100 Famous Women in China - Page 8

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  1. #71
    67.Qiu Jin (a female martyr against Qing dynasty)
    QiuJin (1875—1907 AD) was born in Amoy in Fujian province. She learnedkungfu when a little girl and admired Hua Mulan and Qin Laingyu (seeabove). She liked to dress in man's apparel. She called herself“Swords Woman of Mirror Lake,” which lake was in her homeland.
    In1896 AD, she was married to Wang Tingjun (1879—1909 AD), who ran apawn shop in Xiangtan town. Qiu Jin moved to live with her husbandthere. In 1900 AD, Wang was assigned an official position in Pekingand the couple went to live in Peking. She bore two children for him.
    In1903 AD, she went to Japan to learn Japanese language at first.During her stay in Japan, she took part in the revolutionaryactivities with Chinese students there. In July of 1905 AD, shejoined SunYat-sen'salliance, a revolutionary league against Qing dynasty, and wasassigned to be in charge of the revolutionary activities in Zhejiangprovince. When she returned next year, she became a teacher inShanghai.
    She planned topublish a newspaper named “Chinese Women.” She needed financialaid. She went back to her husband's family and got a large sum ofmoney for that purpose. She set her heart to wage the revolution, andso she asked to be divorced to her husband lest her action shouldaffect her husband. Her desire of divorce was to protect her husband.If in the process of revolution, she was arrested, her husband hadnothing to do with her action as they were openly divorced.
    In autumn of 1905,two members of the League founded a normal school in Shaoxing town,really for military training. Qiu recruited six hundred members forthe school. In January of 1907 AD, the first issue of the newspaperwas published. She wrote articles for female rights and revolutionaryideas. She toured to towns not far from Shanghai for propaganda ofrevolution. In February that year, she became the school mistress.They planned to rise to arms on the sixth day of July, but the secretwas leaked out. The uprising of her comrades in Anqing town of Anhuiprovince failed. Someone betrayed her to Qing government while othercomrades tried to persuade her to flee, but she rejected, saying thatthe victory of revolution must cost blood. She remained. On thefourteenth day of July, she was arrested in the school. In the prisonshe was tortured, but she confessed nothing. She only wrote, “Autumnwind and autumn rain saddens people.” It was because the first wordin her name Qiu literally meant autumn. She was killed on thefifteenth day.
    Her body was atfirst buried At Xiling Bridge on the West lake in Hangzhou city, butthe local Qing government forced it to be moved. Therefore, in 1909AD, her son moved her body to be buried at Mt. Zhao in Xiangtan town,where her husband's family lived. In 1912 AD, when the first republicwas founded, her body was moved back to be interred again in the sameplace by the West Lake of Hangzhou city. She is admired by allChinese people for her heroic deeds.

  2. #72
    68. Xiao Fengxian(a whore who saved a general)
    Xiao Fengxian(1900—1954 AD) was her nickname. Her real name was Zhu Xiaofeng.Her father was a business man and went bankrupt, and so she was soldto a brothel in Peking. She had an ability to know who was who. Nodisguise in her eyes.
    It was said thatshe had known Cai E (12/18/1882—11/08/1916 AD), who was a generaland the governor of Yunnan province. He came to Peking to seedoctors. But he would go to some brothels when he was free. That waswhy he knew the girl.
    At that time, YuanShikai (09/16/1895—06/06/1916 AD) wished to be the emperor and hedetained Cai E, fearful of his opposition. Cai disagreed to Yuan'sidea to restore China into an empire. Therefore, he wanted to be backto his domain so that he could take up arms against Yuan. Hesucceeded to steal out of Peking with the assistance of the girl. Onenight, the girl rode in her coach out to somewhere, and hid Cai inher coach in disguise. She sent Cai to Tianjing city, where Cai goton board a ship and escaped to Japan, then went back to his Yunnanprovince by way of Hong Kong.
    As for the girl,she later married a brigade commander and did not bear any childrenfor him. In 1949 AD, she remarried to a factory worker, who had adaughter of fourteen year old by his ex-wife. When he died, Fengxianlived with her step-daughter. In the early 1951 AD, she went to seethe famous actor of Beijing opera, Mei Lanfang(10/22/1894—08/08/1961 AD), who admired Fengxian for her help ofCai E to escape. Under his influence, she was arranged to work in anursery. In 1952, she suffered from Alzheimer's disease and died in1954.

  3. #73
    69. Pan Yuliang (a famous paintress and sculptress)
    Pan Yuliang(06/14/1895—06/13/1977 AD) was a famous paintress and sculptress.In 1917, she went to Shanghai to learn how to paint. Next year, shewas enrolled in Shanghai Fine Arts School. In 1921, she went toFrance and was enrolled in Ecole Nationale Superieure des Beaux-Arts– ENSBA in Lyon. In 1923, she entered Ecole Nationale Superieuredes Beaux-Arts de Paris. In 1925, she went to Academy of Beaux-Artsof Rome in Italy. She finished an oil painting titled “White Mums,”which was later displayed in the gallery of Education Bureau inNanking city.
    In 1926, she beganto learn sculpture. Meantime, she completed two oil paintings. Theywere “Fruits” and “Ruins of Rome.” Her art works were alwayschosen to be shown in the international exhibition in Italy. Her oilpainting “Nude” had won the gold medal in the above exhibition.
    In 1928, shereturned to China and at the end of this year, she held her personalart gallery. Next year, she was appointed the director of the WesternPainting Department of Shanghai Fine Arts School. In 1930, shebecame a professor in Central University (the present NankingUniversity), and at the same time, she founded the graduate artsschool in Shanghai. Then she opened an exhibition in Tokyo in Japan.In 1931, she helped to organize the Chinese Arts Society.
    In 1934, ShanghaiZhonghua Book Company published the “Collection of Oil Paintings ofPan Yuliang.” In 1937, she went to Paris again for theInternational Art Exposition. In 1940, when Paris was occupied byGermany, she moved to dwell in the suburb and sold paintings for aliving. She resided in France ever since till her death in 1977.

  4. #74
    70. SoongQingling (the wife of Sun Yat-sen, a revolutionary)
    Soong Qingling(01/27/1893—05/29/1981 AD) was the second wife of Sun Yat-sen(11/12/1866—03/12/1925 AD), who founded a revolutionary league. Herfather was a priest as well as a business man, and also a friend andcomrade of Sun Yat-sen. Hers was a rich family. She had two sistersand three brothers. Her younger sister was well-known to the world.(see next episode.)
    Shegot her education at McTyeireSchool in Shanghai. After graduation, in 1907, at the age offourteen, she went to USA to study at Wellesley College inMassachusetts.Her English name was Rosamond. She got bachelor's degree ofliterature. In 1913, she returned to China. However, in 1915, shewent to Japan and met SunYat-sen there. She became his assistant in his revolutionary career.On the twenty-fifth of October, that year, she married him in spiteof her father's opposition. She followed his footsteps ever sinceuntil he died of cancer in 1925.
    InAugust of 1927, she went to Soviet Union and then to Europe for fouryears. She read works of Karl Marx and studied the core problems ofthe first socialist country and some big capitalist countries. In theSino-Japanese was, she tended to the Communist Party of China.Therefore, in 1949 when CPC established their republic,she was appointed the vice chairman of the republic. In 1950, she waselected the member of World Council of Peace. In 1952, she wasselected the chairwoman of LiaisonCommission for Asia and the Pacific.
    InSeptember of 1954, she was made the vice chairwoman of the StandingCommittee of the First National People's Congress. On the seventh ofApril in 1959, in the first session of the National People'sCongress, she was chosen to be the vice chairwoman of the People'sRepublic of China. In January of 1965, she was once more made thevice chairwoman of the People's Republic of China. In January of1975, she was again made the vice chairwoman of theStandingCommittee of the First National People's Congress. In February of1978, she was given that position again. On the thirtieth of Augustin 1980, she was the executive chairman on the third session of theFifth National People's Congress. On the fourteenth of May in 1981,her liver cancer and other disease worsened. On the fifteenth, thecentral political bureau declared that she was the member of CPC. Andon the sixteenth, she was given the title of honorary chairwoman ofthe People's Republic of China. She died on the twenty-ninth inBeijing.
    It was said thatbesides English, she knew French, German, Russian, Italian and Greek.She could play piano well. She liked classical music of Europe. Shecould cook good dishes and could paint and embroider. She was alltalented.

  5. #75
    71.SoongMay-ling (the wife of Chiang Kai-shek)
    Soong May-ling(03/05/1897—10/24/2003 AD) was born in Shanghai and was the thirdwife of Chiang Kai-shek (10/31/1887—04/05/1975 AD), who was thechairman of the Republic of China. She was then the first lady of theRepublic of China.
    In 1903, she waseducated in McTyeire School in Shanghai. In 1908, at the age ofeleven, she went with her sister Rosamond to USA to study in SouthPiedmont Community College and in 1912, she went to study inWellesley College, MA. In 1917, she returned to Shanghai to work fora church and took part in all sorts of social activities. It was saidthat she had a secret engagement with a friend of her elder brother.
    In 1922, she metChiang Kai-shek in Shanghai. Chiang started to suit her. But herfamily opposed it, because Chiang was married and believed inBuddhism. If he wanted to marry the girl, he must first divorce hiswife and commence to change his belief in church. So he agreed to theconditions. Therefore, on the first of December in 1927, they gotmarried. In 1930, Chiang had the ceremony in a Baptist Church inShanghai.
    In 1928, she becamethe mistress of the school for the young family members of deadsoldiers of the National Revolutionary Army. In 1932, she was thegeneral secretary of Aviation Committee of China. In 1934, Soong andChiang waged the New Life Movement, to promote drinking boiled waterinstead tea and coffee, learning to read and write instead ofilliteracy, having habit of hygiene instead of spitting phlegmeverywhere.
    On the twelfth ofDecember in 1936, Chiang was detained in XiAn city by two generals hesent to attack the army of CPC. At the same time, Soong was inShanghai, being not well. When the news came, she immediately went toNanking city, the capital of Chiang's government. She talked to othergovernment leaders and emphasized on the importance of solving thedispute peacefully. On the fifteenth of December, she flew to XiAncity to negotiate with the two generals and Zhou Enlai, therepresentative of CPC. Finally they reached an agreement and Chiangwas released and came back to Nanking city in company of Soong on thetwenty-fifth.
    In 1937, theSino-Japanese war broke out. Chiang appointed Soong in charge of theair force. She then invited American general Claire Lee Chennault(09/06/1893—07/27/1958 AD) to China to form the “Flying tigers,”the nickname of Chinese air force. Soong was thereby nicknamed“Mother of the Air force of China.” In 1938, Times magazinepublished in USA put Chiang and Soong as cover figures. In Februaryof 1943, to gain the help of America, Soong went to USA as Chinag'senvoy and was received by the first lady of President Roosevelt andstayed in the White House for eleven days. On the twenty-eighth ofFebruary, she made a speech in US Congress. It was the first Chinesewoman speaking in the US Congress. Then she toured to other cities tospeak to American people for support. Statistics showed that almost250,000 Americans had listened to her speeches. It was just after theJapanese attack of Pearl Harbor.
    InNovember of 1934, when Roosevelt, Churchill and Chiang had aconference in Cairo, she went with Chiang as his interpreter sinceChinag could not understand and speak English. In 1945, she lived inChongqing city, which was the temporary capital of China at the wartime since the real capital was then occupied by the Japanese army.She squeezed out time to write a novel titled PastEvents Have Vanished Like Smoke.
    In October of 1946,Soong and Chiang first visited Taiwan. Then they moved to Taiwan whenCPC occupied the mainland. In the sixties, she developed hospitals inTaibei city. In 1975, when Chinag died, she went to live in USA. Onthe twenty-ninth of May in 1981, when her second sister, Rosamond,died in Beijing, the embassy of China in Washington DC told her thesad news and hoped that she could go to Beijing to attend thefuneral, but after the second thought, she declined.
    In 1986, she wentback to Taiwan to attend the 100 anniversary of Chiang's birthday andmade a speech, “I wish that the light of the Three People'sPrinciples will shine over the mainland.” In 1991, she left Taiwanfor the United States again, and never returned to Taiwan ever since.In 1994, she moved to live in New York city. In 1995, it was fiftiethanniversary of the end of the second world war. She was invited toattend the ceremony held for her in Congress for her great tributesin the second world war. She died on the twenty-third of October in2003 at the age of one hundred and six in New York city.

  6. #76
    72. KawashimaYoshiko (a Chinese woman becoming a Japanese spy)
    KawashimaYoshiko (05/23/1907—03/25/1948 AD) was the fourteenth daughter of aMandarin prince. When the Qing dynasty was overthrown, the fathergave this daughter to his friend, a Japanese called KawashimaNaniwain the hope that this Japanese friend could train her as a best spyfor the restoration of his collapsed dynasty. Therefore, in 1912, atthe age of seven, the girl went to Japan with the Japanese man as heradoptive father for strict training. She was then changed her Chinesename Jin Bihui to a Japanese name: Kawashima Yoshiko.
    Several yearslater, Kawashima Yoshiko was all Japanese. Then she was sent toStella Jogakuin Koutouka C3-bu—a female high school. When she grewup, she cut her hair short like a boy and liked male sports such ashorse-riding, fencing, shooting and judo. She began to wear boy'sclothes.
    Shestarted her spy career in 1927 at the age of twenty-one. She returnedto the Northeastern China, and in Port Arthur, she married aMongolian, but in 1931, she eloped with the Japanese secret servicechief to Shanghai. Then she secretly took part in the September 18thIncidents, which was that the Japanese army in northeastern Chinafirst framed Chinese army for the destroy of Japanese railroad thereand then attacked and occupied Shengyang city, and afterwards, tookall the region of the northeastern China, including all threeprovinces.
    Shealso participated in January 28thIncidents, which was that in 1931 right after the September 18thIncidents, Japanese army started to attack Shanghai and drove theChinese guarding army out of the area. In 1932, she helped toestablished the so-called Manchukuo, a puppet government in the northeastern China and put on the throne a puppet emperor Peter, whohad been the last emperor of Qing dynasty.
    Her purpose was torestore the Qing dynasty, but now as she understood that theManchukuo was only a puppet government of Japan, not the restorationthe Qing dynasty, she was disappointed and used the power in herhands to release some Chinese people arrested by Japanese army. Soshe was deemed by the Japanese army as a dangerous person. In 1934,she was sent back to Japan in confinement. Anyway, she escaped backto China and opened a restaurant in Tianjin city.
    In October of 1945when Japan surrendered, she was arrested by the Chinese governmentand had the death verdict on twenty-second of October in 1945, andwas executed on the twenty-fifth of March in 1948 in the First Prisonin Peking at the age of forth-two.

  7. #77
    73.Zhao Yidi (a woman having a long time love)
    ZhaoYidi (05/28/1912—06/22/2000)wasborn in Hong Kong. She was at first the mistress of general ZhangXueliang (06/03/1901—10/15/2001 AD), commanding the army in thenortheastern China, and then became his wife.
    In 1928, she wentto Tianjin city to attend the Northeast University and got acquaintedwith general Zhang. Thus she became his secretary as well as hismistress. As Zhang had wife, she could not become his wife. But shefollowed him everywhere ever since.
    After the XiAnIncident on the twelfth of December in 1936, when he and anothergeneral were detained by Chiang Kai-shek, he was confined ever sinceand the girl accompanied him in his confinement for as long asseventy-two years. When Chiang escaped to Taiwan, he sent Zhang theretoo. And the girl ensued.
    In 1940, Zhang'swife was diagnosed to have breast cancer and went to USA fortreatment. In 1964, Zhang divorced her and married the girl as hissecond wife. She had a son with Zhang.

  8. #78
    74.Jiang Zhujun (a CPC member killed by KMD)
    JiangZhujun (08/20/1920—11/14/1949) was nicknamed Sister Jiang. She wasborn in Zigong town of Sichuan province. When she was eight yearsold, her mother left her idle father, taking her and her brother toChongqing city, where her uncle lived. At the age of ten, she entereda sock factory and worked as child labor. Since her stature wasshorter than the machine, the owner of the factory specially had a high stool made for her. Next year, she was sent to an orphanage runby a church. She then worked part time and studied part time.
    In1939, she joined the Communist Party of China. In 1945, she wasmarried to Peng Yongwu (1915—194, who was a local partysecretary. After the marriage, she worked for the newspaper publishedby CPC. In the winter of 1947, she was sent to Xiachuandong area tohelp Peng to organize the armed force. She wasa liaisonperson. In 1948, her husband Peng died in a riot against the KMDgovernment. She then succeeded his position and continued therevolution. On the fourteenth day of June in the same year, she wasarrested owing to the betrayal of a comrade. She was imprisoned in aconcentration camp in Chongqing city. She was of course tormented,but she refused to give any information of the Party's work. On thefourteenth day of November, 1949, she was executed at the age oftwenty-eight. She had a son with Peng, and his name is Peng Yun, whonow lives in USA.

  9. #79
    75.Liu Hulan (youngest CPC member, killed by KMD)
    LiuHulan (10/08/1932—01/12/1947) was born in a peasant's family inYunzhouxi Village in the district of Wenshui town in Shanxi province.The village was now renamed as Liu Hulan Village. At that time thatvillage was under the control of CPC. At eight years old, she went toa primary school there and accepted the Party's education. At ten,she joined scouts. In October of 1945, she took part in the “FemaleCadre Training Class” for a month. When she was back, she becamethe secretary of the women'snational salvation society. In May of 1946, she was promoted to be afemale cadre in the fifth district. In June, she joined the Party.
    In the autumn of1946, KMD army came to Wenshui town, and all the party's cadresescaped to the military base in Luuliang Mountains. The Party leadersthought that she was too young to cause the attention of the enemy,and so she stayed. On the twenty-first day of December of the sameyear, the communist militia came to kill the village leader, who hadrejected to cooperate with CPC. Liu Hulan participated in the action.At the time, places often changed hands between CPC and KMD. Then KMDarmy came to arrest local militiamen, CPC soldiers and family membersof CPC caders, six in all. Then Liu Hulan was betrayed and arrested,too, making the number seven. On the twelfth day of January, 1947,KMD army called all the villagers gathering on a square before atemple there. As Liu Hulan was the youngest, the MKD company leadingofficer said to her that if she could declare openly to betray CPC,she could be spared. She said never. Then the other six adultprisoners were killed one by one on a hand hay cutter. At last thegirl was brought forward and asked the question again. As she wouldnot yield, she was also killed in the same way at the age offourteen. She was the youngest Party member.

  10. #80

                1. Yan Shanshan (the first female movie star in China)

    YanShanshan (1896—1952) was the first female movie star in China and also a member of thefemale bomb squadron during the revolution against Qing dynasty in1911.
    Whenshe was in Hong Kong Yide Normal School, she got acquainted with LiMinwei (1893—1953) and on 1931 she was married to him. Then sheand her husband founded the Hong Kong Meihua film Company, and in1914, they made the movie called ZhuangZi Tests his Wife.Zhuang Zi (369—286 BD) was an ancient scholar, who had a bookcollecting his articles. There was a story about how he tested thefaithfulness of his wife to him. Once he feigned to be dead ad buriedin a grave. Before his death, he told his wife that she could remarryif the earth on his grave was dry. Then his wife stayed by the sideof his grave and fanned the earth in the hope that the earth would bedry faster than normally.
    Inthis movie she played the role of a maid of the wife, and her husbandacted the wife. All the female roles in the movie before were playedby males in disguise. That was why she was deemed the first femalemovie star. Afterwards, she joined Shanghai Xinmin Film Company andstarred in Goddessof Peace(1926), FiveRevengeful Girlsin 1928, and RevivingRomancein the same year. She gave up acting in that year.
    YanShanshan was never a jealous woman. On the contrary, when in 1919,she met Lin Chuchu (1904—1979), another actress, she voluntarilyintroduced her to her husband and let her be another wife of LiMinwei. Li and Lin had formal wedding ceremony on the seventh ofJanuary in 1919. In old China it was lawful to have two wives at thesame time. Both wives had the equal status in the family. In 1924, Liand Lin starred the movie Rougeas the male and female main characters. So Lin became a movie star,too. Yan died in 1952 at the age of fifty-six.


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