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  1. #121
    On March 21, North Korean truce negotiators expressed their willingness to observe the provisions of the Geneva Convention and exchange sick and wounded prisoners. At the same time they hinted that the exchange might lead to a resolution of other issues that had hindered the armistice so far.
    On March 30, Zhou Enlai, the foreign minister of China, suggested that prisoners of war not desiring repatriation might be placed in the temporary custody of a neutral nation until negotiations determined their final status. Before his proposal, they had insisted on repatriating all the prisoners of war. Their new flexibility on this issue provided an opportunity to resume truce negotiations.
    On the 26th of April, after suspension for six months, armistice negotiations between the Chinese and North Korean delegation and the United Nations delegation reconvened in Panmunjom. Representatives of both sides negotiated details of the repatriation of prisoners of war. Then there followed the exchange of the seriously wounded and sick prisoners—6670 Chinese and North Koreans for 471 South Koreans, 149 Americans, and 64 other United Nations personnel, the count at that time.
    US aircraft spread leaflets in North Korea, announcing that anyone who delivered a MiG or other jet aircraft to the United Nations forces in South Korea would receive political asylum, resettlement in a noncommunist country, anonymity, and $50,000. An additional $50,000 bounty would go to the first person to take advantage of this offer. In September 1953, after the cease-fire, a North Korean MiG-15 pilot flew his aircraft safely to Kimpo air base in South Korea.

  2. #122
    In the last week of May, the Chinese and North Korean troops made a major ground offensive against the United Nations positions on ridges dominating the US I Corps sector, about 10 miles northeast of Panmunjom. Meanwhile, the armistice negotiations faltered over disagreements regarding the repatriation of the prisoners of war. The Chinese and North Korean delegates wanted North Korean prisoners unwilling to return to their homelands to be detained indefinitely, in effect punishing them for their decision. The United Nations delegates wanted to release all prisoners to civilian status on the day the armistice became effective. To let the Chinese and North Koreans know that the continuance of the war would incur additional political and economic costs, the US Air Force attacked targets in North Korea that had been untouched previously. They bombed irrigation dams, whose destruction would, besides interrupting food production, disrupt further preparations for a ground offensive on the part of the Chinese and North Korean army by flooding the rails and road networks.
    By mid-June, both sides had agreed to establish a Neutral Nations Repatriation committee. The final session of armistice negotiations at Panmunjom convened. After meeting for one day, the top negotiators agreed to adjourn while technical experts worked out the cease-fire details.
    At 10:00AM on July 27, 1953, the armistice agreement was signed to produce the cease-fire in the Korean War between the United Nations forces, South Korea, and the Chinese People’s Volunteers, North Korea. In accordance with the armistice agreement, in August, the prisoners of war were exchanged in Operation Big Switch—77,000 Chinese and North Korean army prisoners of war, for 12,700 prisoners from the United Nations and South Korean army, including 3,597 Americans, the final count. (The above data was taken from the US government booklet entitled “The USAF in Korea”.)

  3. #123
    Chapter 10. The 3 Anti-’s and 5 Anti-’s Movements

    The 3 Anti-’s Movement

    In November 1951, two party secretaries in Tianjin were caught embezzling funds. Therefore, on December 1, 1951, the Central Committee of the Communist Party launched the cost-saving movement which was literally called “Three Anti-’s”: anti-embezzlement, anti-waste, and anti-bureaucratism. This movement was targeted at cadres of the government and government-run enterprises; the ones who had power. Mao wanted to clip their wings. At that time, there were 3,830,000 government cadres. They would be examined through this movement.
    The cadres could be divided into three categories. The first were those who had gone through the Sino–Japanese War and the second civil war, who should be dependable. The second category included those newly employed after the establishment of the new republic. The third group were those having worked in the former government, who were undependable, of course. Those who were guilty of the crime of embezzlement were called “tigers.” Through this movement, the Communist Party wanted to “catch big tigers” so that there would not be any embezzlement in the government any more. Anyone who embezzled 10,000 yuan was defined as a big tiger and would be executed. In China, political movements were often carried out with violence. So many targeted persons committed suicide, even though they were cadres.

  4. #124
    The 5 Anti-’s Movement

    Right in the wake of the three Anti-’smovement, another program was launched, which was literally called“Five Anti-’s”: anti-bribery, anti-tax-evasion,anti-jerry-rigging, anti-stealing-government-property, andanti-theft-of-government-economic-information. The target of thismovement was all the national capitalists; the ones who had money. Infeudal societies like Imperial China, the emperor considered thateverything on the land he ruled over was his own, and everyone onthis land essentially worked for him. Verbally, Mao declared himselfas a Marxist-Leninist, but his actions often made him look like the“communist emperor of the Red Dynasty.” His actions showed peoplewhat he thought; he didn’t put it in plain words. And given the lowlevel of development and widespread poverty in China, the Communistsunder Mao sought to cover the basic necessities of life for everyone;and that didn’t leave much extra. All excesses would beconfiscated.
    On the 26th of January, 1952, theCentral Committee of the Communist Party issued instructions for theFive-Anti-’s movement. In early February, it started in all the bigcities, aiming at businessmen. The Party defined them as capitalists.The Party divided Chinese capitalists into two types: bureaucraticcapitalists like Chiang Kai-shek, Soong Tse-ven, K’ung Hsiang-hsi,and the Chen brothers, who were very wealthy and were called the fourbig capitalist families. All the property they left on the mainlandwas confiscated. All others were defined as national capitalists, andtheir properties remained with them for the time being. Now they werethe target of the five anti-’s movement.
    The local governments organizedso-called work teams consisting of cadres, workers and shopassistants. Violence was part of every movement. Some capitalistswere beaten or slapped in their faces. Capitalists were forced toconfess what they had failed to do so far in these five categories.This was called ‘face to face fight.’ Quite a few capitalistscommitted suicide. Then the government changed from face-to-facefight to a back-to-back tactic. Workers or shop assistants justrevealed the crimes of their bosses, behind their backs, so that noretaliation could be inflicted.

  5. #125
    Statistics showedthat during these two movements, in the whole country, 184,270persons were arrested, 119,355 party members expelled, and 133,760people were killed or disabled, including those committing suicide orbeaten to death, or tortured to death in jails and labor reformcamps. Those who committed suicide were mostly capitalists. The meansof suicide were various. In some secluded corners of public parks,people were found hanging from big trees. Then, patrols increased toprevent hangings in such places. The most popular method of suicidewas to jump from high buildings. It was the easiest way, and hard toprevent. But it was dangerous for pedestrians. A person who jumpedfrom a height could possibly fall on the head of a pedestrian and thepedestrian could be killed, while the one jumping survived. Someoneactually did some research to see why people in Shanghai did not jumpinto the Wangpu River. The answer was that if anyone jumped into theriver, he could possibly be saved; besides, if he was not saved hisbody would be washed out to sea. When his body was not found, thegovernment would suspect him of escaping outside the country and hisfamily would get into trouble. So he had to leave his body to befound. Generally a suicide would leave a note, in which he firstcriticized himself for whatever crime he had been accused of, then hepraised the government so that his family would be treated a littlebetter than otherwise. Poor Chinese people! Even suicide was fraughtwith difficulties.
    Both of the “Anti” movements endedin October 1952.
    At the end of the 5 Anti-’s movement,the government determined that every national capitalist had at leastcommitted the crime of tax-evasion and would have to pay a big fineto the government. So all the capitalists had to sell personalbelongings like cars, jewelry, or even houses, if they did not haveenough cash in the bank. That was the first financial blow to thenational capitalists. Another financial blow would soon follow.

  6. #126
    Mao’s Own Lifestyle

    Mao wanted government officials to savemoney and he took money out of the pockets of the well-to-do. Thushis own spending raised a lot of questions in some people’s minds.He could spend as much as he saw fit. He ordered many villas to bebuilt for his own use only. They were needed, apparently, to providethe best protection and comfort for him. He had over 50 villas in thecountry, 5 in Beijing alone. The villas were all similarly built:looking like a big cement warehouse from outside, but one that couldprotect him even from an atom bomb. Every villa, or bunker, was onlyone storey tall, but they were located in beautiful settings, somewith lakes. The whole surroundings were enclosed. In the vicinity ofevery villa, a transportation network was built, such as a militaryairport, a train line, and a tunnel for cars. Wherever Mao went, thethree means of transportation followed him. When he rode in hispersonal airplane, the airspace would be cleared while his plane flewpast. When he rode in his personal train, other trains had to stopwhile his train went past.

  7. #127
    Chapter11. The So-Called Gao Gang & Rao Shushi Anti-Party Event

    Mao was familiar with Chinese politicalhistory. When certain new dynasties began, the first emperors ofthose dynasties would find fault with some of their faithfulsupporters who were deemed by those emperors to be potential threatsto their future as rulers. Therefore, those supporters were killed orimprisoned for whatever possible crimes could be attributed to them.So was the case with Gao Gang and Rao Shushi.
    Gao (1905–1954) came from a poorpeasant family in Shaanxi province. In January, 1927, he entered theYat-sen Military Academy in XiAn and joined the Communist Party inFebruary. In 1933, he was the political commissar of the 42nddivision of the Red 26th army. In the Communist Armysystem, a political commissar was the representative of the CommunistParty in the army, a little higher in rank than the divisioncommander. Then he was appointed director of the political departmentin the Red 15th corps. But in 1935, he was imprisoned as areactionary and was about to be executed. Just at that time, Mao andZhou Enlai reached the northern Shaanxi province, with the centralRed Army. Mao ordered Gao to be released and Gao was so grateful toMao he became Mao’s faithful supporter ever after. So in the 7thconference of the Communist Party, he became a member of the CentralPolitical Bureau (equivalent to the executive department of theCentral Committee) and the secretary of the northwest bureau. (Allover the country, the Communist Party set up six bureaus. Everybureau rules over several provinces.)
    After Japan surrendered, the CommunistParty intended to occupy the northeastern provinces and set up anortheast bureau. Gao was appointed the secretary to take charge ofeverything in that region. In 1946, Lin Biao was sent up to thenortheastern provinces as the commander of the 4th fieldarmy and he worked with Gao in a cooperative relationship. Often theyboth had the same view. After the new republic was established, Gaowas the vice chairman of the central people’s government, the vicechairman of the people’s revolutionary military committee, and alsothe chairman of the people’s government in the northeastern area.After the Korean War broke out, though Gao disagreed on sending theChinese army into Korea, he still gave full support in supplyingwhatever the army needed there. So Marshal Peng Dehuai praised himfor that. Gao was also the chairman of the national planningcommittee—clearly, a very capable man.

  8. #128
    Rao Shushi (1903–1975) was born inJiangxi province. He joined the Communist Party in 1925. Then he wasmade the secretary of the party caucus of the Federation of LaborUnions of Shanghai and the secretary of the party caucus of theChinese National General Labor Union. During the Anti-Japanese War,he was the political commissar of the new 4th army. Duringthe second civil war, he was the political commissar of the 3rdfield army and the secretary of the east China bureau of theCommunist Party. When the new republic was founded, he was thechairman of the east China military and political committee, thefirst secretary of the east China bureau, and then the minister ofthe organization department of the Central Committee of the CommunistParty. Also an intelligent, qualified leader.
    Gao’s and Rao’s paths in life hadnever crossed each other; they were in different regions entirely.But they were both accused of the crime of being anti-Party together.Anyway, why were they not accused of being anti-Party separately? Itwas understood that no man could act against the Communist Party ofChina, only a clique could try that. And you need at least twopowerful persons to form a clique (the same held true during theCultural Revolution, when Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping were puttogether as the powerful men accused of following the capitalistroad).
    In accordance with the officialstatement of the Communist Party, the main accusations against Gaowere: criticizing mistakes and errors in the national economic field,namely decisions concerning Liu Shaoqi and Zhou Enlai, members of theSecretariat of the CPC (Communist Party of China) Central Committeein charge of that field. From the same source, Gao was understood tohave further slandered them by saying that Liu and Zhou Enlai hadcliques in the Central Committee. Gao and Rao were alleged to havespread a rumor that An Ziwen, the vice minister of the organizationdepartment of the CPC Central Committee, had put up a list of themembers of the CPC political bureau, at the instruction of Liu. (Thatmeant that Liu privately let An make such a list behind the back ofMao.) Then Gao left Beijing on a vacation to see Deng Xiaoping, ChenYun and Lin Biao separately and tried to persuade them to supporthim. What would his purpose have been? The official statement allegedthat Gao wanted to replace Liu in his higher political position. Butwhy would Rao work with Gao? What could Rao get from it? The officialstatement said that Rao wanted to acquire the power to appoint andpromote the cadres. But at that time Rao was already the minister ofthe organization department of the CPC Central Committee and alreadyhad that power.
    In 1951, Gao thought of publishing anarticle he had written as an editorial in the Northeast Daily,but rather than take it upon himself to do so of his own accord, hehanded in the article for Mao to read and give his approval first.Think of that. Historians surmise that Mao did want to get rid ofLiu, which he did in the Cultural Revolution, but at that time, theconditions were not yet ripe. Conceivably Gao got the wind of it andacted earlier than Mao planned. Mao had to get rid of him lest hiscat got out of the bag.

  9. #129
    Another surmise, which came fromKhrushchev’s memoirs, was that Gao had sent information to theSoviet Union about things that were going on in the Communist Partyof China and what the leaders said. The Soviet Union had providedChina with old, rebuilt tanks, and some such things, and the Chineseleaders were dissatisfied. Those leaders included Liu and Zhou. Gaodid not mention Mao. To secure Mao’s trust and friendship, Stalingave Mao the information he had received from Gao. Therefore, Maowanted to get rid of Gao (but why was Rao included?) and madearrangements with Liu and Zhou. Mao gave Gao the false impressionthat he wanted to rid Liu, or even hinted that Gao should dosomething about it. Gao, thinking that he had Mao’s support, fellinto the snare Mao set up for him. Gao was then taken into custody.He attempted a suicide in April 1954, but in vain. He made anothersuicide attempt in August and died this time. Rao was apprehended onApril 1, 1955, and sentenced to 14 years. After 10 years he was outof the jail, but was put back in again during the Cultural Revolutionand died on March 2, 1975.
    It was said that Rao was arrested dueto his involvement in another case. During the movement to arrest andkill the reactionaries, Yang Fan, the chief of the police station ofShanghai, thought of a method to use reactionaries to reveal hiddenreactionaries. In the process, he did not punish those he utilizedand so he was accused of protecting reactionaries—more than 3,300in number. This involved Rao. Moreover, Pan Hannian, a vice mayor ofShanghai in charge of police affairs, feared that since he had workedwith Rao and Yang Fan, he would have to confess his side of the storyto the Party so that he might ride out the crisis. He confessed thatin the summer of 1943, he went to Shanghai from where the new 4tharmy was encamped to meet Li Shiqun, a traitor to Japan, and he waskidnapped and taken to Nanking to see Wang Jingwei. Although he didnot betray the Communist Party, when he was back at the camp he didnot report to the Party what had happened. Now he confessed it andwas arrested. Then Rao Shushi, Pan Hannian and Yang Fan were definedas an anti-Party clique. This clique was separate from the Gao Gangclique.
    After the Cultural Revolution, somecases were re-opened and examined. Pan was sent by the Party tocontact the traitor Li to get information. So his case was redressed,and also the case of Yang Fan. Now what about Gao’s and Rao’s“anti-Party” activities? When Gao had sought Deng Xiaoping’ssupport against Liu Shaoqi, Deng reported to Mao, and Gao wasimprisoned. If Gao’s case was wrong, it shows that Mao’s decisionto confine Gao was wrong and Deng’s report to Mao was also wrong.After the Cultural Revolution, Deng Xiaoping was in power and hewould never own that he had done anything wrong, to save face. So thecase was not redressed.

  10. #130
    Chapter12. China’s First Five-Year Plan (1953–57)

    Agricultural Collectivization and Peasant Cooperatives

    As the basis for their ambitiouseconomic planning, the CPC held China’s first modern census in1952. The mainland population was estimated at over half abillion—that’s a lot of mouths to feed. The first step towardimproving efficiency and productivity involved land reforms.
    During the land reform movement, firstthe arable land was taken from wealthy individuals and distributed toindividual peasants and their families. But then the Communist Partycalled upon peasants to join productive cooperatives, on a“voluntary” basis but with invisible political pressure behindit. Once they joined the cooperative, peasants lost control of theirland, which automatically belonged to the cooperative. Thecooperative would decide what crops to grow and when harvests weresold, peasants got a certain percentage of income according to thequantity of the land a peasant put in. When a peasant had his landunder his own control, he could decide what to grow and what part ofthe harvest he would keep for his own use, and the rest he would sellin the market.
    By the end of 1952, the first 3,600cooperatives were operating on a trial basis. On the 16thof December, 1953, the Central Committee of the CPC passed a bill tospeed up the development of agricultural productive cooperatives.From 1954 to the first half of 1955, cooperatives sprang up all overthe country. In spring of 1954, there were already 95,000cooperatives, which meant that 1,700,000 families had joined them. Inautumn of the same year, the cooperatives had increased to more than225,000. On May 17, 1955, at Mao’s proposal, the Central Committeeof the CPC decided to expand the cooperatives to one million in 1956.By July of 1955, the cooperatives reached the number of 650,000 andby the end of 1956, 96.3% of peasant families had joined thecooperatives.
    That was the essential change of theagricultural productive style from individual to collective. Thisprocess roughly coincided with the consolidation of America’sprivate farms into a large-scale industrial agro business which wascarried out by capitalist means involving loans and debt, pricemanipulation and other methods. Different means to pursue the sameend, although not with the same results.


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