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Thread: Two Republics in China

  1. #111
    On November 23, Shanghai followed suitand began to close all the whorehouses. In Shanghai 7,400 prostituteswere sent to penitentiaries and turned over a new leaf. During 1951and 1952, all other cities did the same and prostitution was clearedup in China. As there were so many women who had to build a new life,some of them were sent to join the so-called construction army in thevery remote northwest, the Xinjiang Autonomous Region. In April of1955, 920 girls started from Shanghai, in new green uniforms, androde a train to barracks there.
    Besides the prostitution problem,another problem in the cities was the great number of beggars,homeless and thieves. They were also rounded up by the local policeand put in penitentiaries. Then after skills-training, they got jobs,too. During these years, passengers in trams and buses had no fear ofpickpockets. Even housewives, if any needed to work to earn money,could be assigned jobs in some kind of factory or low-paying“productive group.” Jobs in the productive groups includingsealing envelopes, making match boxes, or knitting work, etc. Jobswere not searched out and applied for, but allotted by the localgovernment.

  2. #112
    Chapter9. The Korean War

    North Korea Invaded South Korea

    A legend about Korea and China goesback to the end of the Shang Dynasty (1765–1122 BC). The last kingof that dynasty was a tyrant and often killed innocent people, evenhis courtiers. When he was overthrown by the Zhou Dynasty (1121—476BC), he burned himself to death. His brother Jizi escaped to Koreawith his followers, bringing Chinese culture, etiquette andgovernment systems there. The natives supported him to be the firstking of Korea. It was called Jizi Korea, which lasted from 1122 BC to194 BC.
    The Korean War, or Korean Conflict,began on June 25, 1950, when the North Korean army marched across theline of demarcation, the 38th parallel, and suddenlyattacked the 17th Regiment of the South Korean armywithout any warning. The war ended on July 27, 1953, when thecease-fire agreement was signed.
    The Soviet Union was behind North Koreain waging the war, helped by China. Before the war, the leader ofNorth Korea asked China to send over three divisions composedentirely of Koreans. These became the 4th field army underLin Biao. The three divisions doubled the military forces of NorthKorea. Then North Korea concentrated great numbers of tanks andtroops to press the South Korean army southward. Meanwhile NorthKorean troops made an amphibious landing at Kangnung on the eastcoast right on the south side of the 38th parallel. ThenNorth Korean fighter aircrafts attacked Seoul and Kimpo Airfield,destroying a US Air Force C-54 on the ground on Kimpo Airfield.Therefore, John Muccio, the US Ambassador to South Korea, conveyed toUS President Truman the request of South Korean government for airassistance and ammunition.

  3. #113
    The United Nations Security Councilheld an emergency meeting, which the representative of the SovietUnion did not attend. The United Nations Security Council called inunison for an immediate cease-fire and withdrawal of the North Koreanarmy to the north of the 38th parallel and authorized theUnited Nations members to aid South Korea. The United NationsSecurity Council requested that the US government establish a UnitedNations Command under an American officer. General MacArthur wasappointed as commander of the United Nations army, and he ordered theUS Air Force to attack the North Korean units in the south of the38th parallel.
    The US government began the airevacuation of its citizens from South Korea. The next day, the NorthKorean army occupied Chunchon, Pochon, and Tongduchon in South Korea.So the US 7th fleet sailed north from the Philippines. TheUS Air Force started to attack the North Korean army, but failed toprevent it from advancing. Soon the North Korean army captured Seoul,the capital of South Korea, overran the port of Inchon, seized theairfield at Kimpo, and threatened the city of Suwon. Then PresidentTruman ordered some units of US navy to approach the Korean peninsulafor the purpose of blockading the North Korea army.
    At the end of July, as the North Koreantroops kept advancing, the United Nations forces had to retreat to anew defensive line along the Naktong River. Then the United Statestroops launched their first ground offensive, marching from Masanwestward toward Chinju to stabilize the southwestern end of the Pusanline. A few days later, US troops, with the aid of air strikes, drovethe North Korean army at the Yongsan bridgehead back across theNaktong River.

  4. #114
    September was the turning point. At thebeginning, the North Korean army almost reached the brink of totalvictory, but at the end of the month it was in full withdrawal to thenorth side of the 38th parallel. The North Korean army’sweek-long offensive did not succeed in driving the forces of UnitedNations and South Korea into the sea. By mid-September when theEighth Army was ready to attack, the United Nations forces found thatthey were facing a North Korean army that was out of ammunition andother necessary supplies. Simultaneously, General MacArthur launchedan amphibious attack at Inchon. The attackers drove a wedge betweenthe North Korean army in the south and its chief supply routes in thenorth, intending to press the North Korean army against the EighthArmy marching from the southeast. So the North Korean army had tobeat a quick retreat northward.
    Close to the end of the month, UStroops from Inchon and Pusan joined each other near Osan. The UnitedNations army took 125,000 North Korean soldiers prisoners of war. TheSouth Korean government was now back in Seoul. And the United Nationsand South Korean forces reached the 38th parallel.
    The Joint Chiefs of Staff commandedGeneral MacArthur to wipe out the North Korean army once and for allso that there would be no further conflict. To do so, they would haveto march across the 38th parallel into North Korea. Onlythe South Korean army was allowed to do that. So for the first timethe South Korean troops marched into North Korea. Toward the end ofOctober, the South Korean army reached the Yalu River on the Koreanside, but without intending to cross the river into China.

  5. #115
    China Sent So-Called Chinese People’s Volunteers IntoKorea

    As the South Korean army did not enterthe territory of China, according to reason and international law,the Communist Party of China should not send its army into Korea.However, the so-called Chinese People’s Volunteers crossed theriver into Korea. Could this also be called an invasion? At firstMarshal Lin Biao (There were 10 marshals in China) was appointed thecommander of the Chinese People’s Volunteers, but he refused totake the assignment. Marshal Peng Dehuai took the position of thecommander. The eldest son of Mao Zedong joined the Volunteers, thoughnot as a fighter. No one knew why Mao let his son join. When the sondied accidentally, it was said that Mao blamed Marshal Peng for it,for not providing adequate protection for his son.
    The Chinese forces seriously savaged abattalion of the South Korean army near Onjong. In this battle thefirst Chinese prisoners of war were captured. Then Chinese soldiersattacked the 6th Infantry Division of the South Koreanarmy. Although the US Air Force bombarded the bridges on the YaluRiver, the Chinese soldiers used pontoon bridges and even crossed theriver by walking on the thick ice. Toward the end of November, theChinese army doubled its numbers and fiercely attacked the UnitedNations army and stopped their further advance. Then the Eighth Armyin northwest Korea and the X Corps in northeast Korea withdrewsouthward and at last were back to the 38th parallel. TheX Corps withdrew by sea. The thick snow provided a good cover for thetargets in North Korea.

  6. #116
    Some US troops were surrounded by theoutnumbered Chinese army in the Changjin Reservoir area. The UStroops fought their way to Hagaru-ri, and at the same time a reliefcolumn from Hungnam marched toward the troops, reaching Koto-rialmost seven miles away. The Chinese army, in great numbers,prevented the two groups from uniting and surrounded bothrespectively. The US troops were only receiving air supplies. The USunits tried to break out from Hagaru-ri and Koto-ri, and finally theylinked up. Then eight C-119s dropped bridge spans to the encircled USunits so that they could cross a 1500-foot-deep gorge to break theencirclement of the Chinese army.
    Toward the end of December 1950, theChinese forces crossed the 38th parallel and assaulted theUnited Nations troops. The Eighth Army built their defensive line 70miles from the 38th parallel. Just at the beginning of thenew year, 1951, almost half a million Chinese and North Korean armytook a new ground offensive, and so the Fifth Air force raided theirtroop column. As great numbers of Chinese troops advanced, the EighthArmy began to evacuate from Seoul, the capital of South Korea. TheSouth Korean government moved to Pusan. Seoul changed hands again asthe Chinese troops rushed in. In the mid-January, the Chinese armytook Wonju, reaching their farthest extent of advance into SouthKorea.
    To disrupt a new offensive of theChinese army, the US X Corps marched forth, aided by air support, tonear Hoengsong. On the east coast the troops of South Korea crossedthe 38th parallel and entered Yangyang. In mid-February,three Chinese divisions surrounded the United Nations troops,including members of the US 23rd Regimental Combat Teamand the French Battalion at a road junction of Chipyong-ni in thecentral Korea. But a few days later, the Eighth Army wiped out alarge number of Chinese troops and moved the United Nations linenorthward to the Han River. Therefore, the Chinese army had nopresence on the south side of the river. The Communist Party of Chinaalways used the same trick to wipe out their opponents, but this timetheir own army was wiped out.

  7. #117
    In mid-March, the Chinese forcesabandoned Seoul without resistance when the US troops seized the highground on both sides of the city north of the Han River. Then US airtransports, flying from Taegu to Munsan-ni, a region behind Chineselines some 20 miles northwest of Seoul, dropped the 187thAirborne Regimental Combat Team and two Ranger companies—more than3,400 men. The Fifth Air Force fighters and light bombers conqueredthe opposition of the Chinese army, and so the United Nations forcesmarched rapidly to the Imjin River, capturing 127 Chinese prisonersof war. The Eighth Army moved northward across the 38thparallel.
    With the coming of spring, the Chineselaunched an all-out offensive with over 330,000 troops, using their“human wave” tactics. By the end of this month, they advanced tothe vicinity of Seoul again. But under the United Nations assaults onthe ground and in the air, both men and supplies on the Chinese sidereached their limits. So the Eighth Army successfully stopped theirfurther progress.
    In spite of the resistance of theChinese and North Korean army, the United Nations forces broke intothe Pyonggang-Chorwon-Kumhwa “Iron Triangle” fortifiedsanctuaries just north of the 38th parallel. Therefore, onthe 23rd of June, Jacob Malik, the Soviet Ambassador tothe United Nations, called for negotiations between therepresentatives of the United Nations forces and those of the Chineseand North Korean forces for an armistice in Korea based on theseparation of the armies along the 38th parallel.
    On the 10th of July, ViceAdmiral Turner Joy, leading the United Nations delegation met theChinese and North Korean delegation at Kaesong, some 30 milesnorthwest of Seoul on the south side of the 38th parallel,for the first conference of the armistice negotiations. Therefore,less actions on the ground and in the air was maintained. But on the4th of August, the Chinese ground forces violated theKaesong neutral zone, resulting in suspension of the truce talks.Then on the 10th of August the armistice negotiationsresumed at Kaesong with the North Korea promise to respect theneutral zone. However, on the 22nd of August, the Chineseand North Korean delegation trumped up evidence that a United Nationsaircraft bombed Kaesong (not considering the safety of their owndelegation?), which resulted in the suspension of the armisticenegotiations once again.

  8. #118
    Then actions on the ground and in theair resumed. United Nations ground forces withstood thebattalion-sized attacks of the Chinese army in the “Punchbowl”,the circular valley in the eastern Korea, west of the Soyang Riverand rimmed by sharply rising hills. On the 25th ofOctober, at the request of the Chinese and North Korean delegation,the peace negotiations resumed at Kaesong after a two-monthsuspension. By that time the United Nations ground forces in thewestern and central sections had gained up to six miles in someplaces along the frontline.
    On the 12th of November, thepeace negotiations moved to Panmunjom, a village less than 5 mileseast of Kaesong, in a newly established demilitarized zone on the38th parallel. The United Nations forces ceased offensiveground operations. Toward the end of 1951, the negotiators atPanmunjom argued over the arrangements for an armistice andprovisions about the prisoners of war. Ground actions of both sidesreduced to minimum. However, at Panmunjom, the negotiations made noprogress. To prevent the further attack of the Chinese and NorthKorean army in the frontline, the main strategy of the United Nationswas to hinder the transportation of equipment and supplies to theirfront positions. So the targets of the air raid concentrated onbridges on rivers, railroads, moving trains and trucks.
    In April of 1952, there were two majorground engagements. The Chinese and North Korean forces attacked atnight the positions held by the First Marine Division south ofPanmunjom and later assaulted the First Commonwealth Division northof Korangpo-ri. The friendly units withstood these attacks. No otherground actions happened this month.
    In June, US 45th InfantryDivision in the central sector near Chorwon launched two attackssuccessfully to gain a high ground and repulsed the counterattack ofthe Chinese troops. But in July, in the eastern sector of Korea, nearthe coast and near Hill 266 in the US Second Infantry Division area,a battalion of the Chinese army attempted to seize the high ground.It changed hands several times, but remained under the friendlycontrol at the end of the month.
    In mid-August, somereinforced-battalions of the Chinese army attacked the United Nationspositions in several sectors. Hills in the First Marine Divisionsector and in the South Korean Second Corps sector changed handsseveral times, but United Nations forces retained control of thosesectors.

  9. #119
    On the 29th of August, atthe request of the US Department of State, US Far East Air Forcelaunched the largest air attack against Pyongyang to serve as adramatic military action during the visit of China’s premier, ZhouEnlai, to the Soviet Union. The State Department hoped that theattack might lead the Soviets to urge the Chinese to accept anarmistice in the peace negotiations at Panmunjom.
    In September, the heaviest groundactivity centered in the sector of the Second Corps of South Koreanarmy with intense seesaw fighting, but effected little change in thefrontlines.
    Between the 6th day and the15th of October, the Chinese ground forces assaultedchiefly in the western IX Corps area northwest of Chorwon in a vainattempt to improve their position before the onslaught of winter. Inmid-October, the Eighth Army launched an offensive to seize criticalhigh ground in eastern IX Corps area northeast of Kumhwa. But itbecame a seesaw contest to retain domination terrain.
    On the 8th of October, trucetalks at Panmunjom recessed over the issue of forced repatriation ofthe prisoners of war. The United Nations delegates proposed allowingthe prisoners of war from opposite sides to choose repatriation ornot, but the Chinese and North Korean delegates insisted that allprisoners of war be repatriated.

  10. #120
    On the 16th of October,1952, North Korea sent a strongly worded protest to the Far EastCommand concerning the recess in armistice negotiations, but theycontinued to insist on total repatriation of both Chinese and NorthKorean prisoners of war. At the end of this month they presented anew prisoners-of-war camp list. In Geneva, the League of Red Cross Societies recommended that the combatants exchange sick and woundedprisoners of war before the cease-fire.
    On the 22nd of January in1953, Beijing radio announced the capture of Colonel Arnold, pilot ofa B-29 who was shot down on January 13. But the Chinese governmentrefused to release him even during the repatriation of war prisoners.He was released in 1956.
    On the 22nd of February, ina letter to Kim Il Sung, Premier of North Korea government andMarshal Peng Dehuai, Chinese commander in North Korea, the UnitedNations command stated its readiness to immediately repatriate thoseseriously ill and wounded prisoners of war who were fit to travel,and asked whether the North Korea and Chinese leaders were preparedto do the same.
    During the first half of March, theChinese army attacked in company-sized waves in several areas,particularly along the central front in the Kumhwa and Kumsongregions. Later, sometimes, they attacked by the regiment in thecentral and western sectors. Then US Intelligence found the militarystrength of the Chinese army growing, with from one to three Chinesedivisions en route to or entering the Korean peninsula. The buildupindicated a possible offensive to seize as much territory as possiblebefore the armistice.

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