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  1. #101
    Even those Party members who had workedas communist spies in the former government were deemed traitors andkilled; let alone those generals who had changed sides from ChiangKai-shek’s government to the Communist Party. They were alsokilled. In some people’s opinion, those generals, if they saw nohope of winning the day, should have gone abroad to live a free, safelife, not change sides to the Communist Party to be killed later.They should have known that the Communist Party had killed their owncomrades even while they were still at YanAn. Those comrades believedin communism and went there to help wage the revolution. They couldnever dream that they would die in the hands of their own comrades inthe name of revolution. Talk about betrayal.
    Then there was the “Revolt ofRestitution Party.” It involved over 1,300 persons, including 80Communist Party members, in PuEr Town in Yunnan Province. PuEr isfamous for its PuEr tea. Even the town’s party secretary and thedeputy director-general of the police station were included. Thefirst party secretary of the province said that he did not believeit. The party organization itself could not get so many members insuch a short time—how could a reactionary organization achieve it?Then it was found that the case was made up. No evidence at all,except for one sign calling for revolt, which was drawn by a primaryschool teacher under threat. So the ridiculous case was dismissed.
    In January of 1954, Xu Zirong, the viceminister of the police department, reported the statistics. In thismovement, over 2,620,000 people were apprehended, “over 712,000were executed, over 1,290,000 were imprisoned, and over 1,200,000were placed under police control. Over 380,000 were released becausetheir crimes were not serious.” If 712,000 were executed, the ratiowas 0.124% as the population at that time was 500 million.

  2. #102
    TheSuppression of Bandits

    There were two types of banditsoperating at this time. One was the kind who had already been banditsduring the civil war owing to the chaotic situation. Many of themwere common people who had had no other way to survive. The otherwere former soldiers of the National Army who had escaped from thePeople’s Liberation Army to dwell in the mountains. They acted asguerrilla warriors for the National Party, but were deemed bandits bythe Liberation Army. Most of those bandits hid in the mountainoussouthwestern regions, but some lived in towns.

    Bandits in Western Hunan

    When most of Hunan province fell to theCommunists, some of those men still loyal to the National Armysettled in Western Hunan and formed three groups called theAnti-Communist Army, over 100,000 in all. From October 14 to 16,1949, the 47th Liberation army besieged Dayong andannihilated their 122nd army (4,333 men) and incorporated12,000 into the Liberation army. This battle frightened otherbandits. Some of them decided they’d better go ahead and join theLiberation Army. But when the Liberation Army marched towards thesouthwest, they no longer wanted to surrender. On the contrary, inmid-December, they went to take back Dayong. Some of these banditsattacked a squad of the Liberation Army and killed some local armedpersonnel and pillaged 20 trucks belonging to the army.
    To deal with the deterioratingsituation, the 47th Liberation Army returned to theWestern Hunan province and occupied 8 towns. The bandits escaped tosome caves in the mountain. The Liberation Army found the familymembers of the bandits and made them go into the mountains to asktheir husbands to come down and surrender. Finally the LiberationArmy attacked the caves and eliminated the rest of the bandits inOctober.

  3. #103
    Banditsin the southwestern provinces

    There were 148 groups of bandits inYunnan province, 541 groups in Guizhou province, and 300 groups inSichuan province. The big groups had a few thousand men. In February1950, the bandits in all those areas grew from 400,000 to 500,000.
    To annihilate them, the Communist Partysent the 3rd corps, the 4th corps, the 5thcorps, and the 18th corps, plus the 7th army toseparately attack the bandits in different districts. The attacksbegan in March 1950. During one month, the Liberation Army wiped outseveral groups of bandits numbering 23,000 in southern Sichuanprovince. By the end of July, 950,000 were eliminated in the easternSichuan province. After September, the Liberation Army in the easternSichuan province maneuvered to the region in the northeastern Guizhouprovince and annihilated another 320,000 bandits there. By the end of1950, over 193,000 bandits were eliminated in the eastern Sichuanprovince, over 293,000 in the southern Sichuan province, over 83,000in the western Sichuan province, and over 80,000 in the northernSichuan province. It was reported that by 1953, more than 1,160,000bandits in the northwestern provinces were wiped out, and over 700cannons and over 600,000 firearms of all kinds were captured. Duringthe whole process, the bandits assassinated 157 Liberation Army menand local cadres, spread poison 223 times, and set 316 fires. In1952, the bandits received 10 airdrops including 13 radio sets, and14 trained spies were sent from Taiwan and landed in those areas.

    Bandits in the western Guangxi province

    The bandits gathered more than 90,000men, spreading over 97 towns out of 102 towns in western Guangxi.They killed more than 500 cadres, took away more than 28,000,000catties of grain (17 tons) and more than 260,000 livestock. They hidin Dayao Mountain. The Liberation Army gathered 14 regiments plusmilitiamen from 18 towns, and blockaded all the waterways and roadsto outside. The bandits tried to break through and escaped more than40 times, but in the end it all failed. On the 8th ofJanuary, 1951, the Liberation Army started into the Dayao Mountainand wiped out more than 400 men in mountain villages. But the banditswere spread throughout the mountains, and so on the 2nd ofFebruary, the Communist Party gathered 13 battalions to go village byvillage and cave by cave searching for them. This campaign went onfor 50 days and no more bandits were left in that area. Theringleaders were all executed.

  4. #104
    Aspecial case

    A weird thing happened one evening in1950. Near Wulong Town in the southeastern Sichuan province, therewas a restaurant called Danxin Restaurant which was famous forsteamed buns stuffed with ground meat. But what kind of meat it was,no one knew. Someone suspected that it was the human flesh. In theolden days, there were always stories about steamed buns stuffed withhuman flesh sold in “black inns.” This small restaurant was ameeting place for bandits in this area. The owner of the restaurantwas an old man with a fake hunchback: the real owner had a hunchback,but he had murdered him. He took over the restaurant and brought intwo of his men, disguised as waiters.
    On the 21st of October, tenLiberation Army soldiers passed the restaurant. They were on theirway back from the mountain fighting bandits. As they were tired andhungry, they went into the restaurant. They were served steamed buns.A young soldier observed that the meat stuffing didn’t taste likepork, or mutton or beef. So he asked the owner what meat it was. Theowner turned to leave without answering the question. Soon thesoldiers were drugged, lying on the floor, and were dragged to thebasement.
    At daybreak on October 23, another fiveliberation soldiers came into the restaurant and were also served thesteamed buns. Soon they all lay on the floor and were put into thebasement. Next, more than 100 soldiers came, but this time theyentered the restaurant without asking for any food. They had learnedthat this restaurant was a hideout and meeting place for bandits andhad come to arrest those working here. The basement was found and 5newcomers were still lying on the ground; two of the former tensoldiers were still alive. The other eight soldiers had been killed.One of the two was the squad leader and he told the story. He went onto live his life; but the other, a younger soldier, went mad and wasput into an asylum. He died in March of 1959.

  5. #105
    How CPC treatsTibet

    I. Previous relationshipbetween Tibet and China
    Therelationship between Tibet and China began the earliest in TangDynasty (618—907 AD). In the year of 640 AD, when the famousemperor Tang Taizong (01/28/598—07/10/649) was on the throne(626—649), Srongtsen Gampo,the sovereign of Tibet at the time, dispatched his premier to thecapital of Tang Dynasty, bringing 5,000 taels of gold and many kindsof other treasures as gift and asked for the hand of a princess. TheTang emperor was pleased and granted the request of marriage. Alegend had it that chieftains of other minorities close to theterritory of Tang Dynasty also desired to marry the princess. Theemperor wanted to test the wisdom of all the emissaries to decidewhom he should choose as his foreign son-in-law, and so gave them ariddle to see who could solve it. He gave them a thin silk thread anda piece of jade with a zigzag hole in the middle, not straightthrough. Whoever could get the thread through the hole, his sovereigncould marry the princess. No one could do it except the premier fromTibet. He got an ant and tied the thread on the ant. He blew hisbreath at the ant and it went through the winding hole carrying thethread through. Therefore, Princess Wencheng (625—680) was sent toTibet and married the Tibetan sovereign. The princess brought withher the Chinese culture, the silkworm, seeds of grains, herb medicineand medical equipments, etc. The Tibetan sovereign built the PotalaPalace in Lhasa for her, in imitation of the style of Tang palace. Inthe year of 740 AD, another princess of Tang Dynasty married thegreat grandson of Srongtsen Gampo. At that time, Tibet was anindependent nation and did not belong to China. It was at most deemeda subordinative state to Tang Dynasty, but only in name, as they hadmarital relationship. Certainly not part of China.
    Atthe beginning of the Qing Dynasty (1636—1912), Qing army had onceconquered Tibet. However, Tibetans were still free to keep theirculture and religion. But with the fall of the Qing Dynasty, Tibetdeclared its independence in 1913, which was recognizedinternationally at the time. So Tibet should be deemed an independentstate. When the national government was established, Chiang Kai-shekhad sent twice the envoy, but he did not take any military means toput Tibet under his rule.

  6. #106
    II.CPC (Communist Party of China) wants to change Tibet to their liking
    Onthe 6th of October, 1950, the communist army defeated the Tibetanarmy, which had to surrender. So under the order of communistgovernment, Tibet had to send a delegation to Beijing. On the 23rdof May, 1951, the communist government forced Tibet to sign the“Seventeen Point Agreement for the Peaceful Liberation of Tibet.”(The Communist Party of China always uses ridiculous words to coverup the facts. Their so-called “Liberation” is the equivalent tovanquishing and rule by force. How can it be peaceful? Mao's famousquotation is “Political power comes out of gun.”) In theagreement, the Communist Party of China promised autonomy in Tibet,and freedom of religion, but when the communist army entered Tibet,they went back on their promise and never gave Tibet autonomy, andinterfered with their belief, just like they had promised Chinesepeople a united government, democracy and freedom of speech, whichare still written in their constitution, but when they seized power,they broke the promise and exercised one-party tyranny. That is thebasic problem why the Tibetan people are opposing the communistparty, for their breaking their promise. Their promise is not wortheven a farthing. The believer in their promise is always found to bedisappointed. In 1959 when Mao was pushing his reform all over thecountry, he wanted to have reform of some kind in Tibet, too. Thecommunist party never wants to know what people really think andreally need. They just force their ideas on people. If people refuseto take their ideas, they just exercise oppression or even slaughter.That was why from the 10thday to the 20thday of March, 1959, 100,000 Tibetans followed Dalai Lamaover Mt. Himalaya and escaped to the north of India. Then thecommunist party began to persecute the Tibetans.

  7. #107
    Whydid Dalai Lama want to escape from Tibet to India? The event of Lhasahappened like this. In the morning of the 10thof March, 1959, people of Lhasa thronged outside Norbulingka summerpalace, where Dalai Lama lived. Their purpose was to prevent DalaiLama from going to the camp auditorium of the communist army to watchsome performance. Why did they want to do this? The situation at thattime in Tibet told the reason. The Tibetans were really angry withthe communist army who came to occupy their land and didn't give themautonomy. CPC set up their puppet government called the “PreparatoryCommittee for the Tibet Autonomous Region” to rule over Tibet. SoTibetans vented their dissatisfaction by preventing their leader fromgoing to mix with the communist army. People who surroundedNorbulingka shouted, “Chinese, get out of Tibet.” Though DalaiLama declared that he wouldn't go in hopes that people woulddisperse. But they still gathered there without intention to leavewhatsoever.
    Whenthe army leaders reported to the Central Party committee, CPCconcluded that the reactionaries in Tibet wanted to kidnap DalaiLama. Therefore, on the night of the 11thof March, CPC instructed the army leaders in Tibet to prepare for themilitary action. On the 12thof March, Mao instructed his army leaders “to induce the enemy toattack.” Why? Because the army could “counterattack” on thepretense that the enemy attacked first. It meant that CPC and Mao hadalready made the decision for killing, not having a peace talk withTibetans to iron the differences. This is the rule of CPC to dealwith people under their control, just like in the event of TianAnMenSquare on the 4thof June, 1989, Deng Xiaoping had already decided for the killing ofthe students. No matter how Zhao Ziyang made efforts to have talkswith students.

  8. #108
    Actuallyin 1950, Dalai Lama decided to cooperate with the communistgovernment, regardless of the advice of his brother in India then toleave Tibet as soon as possible. However, after his cooperation withCPC for five years, he was so disappointed in CPC as Tibetans grewangrier and angrier at the communist government since the governmentforced land reform in the region Tibetans lived. The resistance ofthe Tibetan people was already on the swing. So Dalai Lama was nowbetween the devil and the deep sea. He didn't want to support hispeople for armed riot, not could he send his troops to kill his ownpeople. So his last decision was to escape to India. At first he hadstill hesitated, but the explosion of two Mortar shells from thecommunist army very close to his residence expedited his escape. Theevent ended with the communist army killing the Tibetans inprotestation.
    Howto maintain a peaceful relationship with minorities, there was muchexperience and examples in the history of China. Even the feudalrulers, that is, emperors, knew that if they wanted a peacefulrelationship with minorities, they must win their hearts, not justconquer them physically. If they conquered them by force, they wouldnot obey peacefully. The leaders of the communist party, especiallyMao, who had read a lot of history books, should know the principle.But in reality, those leaders, including Mao himself, are thebelievers of force and violence. Whenever anything happens, they liketo use strong angry words for threatening. They never know lenience.That's why people all over the world often criticize them just inhopes that they can change their attitudes to listen reasonably toothers and act to the common standards of the world.

  9. #109
    The Land Reform in the Countryside

    As early as 1946, the Communist Partyhad carried out some reform policies in the districts under theircontrol. On October 10, 1947, they issued new land laws to distributethe arable land to those who actually tilled it. They expropriatedthe landowners and gave the land to the peasants, thus winning muchgratitude and support from the rural populace. This support took twoforms: grain and army recruits. Since most of the population in Chinawas in the countryside, when the forces of the National Partydiminished, the Communist Party gained reinforcements by recruitingyoung peasants.
    From winter of 1950 to spring of 1953,the land reform movement began in full swing in all the newlycontrolled provinces. They divided the arable land belonging tolandowners among peasants. On June 30, 1950, the central people’sgovernment issued the “Land Reform Law of the People’s Republicof China.”
    Many Party cadres formed work teams andwent to the countryside to instruct peasants on how to proceed. Thelandowners were pulled out of their residences and taken to an openspace. They were forced to kneel for long periods on the hard ground.Those peasants who hated their landowners went forward to slap theirfaces, and they slapped hard. But the humiliation and sense ofinjustice were worse than the physical pain. Many of the landownerswere shot to death. Their families were deprived of their property,leaving them only with the bare necessities of life. Peasants movedinto the landowners’ houses.

  10. #110
    Prostitution Reform in Cities

    Prostitution was an old business inalmost every nation in the world. Prostitution in China had a historyof 3,000 years in written records, and it was generally practiced incities. Most prostitutes were forced to be in this business; some hadeven been kidnapped and sold to the whorehouse. Occasionally littlegirls were sold to the whorehouse by poor parents on the verge ofstarvation. The parents reasoned that at least their daughter wouldnot starve to death that way. Therefore, girls who were prostituteswere not considered blameworthy for their own sake. (In the presentChina, the importance of money has increased and it is true that mostwho become prostitutes do it of their own accord. There are cafes andclubs where a man can pay a young and pretty girl to keep him companywhile sipping tea, coffee or other drinks, or to dance, and he caninvite the girl for more. These girls were called ‘Miss.’ Sonowadays, if anyone calls a girl ‘Miss,’ she will find itinsulting.)
    At the beginning of the People’sRepublic of China, the Communist Party wanted to end the prostitutionbusiness once for all. So every local government closed all thewhorehouses in their cities, starting with Beijing. The mayor simplydeclared, at 5 o’clock in the afternoon on the 21st ofNovember in 1949, a ban on the prostitution business and closed allthe whorehouses. The chief of the main police station in Beijing gaveorders to gather 2,400 cadres and policemen to form 27 groups. At8:00PM, every group went to the designated district, and 224whorehouses were closed and 1,316 prostitutes were penned up inpenitentiaries for half a year. After “re-education” and healingand a skills-training process, about 400 of them married workers andshop assistants to start their new life. Around 200 of them marriedpeasants in the suburbs of Beijing. Another 200 became workersthemselves in textile factories. It is said that 379 returned totheir respective homes, while 62 were assigned jobs in theaters orhospitals.


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