Chemistry Report


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  1. #1

    Chemistry Report

    Here is my report so far:
    Atoms have a lot of neat properties and I will explain the properties of atoms in this report. We all know that atoms are the smallest subunit that was discovered thousands of years ago and means uncuttable. We also know that they all have protons and electrons and most have neutrons. I will first explain the groups and how atoms in those groups are similar.

    Hydrogen isnít as reactive as some of the other elements and so it is all alone with nothing that has very similar properties.


    Alkali metals are the most reactive on the left of the periodic table and have violent reactions when they interact with other atoms. They want to have a positive charge


    Alkaline earth metals are like alkali metals because they are very reactive but more is found in the earths crust and so the name alkaline earth metals.


    Transition metals conduct electricity and/or heat well, have really high boiling points, and are strong. They are not as reactive though they do react. They tend to have a sea of electrons.


    Poor metals are similar to transition metals but are not as strong, donít have as high of boiling points, and are not as good at conducting electricity and/or heat.


    Metalloids have some properties that make them sort of like the metals and some properties that donít


    Nonmetals donít have any properties of metals. They tend to share electrons in their bonds though they can completely not share the electrons and rather steal the electrons or have the electrons stolen from them.


    Halogens like alkali metals are very reactive but instead of wanting to be positively charged and on the left side of the periodic table they want to have a negative charge and are on the right side of the periodic table.


    Noble gases have their shells completely filled and normally do not want to bond though some like xenon do sometimes bond with other elements.


    Now adding or subtracting protons, electrons, or neutrons leads to a different outcome.

    The addition or subtraction of protons changes the element completely.
    The addition or subtraction of electrons forms ions.
    The addition or subtraction of neutrons forms isotopes.


    Now I will explain the properties of elements and include graphs of the properties.

    The states of matter one is probably the easiest to recognize. At the same temperature different things are liquids, solids, and gases. The lower the temperature the more are solids and overall the less liquids and less gases. Just the opposite for higher temperatures.


    I am using this website for my info:
    http://www.ptable.com/


    I have questions related to using excel to graph chemistry stuff.


    How can I copy 1 number into a whole range of cells because that will help with the states of matter graph?


    Will line graphs be best for all these properties with most having atomic number on the x axis and the states of matter one having temperature in kelvin on the x axis? If so How do I make that first column the x axis because in all the samples I have seen as I go along it is not the x axis but a line with a constant 1:1 slope.

    Also what if there is a gap on the periodic table of a certain property? Should I leave the cell or cells in that gap empty or just put in a 0?

  2. #2
    Woah!
    Chemistry is not all that high your interest meter, is it?

    What school level is this report for?

    What is the exact wording of the assignment you were given?

    Quote Originally Posted by caters View Post
    Here is my report so far:
    Atoms have a lot of neat properties and I will explain the properties of atoms in this report. [Actually, you haven't explained the properties of atoms in this report; you have described some properties of various element groups.] We all know that atoms are the smallest subunit that was discovered thousands of years ago [not discovered but theorised - it was not until the early 20th Century that the existence of atoms was finally proved, and the late 20th Century that atoms were directly imaged] and means uncuttable. We also know that they all have protons and electrons and most have neutrons. I will first explain the groups and how atoms in those groups are similar.

    Hydrogen isn’t as reactive as some of the other elements and so it is all alone with nothing that has very similar properties. I don't know if it's possible to be more wrong. Hydrogen is one of the most reactive elements and readily forms compounds with many other elements; it has similar properties with a number of other elements outside of its assigned Group 1 place on the periodic table. What makes it so unique is that it is the only nonmetal in Group 1 (although it does have some metallic properties under the right conditions) and it can behave as either a cation or an anion; ie, can covalently bond with halogens (Group 17) to form acids, or with alkali metals (Group 1) to form metal hydrides. In both cases, the resulting compounds remain very chemically reactive. The rather explosive bonding of hydrogen to oxygen makes it the fuel of choice for local space travel.


    Alkali metals are the most reactive on the left of the periodic table and have violent reactions when they interact with other atoms. They want to have a positive charge
    Reaction energy decreases going down the Group I column; ie, Lithium is more reactive than sodium, which is more reactive than potassium, and so on. Under normal conditions, alkali metals readily bond with halogens to form ionic minerals we call salts - this is one noticeable difference between the alkali metals and hydrogen.


    Alkaline earth metals are like alkali metals because they are very reactive but more is found in the earths crust and so the name alkaline earth metals. Not quite. The "earth" part of alkaline earths (or alkaline earth metals) is a hangover from the time when chemistry was alchemy, and "earth" was one of the four natural "elements" (the others being "air", "water" and "fire"). Alkaline earths were so named because they were common oxides that did not readily dissolve in water and they remained solid to very high temperatures - decidedly "earthly" properties - and so the metals derived from these "earths" became "alkaline earth metals".


    Transition metals conduct electricity and/or heat well, have really high boiling points, and are strong [hard and dense]. They are not as reactive [as alkali metals] though they do react [and have variable oxidation states]. They tend to have a sea of electrons. [LOL! This is a reference to metallic bonding and its electrical and thermal conductivity due to the loose association of the valence electrons. Yes, it is sometimes described as a "sea of electrons"]


    Poor metals [or Post-Transition metals] are similar to transition metals but are not as strong, don’t have as high of [poor grammar - try "have lower"] boiling points, and are not as good at conducting electricity and/or heat.


    Metalloids have some properties that make them sort of like the metals and some properties that don’t [are not. So, properties, such as? Perhaps something about semiconductors?]


    Nonmetals don’t have any properties of metals. [Mostly; there are exceptions. Most nonmetals are gases, and the rest tend to be volatile (easily vaporised). They tend to be poor conductors and have high electronegative values, which means they easily gain or share electrons and therefore easily form compounds.] They tend to share electrons in their bonds though they can completely not share the electrons and rather steal the electrons or have the electrons stolen from them.


    Halogens like alkali metals are very reactive but instead of wanting to be positively charged and on the left side of the periodic table they want to have a negative charge and are on the right side of the periodic table. [Halogens are the only group to have examples of all three common states of matter (solid, liquid, gas) at room temperature. Halogens form acids when combined with hydrogen, and salts when combined with alkaline elements. The lightest halogen, Flourine, is so reactive it will even bond with the heavier noble gases.]


    Noble gases have their [electron] shells completely filled and normally do not want to bond though some like xenon do sometimes bond with other elements.


    Now adding or subtracting protons, electrons, or neutrons leads to a different outcome.

    The addition or subtraction of protons changes the element completely.
    The addition or subtraction of electrons forms ions.
    The addition or subtraction of neutrons forms isotopes.


    Now I will explain the properties of elements and include graphs of the properties.

    The states of matter one is probably the easiest to recognize. At the same temperature different things are liquids, solids, and gases. The lower the temperature the more are solids and overall the less liquids and less gases. Just the opposite for higher temperatures. [Altering the pressure can also alter the state of some elements.]


    I am using this website for my info:
    http://www.ptable.com/


    I have questions related to using excel to graph chemistry stuff.


    How can I copy 1 number into a whole range of cells because that will help with the states of matter graph?


    Will line graphs be best for all these properties with most having atomic number on the x axis and the states of matter one having temperature in kelvin on the x axis? If so How do I make that first column the x axis because in all the samples I have seen as I go along it is not the x axis but a line with a constant 1:1 slope.

    Also what if there is a gap on the periodic table of a certain property? Should I leave the cell or cells in that gap empty or just put in a 0?
    I'm not sure what you are looking to display on your graphs, or whether you intend to include all known elements or a selection of representative examples.
    Last edited by Cran; April 6th, 2014 at 01:58 PM.
    "I don't know ... I'm making it up as I go ..." - Dr I Jones

    Nature abhors perfection - cats abhor a vacuum!

    "Faith can move mountains - she's a big girl!" (unknown/graffiti)

    If I act like I own the place, it's because I did.





  3. #3
    it is for 9th grade and I am the occasional one that is past 9th grade in my knowledge of math and science. The exact wording of my assignment was to make a report about something you are interested in, and I choose chemistry. Not so much because it is my main interest but rather that I need to learn chemistry in order to have more knowledge of my main interest which is biology.

    As far as the graphing I am wanting to show how the number of solids, liquids, and gases correlates with temperature assuming standard pressure, how the melting point correlates with atomic number, same thing for boiling point and electronegativity,electron affinity(which is how much it wants to be an anion and can be negative, positive, or 0), valence which by IUPAC means the maximum number of univalent atoms that can bond to a particular atom, how ionization energy for 1 to 30 electrons correlates with atomic number, same thing for the 4 different radii, 3 different harnesses, 3 different moduli, STP density, liquid density(which is litterally the average density of the atom in its liquid state), thermal and electric conductivity, specific heat(how much energy it takes to raise 1 gram of a certain substance, in this case a type of atom by 1 degree Celsius), heat of fusion(energy from solid to liquid), heat of vaporization(energy from liquid to gas) and how that correlates with atomic number, The abundance of certain elements in the universe, sun, meteor, earth's crust, the ocean, and the human body(I think 6 different pie charts are best for this), and how the types of radioactive decay correlate with atomic number and the number of total isotopes of that element. I think that for a lot of these the line graph is best but it always includes that atomic number or temperature column that has a 1/1 slope instead of always putting the first column on the x axis.

  4. #4
    Quote Originally Posted by caters View Post
    it is for 9th grade and I am the occasional one that is past 9th grade in my knowledge of math and science. The exact wording of my assignment was to make a report about something you are interested in, and I choose chemistry. Not so much because it is my main interest but rather that I need to learn chemistry in order to have more knowledge of my main interest which is biology.
    "make a report about something you are interested in" - ignoring for the moment that is exactly what you didn't do, is that all? Nothing about what shape the report should take? What sort of things the report should include? Should it be an essay or a properly referenced report of findings? Is it for a science class, or for an English class?

    Yes, you need basic chemistry to study biology; more importantly, you need Organic Chemistry - that is, the Chemistry of Carbon. You need to know why Carbon is the wonder element; what makes it (literally) vital for Life as We Know It. You need to love that it's so important, and so versatile, that it's treated separately from the chemistry of all other elements.

    But, for goodness' sake, why not just do what is asked and make a report about something you are interested in - like biology?

    Biology - the study of living organisms; the study of life itself. It's an entire school of sciences with the odd philosophy thrown in for good measure. It's about formations, origins, evolution and morphologies; where we came from and how we got here. It's about Life, the Universe (according to some), and Everything! It's 42!

    So, why are you interested in biology?

    Why should I be interested in biology?

    What's so important about biology - why does biology matter?

    Why is biology divided into botany and zoology? Are there other divisions?

    Is there a future in biology?

    As far as the graphing I am wanting to show how the number of solids, liquids, and gases correlates with temperature assuming standard pressure, how the melting point correlates with atomic number, same thing for boiling point and electronegativity, electron affinity(which is how much it wants to be an anion and can be negative, positive, or 0), valence which by IUPAC means the maximum number of univalent atoms that can bond to a particular atom, how ionization energy for 1 to 30 electrons correlates with atomic number, same thing for the 4 different radii, 3 different harnesses, 3 different moduli, STP density, liquid density(which is litterally [this is halfway between literally and littorally, which means pertaining to the shoreline] the average density of the atom in its liquid state), thermal and electric conductivity, specific heat(how much energy it takes to raise 1 gram of a certain substance, in this case a type of atom by 1 degree Celsius), heat of fusion(energy from solid to liquid), heat of vaporization(energy from liquid to gas) and how that correlates with atomic number, The abundance of certain elements in the universe, sun, meteor, earth's crust, the ocean, and the human body(I think 6 different pie charts are best for this), and how the types of radioactive decay correlate with atomic number and the number of total isotopes of that element. I think that for a lot of these the line graph is best but it always includes that atomic number or temperature column that has a 1/1 slope instead of always putting the first column on the x axis.
    That sounds like a lot of fun - actually, it sounds like the entire first semester of Chemistry 101 - and you'll get to enjoy explaining the anomalies that show up in most of those graphs or tables (some will work better as tables rather than as graphs). For a 9th Grade assignment, however, it seems a bit like overkill.
    "I don't know ... I'm making it up as I go ..." - Dr I Jones

    Nature abhors perfection - cats abhor a vacuum!

    "Faith can move mountains - she's a big girl!" (unknown/graffiti)

    If I act like I own the place, it's because I did.





  5. #5
    Well I am one of the occasional ones that is above average in science and math for my grade.

    Plus because of how I need to learn chemistry to learn biology it is one of my interests.

    I am going to be a scientist someday helping the medical community.

    The report is for a science class. They didn't really tell me much about the shape of it but I have done science reports before so I know what I am doing.

  6. #6
    Quote Originally Posted by caters View Post
    Well I am one of the occasional ones that is above average in science and math for my grade.
    I'm not sure where that puts the average 9th grade student, but OK.

    Plus because of how I need to learn chemistry to learn biology it is one of my interests.
    The one doesn't necessarily mean the other, but again, OK.

    I am going to be a scientist someday helping the medical community.
    A worthy ambition, and a fine challenge.

    The report is for a science class. They didn't really tell me much about the shape of it but I have done science reports before so I know what I am doing.
    A science report - OK. Looking at your original example above, a 9th Grade science report doesn't follow the standard format:

    Abstract
    Introduction/Background
    Methods
    Findings/Results
    Conclusions
    References

    So I'm at a loss as to how to help you any further. I can only wish you good fortune, and hope that someone more familiar with today's 9th Grade science requirements will step up and offer more worthwhile advice.
    "I don't know ... I'm making it up as I go ..." - Dr I Jones

    Nature abhors perfection - cats abhor a vacuum!

    "Faith can move mountains - she's a big girl!" (unknown/graffiti)

    If I act like I own the place, it's because I did.





  7. #7
    Biology has lots of subdivisions including zoology, botany, cellular biology, anatomy, and much much more.

  8. #8
    Chemistry and the periodic table of the elements are large topics to cover in a single report. You may need to narrow it down to "What you can tell about an element from its position on the periodic table." Then you could use excel to graph the numbers up a group or across a period. For instance, you could explain what first ionization energy is, and then graph it. Pick just one or two properties like that, explain how they change as you move around the periodic table, and how that changes the reactivity of the elements. Think narrow and focused. I don't know when this is due, so I don't want to throw out any huge changes, but another option may be to pick out two to four elements across the periodic table, and explain what their position on the table says about their behavior and explain how they form compounds that are useful to us.

  9. #9
    Quote Originally Posted by Trygve View Post
    Chemistry and the periodic table of the elements are large topics to cover in a single report. You may need to narrow it down to "What you can tell about an element from its position on the periodic table." Then you could use excel to graph the numbers up a group or across a period. For instance, you could explain what first ionization energy is, and then graph it. Pick just one or two properties like that, explain how they change as you move around the periodic table, and how that changes the reactivity of the elements. Think narrow and focused. I don't know when this is due, so I don't want to throw out any huge changes, but another option may be to pick out two to four elements across the periodic table, and explain what their position on the table says about their behavior and explain how they form compounds that are useful to us.
    sound advice
    A conclusion is the place where you got tired of thinking. Steven Wright

  10. #10
    Don't draw attention to what is missing, but invite attention to what is! Practice, composition, trial and error all play vital roles in visual and content presentation. Ash

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