations.
    On the 26th of April, after suspension for six months, armistice negotiations between the Chinese and North Korean delegation and the United Nations delegation reconvened in Panmunjom. Representatives of both sides negotiated details of the repatriation of prisoners of war. Then there followed the exchange of the seriously wounded and sick prisoners—6670 Chinese and North Koreans for 471 South Koreans, 149 Americans, and 64 other United Nations personnel, the count at that time.
    US aircraft spread leaflets in North Korea, announcing that anyone who delivered a MiG or other jet aircraft to the United Nations forces in South Korea would receive political asylum, resettlement in a noncommunist country, anonymity, and $50,000. An additional $50,000 bounty would go to the first person to take advantage of this offer. In September 1953, after the cease-fire, a North Korean MiG-15 pilot flew his aircraft safely to Kimpo air base in South Korea.

  2. #122
    In the last week of May, the Chinese and North Korean troops made a major ground offensive against the United Nations positions on ridges dominating the US I Corps sector, about 10 miles northeast of Panmunjom. Meanwhile, the armistice negotiations faltered over disagreements regarding the repatriation of the prisoners of war. The Chinese and North Korean delegates wanted North Korean prisoners unwilling to return to their homelands to be detained indefinitely, in effect punishing them for their decision. The United Nations delegates wanted to release all prisoners to civilian status on the day the armistice became effective. To let the Chinese and North Koreans know that the continuance of the war would incur additional political and economic costs, the US Air Force attacked targets in North Korea that had been untouched previously. They bombed irrigation dams, whose destruction would, besides interrupting food production, disrupt further preparations for a ground offensive on the part of the Chinese and North Korean army by flooding the rails and road networks.
    By mid-June, both sides had agreed to establish a Neutral Nations Repatriation committee. The final session of armistice negotiations at Panmunjom convened. After meeting for one day, the top negotiators agreed to adjourn while technical experts worked out the cease-fire details.
    At 10:00AM on July 27, 1953, the armistice agreement was signed to produce the cease-fire in the Korean War between the United Nations forces, South Korea, and the Chinese People’s Volunteers, North Korea. In accordance with the armistice agreement, in August, the prisoners of war were exchanged in Operation Big Switch—77,000 Chinese and North Korean army prisoners of war, for 12,700 prisoners from the United Nations and South Korean army, including 3,597 Americans, the final count. (The above data was taken from the US government booklet entitled “The USAF in Korea”.)

  3. #123
    Chapter 10. The 3 Anti-’s and 5 Anti-’s Movements

    The 3 Anti-’s Movement

    In November 1951, two party secretaries in Tianjin were caught embezzling funds. Therefore, on December 1, 1951, the Central Committee of the Communist Party launched the cost-saving movement which was literally called “Three Anti-’s”: anti-embezzlement, anti-waste, and anti-bureaucratism. This movement was targeted at cadres of the government and government-run enterprises; the ones who had power. Mao wanted to clip their wings. At that time, there were 3,830,000 government cadres. They would be examined through this movement.
    The cadres could be divided into three categories. The first were those who had gone through the Sino–Japanese War and the second civil war, who should be dependable. The second category included those newly employed after the establishment of the new republic. The third group were those having worked in the former government, who were undependable, of course. Those who were guilty of the crime of embezzlement were called “tigers.” Through this movement, the Communist Party wanted to “catch big tigers” so that there would not be any embezzlement in the government any more. Anyone who embezzled 10,000 yuan was defined as a big tiger and would be executed. In China, political movements were often carried out with violence. So many targeted persons committed suicide, even though they were cadres.

  4. #124
    The 5 Anti-’s Movement

    Right in the wake of the three Anti-’smovement, another program was launched, which was literally called“Five Anti-’s”: anti-bribery, anti-tax-evasion,anti-jerry-rigging, anti-stealing-government-property, andanti-theft-of-government-economic-information. The target of thismovement was all the national capitalists; the ones who had money. Infeudal societies like Imperial China, the emperor considered thateverything on the land he ruled over was his own, and everyone onthis land essentially worked for him. Verbally, Mao declared himselfas a Marxist-Leninist, but his actions often made him look like the“communist emperor of the Red Dynasty.” His actions showed peoplewhat he thought; he didn’t put it in plain words. And given the lowlevel of development and widespread poverty in China, the Communistsunder Mao sought to cover the basic necessities of life for everyone;and that didn’t leave much extra. All excesses would beconfiscated.
    On the 26th of January, 1952, theCentral Committee of the Communist Party issued instructions for theFive-Anti-’s movement. In early February, it started in all the bigcities, aiming at businessmen. The Party defined them as capitalists.The Party divided Chinese capitalists into two types: bureaucraticcapitalists like Chiang Kai-shek, Soong Tse-ven, K’ung Hsiang-hsi,and the Chen brothers, who were very wealthy and were called the fourbig capitalist families. All the property they left on the mainlandwas confiscated. All others were defined as national capitalists, andtheir properties remained with them for the time being. Now they werethe target of the five anti-’s movement.
    The local governments organizedso-called work teams consisting of cadres, workers and shopassistants. Violence was part of every movement. Some capitalistswere beaten or slapped in their faces. Capitalists were forced toconfess what they had failed to do so far in these five categories.This was called ‘face to face fight.’ Quite a few capitalistscommitted suicide. Then the government changed from face-to-facefight to a back-to-back tactic. Workers or shop assistants justrevealed the crimes of their bosses, behind their backs, so that noretaliation could be inflicted.

  5. #125
    Statistics showedthat during these two movements, in the whole country, 184,270persons were arrested, 119,355 party members expelled, and 133,760people were killed or disabled, including those committing suicide orbeaten to death, or tortured to death in jails and labor reformcamps. Those who committed suicide were mostly capitalists. The meansof suicide were various. In some secluded corners of public parks,people were found hanging from big trees. Then, patrols increased toprevent hangings in such places. The most popular method of suicidewas to jump from high buildings. It was the easiest way, and hard toprevent. But it was dangerous for pedestrians. A person who jumpedfrom a height could possibly fall on the head of a pedestrian and thepedestrian could be killed, while the one jumping survived. Someoneactually did some research to see why people in Shanghai did not jumpinto the Wangpu River. The answer was that if anyone jumped into theriver, he could possibly be saved; besides, if he was not saved hisbody would be washed out to sea. When his body was not found, thegovernment would suspect him of escaping outside the country and hisfamily would get into trouble. So he had to leave his body to befound. Generally a suicide would leave a note, in which he firstcriticized himself for whatever crime he had been accused of, then hepraised the government so that his family would be treated a littlebetter than otherwise. Poor Chinese people! Even suicide was fraughtwith difficulties.
    Both of the “Anti” movements endedin October 1952.
    At the end of the 5 Anti-’s movement,the government determined that every national capitalist had at leastcommitted the crime of tax-evasion and would have to pay a big fineto the government. So all the capitalists had to sell personalbelongings like cars, jewelry, or even houses, if they did not haveenough cash in the bank. That was the first financial blow to thenational capitalists. Another financial blow would soon follow.

  6. #126
    Mao’s Own Lifestyle

    Mao wanted government officials to savemoney and he took money out of the pockets of the well-to-do. Thushis own spending raised a lot of questions in some people’s minds.He could spend as much as he saw fit. He ordered many villas to bebuilt for his own use only. They were needed, apparently, to providethe best protection and comfort for him. He had over 50 villas in thecountry, 5 in Beijing alone. The villas were all similarly built:looking like a big cement warehouse from outside, but one that couldprotect him even from an atom bomb. Every villa, or bunker, was onlyone storey tall, but they were located in beautiful settings, somewith lakes. The whole surroundings were enclosed. In the vicinity ofevery villa, a transportation network was built, such as a militaryairport, a train line, and a tunnel for cars. Wherever Mao went, thethree means of transportation followed him. When he rode in hispersonal airplane, the airspace would be cleared while his plane flewpast. When he rode in his personal train, other trains had to stopwhile his train went past.

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