View Full Version : Two Republics in China

April 26th, 2019, 01:50 PM
PartOne: The First Republic—The Republic of China

Chapter 1. 1911: How the Last Dynasty Crumbled and Warlords Took OverRebellion in Wuchang CityA long line of imperialdynasties had held sway over all (or parts) of China from 2100 BCE to1911. China was a world unto itself for much of these 4,000 years,but history went off its tracks when the British came in. Smokingopium had been a serious crime in China, but for the British opiumwas big business. And they made it far bigger by slaughtering andpillaging, overwhelming the Chinese by 1842 and forcing them to openup their nation to foreign trade. Soon, British merchants flooded themarket with opium grown in India, and millions, perhaps more than 10million, Chinese were hopelessly addicted. China was reeling and theQing Dynasty was on the ropes.
The Qing Dynasty(1644–1911) (http://www.travelchinaguide.com/intro/history/qing.htm)had been established by the Manchus, people that had originated innortheastern China (Manchuria). Although some of their ancestors hadperiodically been in power in ancient times, it was the Han peoplethat were (and are now) the largest ethnic group in China. The Hancould not bear the oppression of these Manchus, whose officials, theMandarins, were increasingly corrupt. As the Qing Dynasty sank intomisery, the Han rose up in a series of rebellions hoping to overthrowthe rulers and regain the imperial throne. In an era when some of theambitious young elite were already studying abroad and learningmodern ways, the imperial leaders still maintained a traditional armyusing ancient weaponry including lances and spears. So the overthrowwas easy enough—but what next? Read on, and we’ll see.

April 29th, 2019, 01:16 PM
Sun Yat-sen (1866–1925)was a revolutionary vanguard and he organized the National Party forthe purpose of revitalizing the nation. After a few uprisings werebrutally put down, the last successful rebellion broke out in WuchangCity of Sichuan Province, westward along the Yangtze River, upstreamfrom Shanghai. In May of 1911, the Qing government had nationalizedor appropriated two railways that were private Chinese companies,without giving the owners any compensation, and then sold them toforeigners. Needless to say, the local people wanted to defend theirrights. The most violent reactions took place in Sichuan Province.The Qing government did have a New Army too (trained in the use ofguns and cannons), and they sent them in. But in this division, manysoldiers and even officers were actually members of therevolutionaries. So some leaders of the National Party planned arebellion in the army.
A regiment was camped atthe north gate of Wuchang City. Around 6 o’clock, on the 10thof October, many rebellious soldiers marched toward the armory in thecity with the intention of seizing it. At that time, in the camp aplatoon leader was making his rounds to check on the soldiers and hefound that many were absent. He also saw the squad leader was lyingon his bed, so he yelled at him, “What are you doing? You want torebel?” (That’s a Chinese way of putting down one’ssubordinates.) The squad leader never had thought much of his platoonleader, so he replied insolently, “You said I’d rebel. Now I’mrebelling.” A soldier standing nearby simply shot the platoonleader dead.
Now the battalion leadercame in and he was shot dead, too. Seizing this opportunity, theNational Party’s point man in the new army, who was the leader ofanother squad, declared a rebellion and called for his men to take uptheir arms right then and there.
Soldiers from manydifferent camps came to their aid, the number reaching more than3,000. They controlled a cannon field and attacked the governor’sresidence under the command of Wu Zhaoling, an officer in the eighthbattalion. They called themselves the Revolutionary Army. Thegovernor escaped to a warship on the river. The Revolutionary Armyoccupied the city.
Revolutionaries in Hanyangand Hankou cities also raised the banner of rebellion. On the 11thof October, the Revolutionary Army took over Hanyang City and on the12th day, theyoccupied Hankou City. Three cities in a row.

April 29th, 2019, 01:41 PM
as always no filler but just clear insight on historical events...

May 1st, 2019, 01:27 PM
TheEstablishment of the Republic of China.Then the RevolutionaryArmy founded the military government and asked Li Yuanhong(1864–1928) to be the governor, and they declared the new state tobe the Republic of China. At the beginning of November, at theproposal of Song Jiaoren (1882–1913) and some others, aconstitution was drafted and called “The Temporary Constitution ofRepublic of China.” It had seven chapters and sixty articles. Thegovernment consisted of the governor, the congress and the court.People were granted democratic rights, the right to own privateproperty, and the right to do business. The government decided thatthe 10th ofOctober should be the national day for the Republic of China.
From the 18thof October to the 27thof November, the Revolutionary Army put up strong resistance againstthe army of the Qing government, which was massive. During those 41days, most of the provinces declared their independence; only fourprovinces close to Peking, the capital (now called Beijing), stillsupported the Qing Dynasty. The governors of the independentprovinces controlled the local army and became warlords.
All the independentprovinces formed their own military governments. On the 1stof November, the Qing government appointed Yuan Shikai (1859–1916)premier. On the 1stof December, the Revolutionary Army and Yuan signed a truce. On the2nd of December,the united army of Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces occupied Nanking.On the 12th ofDecember, representatives from all 14 independent provinces gatheredin Nanking for a meeting. On the 17thof December, the representatives elected Li Yuanhong as the GeneralMarshal and Huang Xing (1874–1916) as the Vice General Marshal.
On the 1stof January, 1912, the temporary government of the Republic of Chinaestablished Nanking as its capital, breaking away from the Qing powerbase in Peking, and elected Sun Yat-sen as the temporary president.

May 3rd, 2019, 01:28 PM
On the 12thof February, 1912, the last emperor of the Qing dynasty, Fu Yi(1906–1967, his English name: Henry) abdicated and the last dynastyended, and with it ended the entire imperial system which had begunlong ago and had lasted in much the same form for 2,000 years. Butthe imperial family still lived in the Forbidden City inside Peking.
The new republic had itsnational flag with five colors signifying the unity of five majortribes in China. They were the Han tribe, the Mandarin tribe, theMongolian tribe, the Muslin tribe, and the Tibetan tribe, representedby horizontal bars of red, yellow, blue, white and black.
But the designs of thenational flag for the Republic of China changed a few times, untilthe design was chosen which eventually became the national flag, nowstill used in Taiwan: red background with a blue rectangle in theupper left corner, inside of which there is a 12-cornered white star.
With the establishment ofthe Republic of China, men cut off their queues, or braided pigtails,and wore short hair, more Western style. This style of shaving thefront of the head and wearing the hair in a braid was originallyimposed as a sign of submission demanded by the first Manchu Emperor.When they invaded the southern territories and occupied the lands ofthe Han tribe, they forced them to comply, too. If anyone refused toshave his front hair, he would be beheaded. The famous slogan was“Your hair or your head.” For that reason, there had been aslaughter in Yangzhou city at that time, lasting for 10 days. Sincethe Revolution was victorious, now the pigtail had to go.

May 3rd, 2019, 03:13 PM
I am enjoying this

May 6th, 2019, 01:35 PM
At the same time, womenwere freed of the custom of binding their feet; in fact, a majorcampaign was waged to discourage it. That custom had originated morethan 1,000 years ago and affected all but the lowest workers, whocould hardly afford to cripple themselves. (The Manchu Emperor hadtried to ban it in 1664 but few paid any heed, as beauty, after all,comes at a price.) Now the revolution redefined some of the ideals offemininity and definitively freed women from the agony of crushingtheir feet.
The Qing Dynasty hadpersisted for almost 300 years. Why didn’t it last longer? It wascertainly not the fault of the last emperor, who was only three yearsold when he was put on the throne. The Qing Dynasty had degeneratedover time, as most of them do, and corruption had grown worse andworse in the reign of Empress Dowager Cixi (1835–1908), hisflamboyant grandmother, the subject of my earlier book EmpressDowager Cixi (Algora, 2002).
In the long history ofChina, two different women had managed to rule the country for tensof years. The first one was Empress Wu the Great, during the TangDynasty (AD 618–907). She read a great deal and trained herself asa politician and ruler. She ruled the country well (EmpressWu the Great, Algora, 2008). But EmpressDowager Cixi was no diplomat, no politician, and no wise ruler. Sheadopted wrong-headed policies. She came into power because of herstatus as the empress dowager. In her hands, the mansion of the greatempire crumbled just like a house whose wooden beams and pillars areeaten through by white ants. The last emperor would not have beenable to support it any more, no matter what.

May 8th, 2019, 01:28 PM
TheAmbition of Yuan ShikaiHow Yuan became president of the Republic of ChinaWhen the Republic of Chinaset its capital in Nanking on the 1stof January, 1912, Sun Yat-sen was elected temporary president and LiYuanhong was elected vice president. At that time, the Emperor hadnot abdicated yet. The battle between the Revolutionary Army and theQing army was still going on. The new army of the Qing government wasorganized and trained by Yuan Shikai (1859–1916), its commander.Yuan had a scheme of his own and began seeking a truce with theRevolutionary Army. Then he set his sights on the position of thePresident of the republic and forced the Emperor to abdicate.
Sun Yat-sen had no armythat he himself had organized to support him. He had been electedtemporary president owing to his reputation as a firm revolutionaryagainst the Qing Dynasty. The Revolutionary Army was controlled bythe governors (warlords) of the separate provinces; they signed anagreement with Yuan and refused to fight Yuan for Sun Yat-sen.Therefore, Sun Yat-sen had to give in. He resigned, and he nominatedYuan for president on the 15thof February. Accordingly, Yuan was named temporary president of therepublic. As a rule, the president ought to live in the capital,which was Nanking, not Peking where Yuan lived. Yuan refused to comesouth because he could not bring his army south and would instead becontrolled by the Revolutionary Army. After negotiations, theRevolutionary Army had to give in and let Yuan take office in Peking.But the congress was still in Nanking, controlled by the nationalParty.

May 10th, 2019, 02:04 PM
In February 1913, thecongress elected Song Jiaoren to be the Premier of the cabinet. Atthat time, Yuan had Zhao Binjun as his premier. However, on the 20thof March, Song was assassinated at the railway station in Shanghai.When the assassin was caught, evidence on his person linked him toZhao—actual letters between Zhao and the assassin, no less. So thenational Party drew the conclusion that Yuan was behind it. Zhaoresigned under pressure from the press. Duan Qirui (1865–1936) wasappointed to take over the office of the premier.
After the assassination,Sun Yat-sen, who was at the time on a visit in Japan, came back toShanghai and summoned a meeting of the national Party. He suggestedavenging Yuan with armed force, though some other leaders like HuangXing tended to appeal to less violent conduct.
On the 26thof April, Yuan asked for a syndicate loan of 25 million Britishpounds from the lending consortium in China consisting of England,France, Germany, Russia and Japan. The national Party thought thatthe loan request was illegal, as it would require approval by thecongress first. In May, Li Liejun, the governor of Jiangxi province,Hu Hanming, the governor of Guangdong province, and Bo Wenwei, thegovernor of Anhui province, declared their opposition to the loan.The three governors were all members of the national Party. In June,Yuan gave orders to remove the three from their positions asgovernors. On the 3rdof July, Yuan sent the sixth division of his new army to Jiangxiprovince.

May 13th, 2019, 01:25 PM
Under instructions fromSun Yat-sen, Li Liejun declared the independence of Jiangxi provinceon the 12th of thesame month, and formed a separate headquarters from which to opposeYuan. On the 15th,Huang Xing reached Nanking and declared the independence of Jiangsuprovince. Quite a few provinces followed suit.
On the 22ndof July, the national Army from Jiangsu province fought a battle withYuan’s army at Xuzhou of Shandong province and was defeated. Thenational Army was conquered in some other places, too. Then all theindependent provinces had to rescind their declarations ofindependence. Yuan issued orders to arrest Sun Yat-sen and HuangXing, who had already escaped to Japan. This event was called theSecond Revolution, but it ended in failure.
On the 6thof October, the congress held a session in Peking and the congressmenwere forced to elect Yuan Shikai as president and Li Yuanhong as vicepresident of the republic. Yuan took the official oath on the 10thof October.

May 15th, 2019, 12:28 PM
Yuanwanted to be the new emperorOn the 4thof November, Yuan gave an order to disband the national Party, usingtheir rebellion as a pretext. Simultaneously, he drove all themembers of the national Party out of the congress. On the 10thof January, 1914, Yuan dismissed the congress entirely and formed hisown council of state, which meant that all the members were his men.He was still dissatisfied with being president. He wanted to beemperor.
To attain his goal, hefirst had to get international support. In January of 1915, Japansecretly gave Yuan a document containing 21 articles in 5 chapters,through which China should cede to Japan a variety of economic andcommercial rights and benefits, such as options on railroads andother profitable fields in Manchuria, and in Shandong province, andalso the extension of Japan’s occupation of Luushun and Dalian (twoharbor cities) to 99 years, etc. But two articles in particular wereunacceptable. One was to employ Japanese advisors in the Chinesecentral government, in the financial and military fields. The otherwas to employ Japanese advisors in local police departments. Thenegotiations ran from the 2ndof February to the 7thof May.
Yuan accepted most of thearticles in order to secure Japan’s support for his ambition to beemperor. But such a big secret could not be kept for long and soonthe public heard that he was selling them out. Yuan was severelycriticized, but to no avail.
Then Yuan’s supportersbegan to circulate their theory that the republican form ofgovernment was not suitable to China. They formed a committee on thepolitical future of China and sent out their men to all the provincesto persuade officials and officers and businessmen to support Yuan asemperor, promising all of them personal benefits. Then suchsupporters were summoned to the capital as “people’srepresentatives.” Those representatives formed groups and on the1st of Septemberhanded a petition to the Council of State organized by Yuan) to askYuan to be the emperor.

May 17th, 2019, 12:51 PM
In atraditional show of modesty, Yuan initially refused their petition.On the 19th, theyorganized the “National Petition Committee” to turn in a secondpetition, this time requesting that the 1993 people’srepresentatives should hold a conference to decide the future of thenation. Accordingly, the conference was in session at 9 o’clock inthe morning on December 11. The representatives were to cast votes.All the representatives voted for imperial system. Yuan graciouslyaccepted the result as the supposed will of the people, and decidedthat the next year (1916) would be the first year of his Empire ofChina.

In December, just afterYuan accepted the petition, Cai E, the governor of YunNan province,was the first to object. He announced the independence of YunNan,followed by many provinces. Even Yuan’s former subordinates, FengGuozhang (1859–1916), governor of Jiangsu province, Li Chun,governor of Jiangxi province, Zhu Rui, governor of Zhejiang province,Jin Yunpeng, governor of Shandong province, and Tang Xiangming,governor of Hunan province, all sent telegrams asking Yuan to rescindthe empire.

May 20th, 2019, 01:12 PM
Seeing that even hisformer subordinates had betrayed him, Yuan had to declare openly thathe was rescinding the empire and restoring the presidency on the 22ndof March, 1916. He had been Emperor only for 83 days. Once a highmilitary official of the Qing Dynasty, he had turned against theempire, and then he was subverted in turn. He contracted a fataldisease and died on the 6thof June.
If he had not been soambitious and had contented himself with the presidency, Yuan wouldhave been spared the hatred of almost all the people in China. Hewould not have been betrayed by his closest generals, who commandedpart of his new army. But he went against the historical tide,against the will of people. He wanted to turn back time to theimperial age. As a president, his subordinates only had to stand upbefore him and salute him, whereas during his heady days as emperor,his subordinates had to kneel before him and kowtow to him. Any manwho has had a chance to stand up never wants to bend his knees again.Sense of dignity.
There would have to be apublic funeral for Yuan. According to the law, when the presidentdied, the vice president would succeed him. So Li Yuanhong became thepresident. Also, as a rule, the public funeral for a deceasedpresident should be led by the succeeding president. But Li had alittle problem with Yuan, for Yuan had imprisoned Li. That made itrather hard for Li to feign any esteem of Yuan. So on the day of thefuneral, he just went there to bow once and left, back to his office.As etiquette required, he should have bowed at least three times.Then the Premier Duan Qirui took over the role.

May 22nd, 2019, 01:13 PM
Restorationof the abdicated emperorLi and Duan had alsoclashed. Their opinions and political attitudes were different. As Lihad no supporters in the government, Duan had no respect for him.Duan also had command of part of the new army. So Li sought supportoutside the capital.
In May of 1917, during the First World War,there was a dispute about whether China would join in the war or not.Duan, supported by Japan, was in favor of joining the war, while Liand most of the congressmen thought it better not to join the war. Onthe 23rd of May,Li issued an order to remove Duan from the office of premier. Duanwent to Tianjin City and instigated all the governors to declareindependence. So Li summoned General Zhang Xun (1854–1923) to thecapital to mediate.
Zhang Xun was still loyal to the Qing Dynastyand the soldiers in his army still maintained their queues. So hisarmy was called the pigtail army. He thought that this was a greatopportunity and took five thousand soldiers with him. On the 14thof June, he entered Peking. On the night of the 30thof June, he sent his soldiers to occupy strategic points like therailway station and telegraph office. He went to see Li and tried topersuade him to return the political power to the abdicated emperorFu Yi, by now using the Western name of Henry, but got a flatrefusal.
On the 1stof July, 1917, Zhang Xun let the abdicated emperor sit on the throneagain and issue a few orders, such as to change the national flagfrom the five-colored flag (the symbol of Republic of China) todragon flag (the symbol of the Qing Dynasty).

May 24th, 2019, 12:36 PM
On the 2ndof July, Li went to the Japanese embassy for protection while issuingtwo orders: appointing Feng Guozhang as the deputy president andrestored Duan to the office of the premier. So on the 3rdof July, Duan gathered his army, and on the 14thday, he defeated Zhang Xun’s pigtail army. Zhang Xun escaped to theDutch embassy, then went to live in Tianjin City. The Emperorabdicated once more. And Duan went to the Japanese embassy to welcomeLi back to his presidency. On the 28thof August, Li went to Tianjin City after resigning.
Thus, in the early historyof the Republic of China, there were two restorations. One was underYuan Shikai, who wanted to be emperor himself and founded the Empireof China. The other was Zhang Xun, who put the abdicated emperor onthe throne again. But both quickly ended in failure. The chariot ofhistory always runs forward and no one can pull it back. People won’tgo back to the old life style once they start to enjoy a new one,especially one that offers more freedom and dignity.
As Li Yuanhong resigned from the presidency,the deputy president Feng Guozhang became the president. Feng was thegovernor of Jiangsu province and lived in Nanking. Now he was thepresident and had to take up office in Peking. That left the positionof governor of Jiangsu province vacant. Duan wanted to appoint DuanZhigui as the governor there, but Feng wanted to appoint Li Chun, thepresent governor of Jiangxi province as the governor of Jiangsuprovince. He promoted Chen Guangyuan, who was the commander of thetwelfth division, to be the governor of Jiangxi province. Both weresupporters of Feng. Before he left for Peking, he divided his armyinto two divisions. The sixteenth division would stay in Jiangsuprovince. He brought his fifteenth division to Peking as hisbodyguard so that he wouldn’t be controlled by Duan.
Duan dismissed the old congress because most of thecongressmen had opposed him on the question of joining in the FirstWorld War. Since there was no more congress, the Duan governmentdeclared war against Germany and Austria.

May 27th, 2019, 01:14 PM
May4 student movement On the 23rdof August, 1914, Japan declared war against Germany and took overJiaozhou Bay in Shandong province, formerly occupied by Germany. Theyfought for 70 days. Then in January 1915, Japan had put the 21articles to Yuan, who accepted most of them. These were considered anational insult, which caused great dissatisfaction with thegovernment among Chinese intellectuals, including universitystudents.
China declared war against Germany on the 14thof August, 1917, actually at the end of the First World War, so thatChina was one of the victorious countries. But at the Paris PeaceConference, which produced the Versailles Treaty, Japan was allowedto continue its occupation of Jiaozhou Bay, which should have beenreturned to China since it was in the territory of China and formerlywas occupied by Germany.
The public called upon the Chinese representative atthe conference to refuse to sign on the treaty, but the governmentsecretly instructed the representative to go ahead and sign it. Whenthe news became openly known, the students at Peking University heldan emergency meeting on the 1stof May. On the night of the 3rdday, students from other universities joined in the action. Theydecided to hold a demonstration on TianAnMen Square on the 4thof May, which was Sunday. Thus began the May 4 movement.
At one o’clock in the afternoon, the studentsmarched towards the neighborhood where all the embassies were anddistributed copies of a memorandum, which was refused by all theembassies except the American one. Then they went to the residence ofCao Rulin, minister of transportation (to complain about the railwayproblem with Japan), where they saw Zhang Zongxiang, the Chineseambassador to Japan. The students gave both a good beating and setfire to the residence. For that, 32 students were arrested.
To rescue the students, the professors called on thepublic to declare a strike of all students, teachers, workers, andshop-owners. The government forbade it and arrested more people. Thechaos lasted into June; people answered the call of the professorsand the movement spread to many cities. Even railway workers startedto strike. On the 11thof June, Professor Chen Duxiu (1879–1942) and others distributedpamphlets in public, and Chen was arrested. The chaos worsened. Undersuch pressure, the government had to give in. It dismissed Cao andZhang from office and released those in jail. On the 28thof June, the representative attending the Paris Peace Conference didnot sign the treaty.
This movement wasinfluential not only in politics, but also in culture. Many changeswere introduced. Professor Hu Shih proposed that language as spokenshould be used in writing instead of the classical language. Hence,the language style in use was changed, even in newspapers. So the May4 movement is also called the new cultural movement.

May 29th, 2019, 01:51 PM
Battlesin the southwestern provincesChinese historians definethe men who command independent armies as warlords. In many periodsthis included the governors of provinces, and even premiers likeDuan, who had his own army. The local warlords often disobeyed thecentral government. If the central government wanted any governor toobey its orders, it had to send an army to defeat him. And theprovincial governors often fought one another to increase their powerbase. As a result, many periods of history were fraught with turmoil.
Although Yuan Shikai died,his former supporters controlled most provinces. Only five provincesin southwestern China were under the influence of the national Party.They were Yunnan, Sichuan, Guizhou, Guangdong and Guangxi provinces.
In Sichuan province therewere three armies. One came from Yunnan province. One came fromGuizhou province. And the third one was formed of local soldiers.Each of them wanted to take control of Sichuan province and theyfought one another from time to time. Premier Duan of the centralgovernment wanted to control this province, too. So he sent adetachment of his army to Sichuan province. Then, the three localarmies united to fight against Duan’s army, which had to retreat.
After the failure of thesecond revolution, Sun Yat-sen endeavored to make another attempt. Hegained the support of the Navy’s First Fleet. In 1917, the governorof Guangdong province proposed to Sun that he could use this provinceas his headquarters against the warlord government in Peking. On the10th of July, Suntook two warships to Shantou Town and sent Zhang Binglin to Guangdongprovince as his representative. The situation in that province wascomplicated, though. On the 17th,when Sun arrived in Canton on board a warship, he was welcomed. Onthe 22nd day, thecommander of the First Fleet brought his fleet to Guangdong province,too. They announced that since the dismissal of the Congress, anyorders from the Peking government were unlawful.

May 31st, 2019, 01:59 PM
When Duan learned thenews, he promoted the commander of the Second Fleet to be thecommander of the navy and appointed another admiral as commander ofthe First Fleet, which was not under his control any more. On the25th day Duanordered to remove the governor of Guangdong province from office, butthe governor refused to recognize the order.
Sun Yat-sen invited thecongressmen to come south. In mid-August, more than 130 congressmenarrived in Canton. On the 18th,at a welcome party, all the attendees agreed to organize a newmilitary government, which was founded on the 10thof September. When Duan heard of this, he issued a “wanted”bulletin for Sun Yat-sen, and the military government also issued a“wanted” bulletin for Duan. The five provinces in thesoutheastern China supported the military government against Duan,who sent his army into Hunan province in hopes of defeating the armyof the military government.
On the 6thof October, two armies engaged in battle near Xiangtan Town. Contraryto Duan’s hopes, his army was forced to withdraw. It looked bad forhim, and many provinces announced their support for the militarygovernment. Duan had to resign as premier.
President Feng called uponboth sides to stop fighting. Duan had always been a threat to theindependent governors in the southeastern region, and now they feltthat the sword of Damocles had been removed, so they agreed to thetruce. But on the 2ndof December, 1917, Duan instigated ten northern governors to takeaction against the southeastern provinces. On the 6th,they pressed President Feng to issue orders to continue the war.Meanwhile, Zhang Zuolin, the warlord in the northeastern China, ledhis army into Peking. Under such pressure, Feng had to ask Duan toresume the office of premier.

June 3rd, 2019, 01:28 PM
Duan re-organized his armyto attack the army of the military government, which now lost thesupport of the other governors and had to fight alone. It was soondefeated. But Wu Peifu (1874–1939), the commander of Duan’s army,ceased his assault and made a truce with the military government,ignoring Duan’s command. As Feng and Duan always had conflicts ofopinion, or in reality, of personal interests, both agreed to resignat the same time. That was on the 4thof September, 1918.
Sun Yat-sen’s goal wasto let his National Party unite the whole of China under the rule ofhis party. But this ran counter to the interests of the warlords. Sohe lost most of his supporters and only a few were left. On the 21stof May, 1918, he left Canton for Shanghai, where he met ChiangKai-shek (1887–1975). The military government was controlled by thearmies of Yunnan and Guangxi provinces.
As Sun resigned and leftCanton, his army (under the command of Chen Jiongming) went to Fujianprovince, and together with the army under the command of ChiangKai-shek they defeated Duan’s army there. That happened in June of1918.
Although Duan was not inthe cabinet, he still had his army. So Zhang Zuoling (1875–1928)and Wu Peifu allied to fight him. On the 14thof July, 1920, Duan’s army was overcome. Then Xu Shichang, who hadnothing under his control, was selected (not elected, as there was nomore congress) by the warlords to be a puppet president.
In August 1920, the armystationed in Fujian province marched back to Guangdong province toassail the Guangxi province army there. On the 28thof October, the military government was back under the control ofSun’s army. So on the 28thof November, Sun returned to Canton.
On the 12thof January, 1921, a special congress was organized and on the 2ndof April, the congress held a session to annul the militarygovernment and resume the name of the Republic of China. On the 7thday, Sun was elected President and took an oath at a ceremony on the5th of May.

June 5th, 2019, 12:51 PM
SunYat-sen went north, looking to overthrow the Peking governmentSun Yat-sen stillpersisted in marching north to overthrow the Peking government. Hethought of it as a warlord government, not a revolutionarygovernment. He wanted to found a revolutionary government for thepeople. Anyway, the governors of all the provinces and even ChenJiongming (1878–1933), the commander of his army (actually anotherwarlord), did not see things that way. Those men only wanted to havea federal government of warlords.
On the 26thof March, 1922, Sun Yat-sen held a meeting and decided to go north totake down the Peking government. On the 9thof April, when the Revolutionary Army reached the Meng River, it wasblockaded by Chen Jiongming’s army which was encamped there. Sungave orders that if Chen’s army did not make way for him, he wouldlaunch an attack. When Sun reached Wuzhou Town, he summoned Chen tomeet him, but Chen refused to go there. Sun removed him from theposition of commander. Chen wanted his army to prepare for a waragainst Sun, but the army in Canton refused to carry out his order.There was nothing he could do but go back to his old home in HuizhouTown. However, part of his army was still loyal to him.
In early April 1922, WuPeifu sent an emissary to contact Chen and asked him to prevent SunYat-sen by force from going north. Meantime, Duan and Zhang Zuolinwanted to ally with Sun to vanquish Wu. The situation gotcomplicated. Everyone was putting his own interests first andrelationships between friends and enemies often changed.

June 7th, 2019, 12:21 PM
On the 23rdof April, Sun Yat-sen gathered his generals for a meeting in hispresidential residence to decide what to do next. There were twooptions. One was to first annihilate Chen’s army so that he couldnot give the Revolutionary Army a stab from behind. Chiang Kai-shekheld this opinion. The other was to immediately march north, whiledoing their best to avoid any conflict with Chen’s army. Sun tendedtoward the second opinion, as he thought that Chen had not reallybetrayed him, at least not yet. He had no reason to attack Chen.Chiang Kai-shek thought that Chen would at long last betray Sun.Since Sun did not believe him, he left Guangdong province, whilewriting a letter to Chen advising him not to betray Sun.
When Sun Yat-sen came backto Canton, he still allowed Chen to be the commander of the firstarmy. But Chen refused to take the appointment. On the 28thof April, Zhang Zuolin, Duan Qirui and Sun Yat-sen formed an allianceto fight Wu Peifu. Sun thought that this created an opportunity forhim to go north.
On the 4thof May, Zhang’s army was beaten by Wu’s, and Zhang had to retreatback to where he had come from, northeastern China. Wu took controlin Peking. Wu had a secret agreement with Chen Jiongming that hewould drive away the current president, Xu Shichang, and Chen woulddrive away Sun Yat-sen. Then the first step was to let Li Yuanhongback into the presidency and get him to wipe out all the warlordseverywhere, except of course the two of them. If Li failed to do so,he would be the scapegoat. If he succeeded, Wu and Chen would use thecongress to have themselves elected as the president and the vicepresident.
So they announced that thecurrent president Xu was illegal. Xu resigned on the 2ndof June. Once back in the presidency, Li denounced that warrant thatwas out for Sun Yat-sen and invited him to Peking to discuss nationalaffairs. He also appointed many warlords in the south, but none ofthem accepted his appointments. Afterwards, as Wu and Chen saw thatLi could do nothing for them, they forced Li to quit the presidencyagain. Li went back to Tianjin City.
On the 9thof May, Sun issued an order for a general attack, and on the 13thof June, the Revolutionary Army put Wu’s army to rout in Jiangxiprovince. Wu sent his man to Chen and asked him to take action assoon as possible.

June 10th, 2019, 01:15 PM
ChenJiongming Turns Traitor in CantonWhen Chen went back to hishometown, he took with him a lot of guns and ammunition, enough toarm 40 battalions. On the 20thof May, Chen’s subordinate, Ye Ju, led his troops into Canton andstarted a treasonous action. By the 1stof June, the situation had become acute. Liao Zhongkai, a faithfulfollower of Sun, sent a telegram to Sun Yat-sen asking him to comeback to Canton. When Sun was back in Canton, he summoned Chen, butChen refused to come.
On the 12thof June, Sun Yat-sen ordered Ye Ju out of Canton. Next day, Chen andYe secretly met at Shilong. They knew that, to prevent Sun from goingnorth to fight Wu, they would have to cut off his access tofinancing. Liao was the person who provided Sun with everything. Sothey decided to kidnap Liao. On the 14thday, Chen sent a telegram to Liao to invite him to his hometown forsome important business. On the fifth day, Liao went there and wasdetained. Then Ye Ju maneuvered his troops and planned to attackSun’s residence with cannons. On the 16thday, Sun was informed of this and took refuge on a warship.
On the 19th,Sun Yat-sen sent a telegram to the Revolutionary Army at the frontierto come back to Guangdong province. On the 2ndof July, the Revolutionary Army started to assail Chen’s army inGuangdong province, and beat the betraying army. Chen sent a telegramto Wu seeking assistance. Wu sent some troops to Guangdong province.On the 26th ofJuly, the Revolutionary Army was chasing after Chen’s retreatingarmy but met with the reinforcements sent by Wu. Therefore, theRevolutionary Army had to withdraw. When Sun Yat-sen learned this, hehad to leave Guangdong province and go to Shanghai. Liao was releasedand left Canton. When Chen attempted to assassinate him afterwards,he was already gone.

June 12th, 2019, 12:58 PM
On the 16thof August, 1922, Sun Yat-sen made a statement accusing Chen ofbetrayal. To annihilate the treacherous army, Sun determined to allywith Duan. In October, he appointed Xu Chongzhi as thecommander-in-chief and Chiang Kai-shek as the chief of staff. On oneside, the Revolutionary Army together with Duan’s army vanquishedWu’s army. On the other, the armies of Yunnan and Guangxiprovinces, who supported Sun, defeated Chen’s army. On the 14thof January, 1923, troops in Guangdong province turned over to Sun andattacked Chen, who escaped to his hometown, Huizhou.
On the 15thof February, Sun Yat-sen returned to Canton. In April, Chen Hongying,a warlord in Guangxi province, accepted the appointment of the Pekinggovernment to be the governor of Guangdong province, and came toattack Canton, but was soon subdued. He escaped to Hong Kong.
At the end of 1924, Sunwent to Peking to discuss national affairs, but he was fatally ill.In February the Revolutionary Army, now under the full command ofChiang Kai-shek, marched east to wipe out the warlords there. Sundied on the 12thof March, 1925. He famously wrote, in his will, “The revolution isnot successful yet; comrades must still make efforts.” That June,Chen Jiongming betrayed the cause again, but he was soon wiped out byChiang Kai-shek.

June 14th, 2019, 01:38 PM
EarlyHistory of the Communist Party of ChinaThe organization of the Communist Party of ChinaIn April 1920, theCommunist International sent Grigori Voitinsky to China. In May, hefound Chen Duxiu, 42 at the time, and sought to contact somerevolutionary young men in other cities to establish the CommunistParty of China, the CPC. Chen was the professor who had been arrestedin the May 4 student movement in 1919. In August 1920, underinstructions of the Soviet Communist Party, the Communist Party ofChina was established in Shanghai. At that time, it was calledCommunist Group with Chen Duxiu as the general secretary.
But after the CommunisstParty took over the reign of the mainland, public data they issuedstate that the first meeting of the Communist Party was held about ayear later, in Shanghai, on the 1stof July, 1921. Why was the earlier date concealed from the public?There might be two reasons. One was that they wanted to cover up thefact that the Communist International had had a hand in it. The otheris that Mao attended the meeting in Shanghai, so by emphasizing thatmeeting they could say that Mao was one of the founders, enhancinghis image. But the meeting was in 1920, not in 1921 in Shanghai.
Fifteen people attendedthe meeting on the 23rdof July, 1921, at 106 Wangzhi Road (presently 76 Xingye Road) inShanghai. These included Mao Zedong (1893–1976); Dong Biwu(1886–1975, later the vice chairman of the People’s Republic ofChina); Zhang Guotao (1897–1979, later commander of the Red 4thArmy in the Long March); Chen Gongbo (1890–1946); and Zhou Fohai(1897–1948). The last two later defected to Japanese invaders inSino–Japanese War (1937—1945). Also present were Malin and NicoChhabra (representatives from the Communist International).

June 17th, 2019, 12:54 PM
Soon some suspicious menwere found lurking outside the house. The meeting broke up andeveryone discretely slipped away. And the next day, they met on aboat on the South Lake in Jiaxing Town, casually playing mahjongwhile in fact continuing their meeting. Thus the Communist Party ofChina was established. At that time it had only 50 members.
On the 23rdof December, 1921, accompanied by an interpreter, Malin went to seeSun Yat-sen in Guilin City of Guangxi province. He stayed there fornine days and concluded that Communist Party members could join theNational Party while still maintaining their status in the CommunistParty. This would help the Communist Party to develop. But his ideawas strongly opposed by some party members, especially Chen Duxiu whowas then the leader of the party. So on the 23rdof April, 1922, Malin left Shanghai for Holland, by sea, and then,through Berlin, made it to Moscow. He reported his work in China tothe Soviet Communist Party, which consented to his idea. On the 27thof July, the Soviet Union sent a representative to China, togetherwith Malin, with instructions. Malin typed the instructions on theshirt he wore. In Shanghai, Malin met Chen Duxiu and gave him hisshirt.
Chen Duxiu had to obey thedecision of the Communist International because at the second meetingof the Communist Party, held from July 16–23, 1922, at 625 SouthChengdu Road in Shanghai, they had decided to join the CommunistInternational. Chen Duxiu and Zhang Guotao attended the meeting withten other representatives. Then the Communist Party of China gotfinancial aid from the Communist International.
On the 29thand 30th ofAugust, 1922, the Communist Party of China (CPC) held a centralmeeting on the West Lake in Hangzhou City and decided to found theFirst United Front, an alliance between the National Party and theCommunist Party.

June 19th, 2019, 01:21 PM
In June 1923, theCommunist Party had its third meeting in Canton, and 40representatives, representing 420 party members, discussed the issueof the First United Front. They elected Chen Duxiu, Li Dazhao(1889–1927), Mao Zedong, and Xiang Ying (1898–1941, who laterbecame commander of the New 4thArmy in the Sino–Japanese War), and five others, as members of theCentral Committee.
It was said that after themeeting, at the urging of the Communist Party, Sun Yat-sen proposedhis three great policies: Alliance with Russia, Co-operation with theCommunist Party, and Assistance to Peasants and Workers. But as amatter of fact, Sun never identified with such policies. This wasjust invented by Mikhail Markovich Borodin, a Russian counselor tothe Communist Party of China, to make them look good. Then theCommunist Party used this invention as a fact for its own purposes.
Why did Sun agree to theUnited Front notion? It was because Sun always held to his ideal ofThree Principles for the People: the Principle of Nationalism, thePrinciple of Democracy, and the Principle of People’s Livelihood.Ironically, this party, which was also called Kuomintang by thepronunciations of the Chinese characters “National Party,”evolved into a highly centralized, hierarchical, and authoritarianparty. Sun thought that the ideal of communism was closest to histhree principles and so he wanted to unite with the Communist Partyagainst their common enemies—warlords who were still takingadvantage of the power void left when the imperial order crumbled.
From the 20thto the 30th ofJanuary, 1924, the 196 representatives of the National Party heldtheir first conference in Canton (now Guangzhou). Sun was thechairman and the Russian counselor Borodin was in attendance. SomeCommunist Party members were elected into the executive committee ofthe National Party. Li Dazhao and a few others were members and MaoZedong, Zhang Guotao were alternate members.

June 21st, 2019, 01:49 PM
In the autumn of 1924,General Feng Yuxiang (1882–1948) launched a coup d’état and tookcontrol of the Peking government. He invited Sun Yat-sen to Peking todiscuss national affairs. In the morning of November 5, Feng sent histroops to surround the Forbidden City and ordered the abdicatedemperor to move out. So Henry gathered his precious belongings andmoved to Tianjin City with his family. A few faithful old courtiersfollowed him there.
On November 13, 1924, SunYat-sen started from Canton and arrived in Peking on the 31stof December. It was soon found that he was suffering from livercancer and he died on March 12, 1925. Sun had been in Peking threetimes. First, in 1894, he went to Peking with the intention ofadvising the Qing officials on how it might reform the government.But when he saw how serious the corruption was, he realized that noreform could be enough to save China. So he decided to make arevolution. His second visit was in 1912 when the Republic of Chinawas founded. He went to Peking to advise Yuan Shikai that if Yuancould carry on the revolution, he would resign from the temporarypresidency. This was his third time.
On the 15thof September, Zhang Zuolin came with his forces from the northeasternprovinces towards Peking and allied with Feng Yuxiang. Then a battlebroke out between Zhang, Feng and Wu Peifu. Wu’s army was put torout and Wu escaped south to Hunan and Hubei provinces. Thereafter,Peking fell under the control of Zhang Zuolin, who was always backedby Japan.

June 24th, 2019, 04:45 PM
Whampoamilitary academyThe Whampoa MilitaryAcademy was founded on the 16thof June, 1924, on the instruction of Sun Yat-sen, to train officersfor the Revolutionary Army. It was situated on Changzhou Island inthe Whampoa District of Canton. Afterwards, branches were founded inWuhan, Changsha, Chaoshan, and Nanning cities. In preparation for theestablishment of this academy, Sun had sent Chiang Kai-shek to theSoviet Union in September of 1923 to learn from their experience. Sothe academy was modeled after those in the Soviet Union. And ChiangKai-shek was appointed President of the academy. Quite a fewCommunist Party (CPC) members were appointed leaders of departments,such as Ye Jianying (1897–1986), deputy director of the trainingdepartment, and Zhou Enlai (1898–1976), deputy director of thepolitical department.
In May of 1924, theacademy began to take in students. Out of 1200 applicants, 350students were enrolled and 120 were accepted as alternate studentsfor the first term. In 1927, the academy was relocated in Nanking andrenamed the Central Army Officer Academy. Later, in 1949, it moved toTaiwan, for reasons that will become apparent later. From 1924 to1949, there were 23 terms, and including the terms held in Taiwan,the academy was functioning for 78 terms. The academy graduated41,386 students, including many famous generals.

June 26th, 2019, 01:27 PM
TheBreak-Up of the National Party and the Communist PartyAfter the death of SunYat-sen, Chiang Kai-shek took the full command of the RevolutionaryArmy. Unlike Sun Yat-sen, Chiang Kai-shek had no confidence in theCPC, especially after their fourth conference.
That fourth conference ofthe Communist Party was held from the 11thto the 22nd ofJanuary, 1925, with 20 representatives gathered in Shanghai. ChenDuxiu, Zhang Guotao, Zhou Enlai, and Xiang Ying, and many othersattended. Chen was the chairman. During the conference, Chen waselected the general secretary of the central bureau, consisting offive persons. They decided that the Communist Party had to takecharge of the revolution, and that laid the ground for majordisruptions.
On the 20thof March, 1926, the warship Yat-senplanned an artillery attack on the Whanpoa Military Academy to driveaway Chiang Kai-shek. Chiang gave orders to arrest the captain, LiZhilong, a member of the Communist Party. Then Chiang ordered ZhouEnlai and all their party members to get out of the academy. Thestudents now faced a problem as to which party they would follow. Onestudent quit the National Party and 39 students quit the CommunistParty. The others remained in the academy.
Meanwhile within theNational Party, Wang Jingwei (1883–1944, who later treacherouslywent over to the Japanese during the Sino–Japanese War) wanted totake over the leadership of the National Party. He organized anothergovernment in Wuhan City, close to Wuchang City, the cradle of the1911 revolution, and held the third conference of the National Partywithout the attendance of Chiang. This was called Wuhan government.
At that time Chiang onlyhad command of the Revolution Army and held no position in thegovernment. The Wuhan government wanted Chiang to continue to thenorth to wipe out the warlords there. But Chiang planned to go eastto occupy the eastern provinces first, including Shanghai, becausethose eastern provinces were also under the control of warlords.
During those years, theland problem was serious. Peasants wanted to have their own land sothat they would not be exploited by landowners. When peasants workedland owned by those in the ownership class, they had to give part ofthe harvest to the landowners, as in any feudal system. As theimperial system had been demolished, they wanted land reforms too.Under instigation by the Communist Party, they began to demand thismore and more aggressively.

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Stalin, head of the SovietUnion, asked the Communist Party of China in October of 1926 to curbthe action of peasants, to reduce the violence. In March of 1927, theCommunist Party established legal penalties for landowners. Anylandowners who resisted the revolution would be put to death.
On the 2ndof April, 1927, the Central Committee of the National Party held ameeting in Wuhan, inviting two members of the Communist Party, one ofwhom was Mao Zedong. They were considering a bill about the landproblem. The government would confiscate the land of “reactionaries”(those who preferred the old ways as opposed to the revolution) suchas property owners, officials who had a stake in the old system, andwarlords. The definition of reactionary landowners was to be based onthe amount of land they owned, measured by the mu (about 0.165acres). Anyone who had more than 30 mus, about 5 acres, was dubbed areactionary. All landowners would be classified into rich peasants,small and middle landowners, and large landowners, according to theamount of terrain they possessed. This standard was still used in theland reform when the Communist Party later established theirrepublic.
On the 22ndof April, when this bill was under discussion, the National Party andthe CPC had different opinions. That was one of the reasons for theirfalling out, because many members of the National Party came fromfamilies who owned land. Then on the 26thof April, Chen Duxiu and Zhang Guotao were invited to attend themeeting, and also Borodin, the Russian counselor. On the 6thof May, the bill was at last passed. Only the large landowners wouldsee their land confiscated. The land belonging to small landownersand families of revolutionary officials would remain the same.However, once the peasants had been instigated, it was hard to checktheir zeal to take possession of the land.

July 1st, 2019, 01:51 PM
Victoryof the Revolutionary Army and the final break between the two partiesIn July of 1926, theNational Party decided that the Revolutionary Army should head northto annihilate the warlords there. As Chiang was thecommander-in-chief, he led the army north, fighting all the way alongthe route. The plan was for the Revolutionary Army to attack Wu Peifufirst, and then Sun Chuanfang, occupying Jiangxi, Fujian, Anhui,Jiangsu, and Zhejiang, five provinces. Finally the Revolutionary Armywould attack Zhang Zuolin in Peking.
In August of 1926, theRevolutionary Army assaulted the main force of Wu Peifu and wiped itout; they took over Wuchang city on the 10thof September. In November, the Revolutionary Army annihilated themain force of Sun Chuanfang, another warlord, and occupied Jiujiangand Nanchang cities. At the same time, Feng Yuxiang gained control ofthe northwestern region of China. A warlord, Yan Xishan (1883–1960),ruled Shanxi province. Observing the rapid advance of theRevolutionary Army, both Feng and Yan joined it. Now only the warlordZhang from the northeastern provinces remained in Peking.
In October, the CommunistParty organized workers in Shanghai to rise to arms against thewarlord government 675 miles north in Peking, but they failed. InNovember, the Revolutionary Army took control of the area of theYangtze River. So the national Government decided to establish itscapital in Wuhan City, but Chiang wanted the capital in Nanchang,which was then under his control. Anyway, on the 9thof December, the national Government moved to Wuhan City.
On the 21stof February, 1927, the Central Committee of the National Party held ameeting of the 80 members, one third belonged to the Communist Partyand one third were communist-leaning. Among the leaders of all thedepartments of the National Party, half of them were members of theCommunist Party. This meant that the CPC controlled the nationalParty. And the Communist Party was organizing its own army.
Chiang Kai-shek decided hehad to found another government. He had many supporters, like thebrothers Chen Guofu (1892–1951) and Chen Lifu (1900–2001) andothers in his army. All were young men.
On the 19thof February, General Bai Chongxi (1893–1966) took over Hangzhoucity as he marched east with his detachment of the RevolutionaryArmy. On the 22nd,the Communist Party fomented a second riot in Shanghai but failedonce more. On the 10thof March, the Central Committee of the National Party had anothermeeting to openly declare their break with Chiang, and he cut off allrelations with the Communist Party.

July 3rd, 2019, 01:26 PM
Then Wang Jingwei cameback from France, where he attended classes in the University of Lyonand reorganized the National Party by expelling the Russian counselorand members of the Communist Party. He also suggested that thenational government and the headquarters of the National Party bemoved to Nanking.
On the 22ndof March, the east detachment of the Revolutionary Army under BaiChongxi entered Shanghai. On the 24th,the middle detachment occupied Nanking. A few members of theCommunist Party instigated the soldiers of the Revolutionary Army torob and kill foreigners in order to incite foreign governments totake action against the national government. But the consuls ofEngland, the United States and Japan had evidence that the CommunistParty was responsible for the trouble.
On the fifth of April, theCentral Committee of the National Party divided the RevolutionaryArmy into two military blocs. Chiang was re-appointed thecommander-in-chief of the first military bloc and Feng Yuxiang wasthe commander-in-chief of the second. On the same day, Chiangcontacted the heads of certain mafias in Shanghai and asked them toorganize a Shanghai business guild to oppose the Shanghai workers’general union, an armed group which was controlled by the CommunistParty.
Meantime, Borodin secretlyurged General Guo Songling under the warlord government to fightZhang Zuolin, who had secret contacts with Chiang. On the 6thof April, Zhang suddenly attacked the embassy of the Soviet Union inPeking to arrest 58 members of the Communist Party hiding there,including Li Dazhao, one of the main founders of the Communist Party.They found secret documents which proved that the Soviet Unioninstructed the Communist Party to overthrow the Chinese government.On the 12th ofApril, Chiang sent the national 26tharmy to the Shanghai workers’ general union to order them tosurrender their weapons. But they refused, and many people werekilled in the conflict, which became known as the 4/12 event. ThenChiang ordered all the organizations controlled by the CommunistParty to disband.
On the 17thof April, Chiang and other members of the Central Committee of theNational Party met in Nanking to issue warrant for the arrest of 197leading members of the Communist Party, including Borodin, ChenDuxiu, Mao Zedong, Zhou Enlai, Liu Shaoqi (1898–1969), ZhangGuotao, Deng Yingchao (1904–1992, wife of Zhou Enlai), and others.On the 28th, LiDazhao and others were hanged in Peking, accused of plotting tooverthrow the government.
On the 20thof April, the Communist Party issued a statement saying that Chiangwas the open foe of the revolutionary people and called upon thepeople to overthrow him. On the 22ndday, Wang Jingwei and other members of the National Party whosupported the Communist Party, together with Mao Zedong and someCommunist Party members, openly blamed Chiang for the disruption.Chiang founded the national government in Nanking in opposition tothe government in Wuhan City.
On the fifth of June whenIndian revolutionary M.N. Roy, a representative of the CommunistInternational, asked Wang Jingwei to allow the Communist Party tocontrol the Wuhan government, Wang began to disband the CommunistParty. Therefore, on the 1stof August, the Communist Party called for riots in Nanchang. Thatmarked the final rupture between the National Party and the CommunistParty.

July 5th, 2019, 02:13 PM
Chapter2. The First Civil War Between The National Party and the CommunistPartyCommunist Party RiotsThe Riot in Nanchang CityWang Jingwei learned thatthe Soviet Union was planning to help the Communist Party of China totake over power from Wuhan government in July 1927. He expelled allthe members of the Communist Party that were in the National Partyand the Wuhan government. This led the Central Committee of theCommunist Party in Jiujiang City (Jiangxi province) to foment a riotin Nanchang City, where they controlled some of the army. On the 26thof July, Zhou Enlai was sent to organize the riot. Several hoursafter Zhou left, they got a telegram from the CommunistInternational, instructing them not to start it if there was nochance of winning. So Zhang Guotao was sent after Zhou. When Zhangreached Nanchang, all the preparations were already in place, andbesides, most of the representatives refused to take these orders.The 11th army andthe 20th armyunder the command of He Long (1896–1969) had already come toNanchang from Jiujiang City, and were welcomed by Zhu De (1886–1976),commander of the 9tharmy and head of the city police.
At two o’clock in themorning of August 1, 1927, the rebels began to attack the NationalRevolutionary Army guarding the city. After fighting for four hours,they occupied the city. But the national government gathered moretroops to surround Nanchang. The rebellious army had to beat aretreat from the city and went south. On the way, Zhou Enlai, He Longand other leaders deserted their troops and escaped to Hong Kong andShanghai. Only Zhu De led the rest of the army to Guangdong province.They had to adopt the stratagems of guerrilla warfare. In January of1928, Zhu De started another riot and led his army to Mt. JingGang inJiangxi province, where he met Mao Zedong. Their troops formed theRed 4th Army.

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MaoZedong resorts to rebellionAs Wang Jingwei expelledthe members of the Communist Party from the National Party and theWuhan government, Mao Zedong went to Changsha City on the 12thof August to arm peasants and mine workers in that area inpreparation for a riot. He had an army of 8,000 soldiers. On the 9thof September, they started their rebellion and set out to attackChangsha City. There were many Communist Party members in the city,scheming to let the attackers in by making a sudden assault on thenational government army guarding the city. But their plan was leakedby insiders and became known to the national government. The traitorshad to escape or they would be arrested and killed. Mao had to changehis plan of attack and marched towards Mt JingGang, where his forcesunited with Zhu De’s army.
On the 4thof June in 1928, Zhang was forced to withdraw from Peking to go backto his original location. As he could not always accomplish whatJapan demanded, Japan was not satisfied with him. On the fifth day,when Zhang was on board a train and passed through the railwaystation at Huanggutun, his train was exploded with gunpowder setthere by the Japanese. He was severely injured and died when hereached Shenyang City. His son Zhang Xueliang (1901–2001) succeededhim in his position.
He declared he was joiningthe Revolutionary Army on the 29thof December, 1928. There were no more warlords, and China was thusunited.

July 10th, 2019, 02:31 PM
ChiangKai-Shek Besieges The Red Army Five TimesThe first siegeSince Chiang Kai-shek hadcleared all the warlords from China, he began to deal with theCommunist Party and the Red Army in October of 1930. Chiang sent hisarmy, 300,000 strong, against the Red Army (the Chinese Workers andPeasants Red Army), 40,000 soldiers. If Chiang could surround the RedArmy, he could easily wipe it out. But Mao’s strategy was wiserthan Chiang’s. On November 1, Mao faked some maneuvers so that theChinese Red Army seemed to be advancing in different directions,leading Chiang’s commander-in-chief to think that the Red Armywould escape. Therefore, the National Army split up in order to chasedown the enemies in different directions. Then the Red Army gatheredtogether again and annihilated a small national division of 9,000soldiers that had been cut off from the main force on December 30,1930. And the other divisions had to fall back. Thus ended the firstsiege.

The second siegeOn the 1stof April, 1931, the second siege began. Considering the failure ofthe first siege due to the failed tactic of attempting to surroundthe Red Army, Chiang Kai-shek decided instead to move slowly with allthe troops keeping close. On the 13thof May, the 28thdivision of the fifth army of the national forces left Futian andmarched eastward. On the fifth day, Zhu De and Mao directed their 3rdmilitary bloc and the 35thRed Army to form a left wing, and the 3rdRed Army to head up the middle, while the 4thRed Army and 12thRed Army made up the right wing, to surround the fifth national army.The commander of this army committed the same mistake. He should nothave marched separately from others. Zhu De and Mao ordered their 7thRed division and 35thRed division to block the advance of the reinforcements from the 19thnational army. As a result, on the 16thday, the 28thdivision of the national army was annihilated by the overwhelmingnumber of enemy forces. On the 19thday, the 12th Redarmy attacked the 54thnational division, which escaped. The 19thnational army had no information about what was happening to theother armies and had to retreat. Thus ended the second siege.

July 12th, 2019, 01:29 PM
Thethird siegeOn the 21stof June, 1931, after the two failed sieges, Chiang Kai-shek formedtwo military blocs 300,000 strong for the third siege. On the July10, the Communist Party also made all possible preparations forbattle. The National Army had started to march on July 1, but couldnot ascertain the location of the Red Army. Towards the end of themonth, the main forces of the Red Army were found taking a back routeto a place called XingGuo. From the enemy’s location, ChiangKai-shek judged that the Red Army planned to go west to cross the GanRiver. He wanted to wipe it out on the east bank of the river. Maoand Zhu’s original plan was to ignore the main forces of theNational Army, and use the Red Army to break through the encirclementat Futian to assail the detachment remaining in the rear; but thisplan was detected. The 11thand the 14thdivisions of the National Army marched faster to occupy Futian toblock the Red Army’s escape route. This time, it looked good forChiang. But Mao changed to a bold plan. He ordered the 35thRed Army to disguise itself as the main force, and to cross the GanRiver to distract the National Army. On the 4thof August, his main forces stole through the gap between the twomilitary blocs of the National Army before they closed like a vise.(That gap is said to have been 40 liwide. The li, or“Chinese mile,” creates some difficulties as this traditionalunit of distance was only recently standardized. It now means half akilometer or about a third of a mile.) This strategy was successfuland the Red Army arrived at a safe place and annihilated a brigade ofthe National Army there on August 7. Then the Red Army moved toHuangpo and wiped out four national regiments on the 11th.
Then Chiang Kai-shek foundout that what he was pursuing was not the main force of the Red Army.When the national troops turned back to march north, the fatiguedarmy was like an arrow at the end of its flight. On the 18thof September, the 9/18 event happened, so Chiang had to go back toNanking to take charge of the situation. Thus ended the third siege.
The strategies Mao used inthe previous three battles would be seen repeated and repeated.Chiang was defeated three times by the same stratagem. ChiangKai-shek never learned from his failures and made little improvement.It could be said that he deserved to be driven away from the mainlandto Taiwan, after all.

July 15th, 2019, 01:11 PM
Theestablishment of the red government in Ruijin After a few victories, theCommunist Party founded their Red government in Ruijin City ofJiangxi province. It was located in a basin with mountains on threesides. Nanchang City, the capital of the province, under the nationalgovernment, was 300 li (just over 90 miles) away.
On the 7thof November, 1931, they celebrated the founding of the Redgovernment. Mao was the Chairman of the government and Zhu De was theCommander of the army. In the area of the Red government, almosteveryone was in an organization of some sort. The organization forsix-year-olds and up was called the “children’s league.” Thatof the youngsters of fifteen-year-oldand up was called young pioneers. Youngadults joined the “Red Guard Army.” They printed their own papermoney and used terrorist methods to control people. Even their owncomrades were killed. Li Wenlin, also a leader in the party, wasmurdered. Peasants in that area did not have to give part of theirharvest to any landowners, but they did have to support the Redgovernment in order to support the Red Army.
No one could leave thearea without a pass. There were sentinels everywhere, 24 hours a day.Whoever was caught leaving secretly would be executed. War time ornot, under such drastic terrorism even the intimatesubordinate Yang Yuebin deserted Mao andwent to the national government to give away Mao’s location.Airplanes were sent to bombard the place and Mao had to move.

July 17th, 2019, 01:26 PM
Thefourth siegeAfter the 9/18 and 12/8events (detailed in Chapter 3) were over, with the signing of theSonghu armistice agreement in May of 1932, Chiang Kai-shek plannedfor the fourth siege. This time he attacked the district of Hubei,Hunan and Anhui provinces where the Red Army was weak and was soonvanquished. Then in February of 1933, Chiang concentrated his forcesto push forwards to where the main forces of the Red Army camped. Theleadership of the Red Army had been changed at the meeting in NingduTown in October of 1932. Mao Zedong was dismissed from the commandingposition. The leader was Bogu, who came from Shanghai on the 7thof January, 1933, but the actual commanders of the Red Army were ZhuDe, Zhou Enlai and Peng Dehuai (1898–1974).
They used the same ruseMao had used. They ordered the 11thRed army to disguise themselves as the main forces to attract andlead off the middle, second and third columns of the National Army toLichuan area, while their actual main forces rested at Guangchang.Then they laid ambushes by the 1stRed military bloc and 3rdRed military bloc and 21stRed army to attack the 52ndnational army, while the 5thRed military bloc and 22ndRed army would attack the 59thnational army. On March 1, both national armies were annihilated andthe commanders were captured. So the National Army was forced towithdraw. Thus ended the fourth siege.

July 19th, 2019, 01:04 PM
Thefifth siegeIn May of 1933, ChiangKai-shek set up his headquarters in Nanchang City and assumed theresponsibility of commander-in-chief himself for the fifth siege ofthe Red Army. Since the last siege, the Red Army had grownconsiderably. Chiang Kai-shek therefore gathered an army a millionstrong, including the 300,000 soldiers of Chen Jitang in Guangdongprovince. Chen had been a warlord there, and then had subordinatedhimself to the national government when he saw all the other warlordshad been wiped out.
The siege began onSeptember 25, 1933, and ended on October 14, 1934, lasting for 385days. Chiang Kai-shek used artillery and airplanes. On the 25thday, the National Army attacked Lichuan Town. After three days, theytook the town. On the 9thof October, the 24thRed division went to attack Xiaoshi, but the National Army had astrong defense there with fortresses and trenches. For several days,the Red Army could not take the town, and suffered heavy casualties.That was the first stage.
In November, there was acoup d’état in Fujian province against Chiang Kai-shek. Theleaders of this coup founded another government, but they had littlesupport. Even the Communist Party declared this new governmentunlawful. So the coup ended in failure.
On the 11thof December, the National Army in town changed from defense tocounterattack. The Red Army fought back under the command of theCentral Committee of the Communist Party, regardless of the fact thatthe National Army was far better equipped. The Red Army was conqueredand retreated. That was the second stage.
On April 10, 1934, ChiangKai-shek sent 11 divisions divided into two columns marching towardsGuangchang. The Communist Party used 9 divisions to prevent theNational Army from attacking the town. Battles broke out in manyother places, too. The Red Army lost in those places and had towithdraw to Guangchang. On the 27thof April, the National Army attacked the town and occupied it in theevening. The Red Army had to escape, leaving 5,500 casualties. Thatwas the third stage.
In June of 1934, theCommunist Party made up its mind to resist the National Army assaultto the last man. Even so, on August 5, nine divisions of the NationalArmy, with air support, defeated the Red Army. The remnants of theRed Army had to escape and began the famous Long March. That was thefinal stage of the fifth siege.
The Red Army failedbecause the commanders changed from the right strategy to a wrongone. During this period Mao Zedong was not in the Red Army. He hadbeen sent somewhere else. The failure drove home the obvious pointthat strategy is more important than many other factors; strategy canbe decisive; and especially in politics and war, strategy iseverything.

July 22nd, 2019, 01:30 PM
TheFamous Long March The central Red Army,86,000 in all, began marching on the 21stof October, 1934. This wound up being a 2,500-li march, that is, some775 miles. They were headed to the western Hunan province where the2nd and 6thRed military blocs encamped. Chiang Kai-shek deduced what route theywere likely to take and laid four blockade lines to stop them. ZhouEnlai and Zhu De went to have a talk with Chen Jitang, a formerwarlord, and bribed him to let them go through his blockade line. Sothere was no fighting at the first three lines, as the Red Army neverwent there. However, they had to fight the National Army when theyattempted to break through the fourth line. They made a heavysacrifice after the rest of the Red Army fought through the fourthlines. Only 30,000 were left out of the 86,000.
The Long March could bedivided in four stages. Firstly, the escaped Red Army wanted to go toa place at the border of Sichuan, Hunan and Guizhou provinces, wherethe geographic features were easy to defend and hard to attack. Inthese areas there were still some local small warlords that theycould mingle amongst them for safety and the central nationalgovernment would not easily reach them. In early December, theyclimbed over some mountains and occupied Liping town in Guizhouprovince on the 14thof December, 1934.
Secondly, at a meeting inLiping on the 28thof December, Mao Zedong strongly opposed the plan to unite with the2nd and 6thRed military blocs, and proposed to go to the border of Sichuan andGuizhou provinces to occupy the area round Zunyi town as a newmilitary base. His proposition was accepted by the Central Committee,because from their present location, it was difficult to communicatewith the two Red blocs. On the 7thof January, 1935, they took Zunyi town.
Here they held the famousZunyi meeting, in which Mao was appointed to the command of the RedArmy again.

July 24th, 2019, 12:35 PM
Thirdly, though theywanted to establish a new military base in the vicinity of Zunyitown, the National Army continued to harass them. They had to escapeto the northern Sichuan province, where Zhang Guotao, in command ofthe 4th Redmilitary bloc, already set up a base. But that was far away, and theywould have to cross various streams. From January to May of 1935,they ran here and there to avoid being destroyed by the NationalArmy. They failed three times in crossing the Chishui Stream. Oncethey were forced to go back to Zunyi town. On the fourth try, theystole across the stream, then crossed Jinsha Stream and Dadu Stream.They met Zhang Guotao on the 16thof June. Then Mao suggested that they should march towards thenorthern Gansu province so that they might escape into the SovietUnion when necessary. But Zhang Guotao had three plans. The firstplan was that they should go to create a base in northern Sichuanprovince, southern Gansu province and Xikang province. The secondplan was that they should go to the northern Shaanxi province. Thethird plan was to go west into Xinjiang province.
Fourthly, the two blocs(the central Red Army, renamed as the 1stred military bloc) went together north from the 12thof June to the 7thof July. Then as both Mao and Zhang were in disagreement as to thefuture plan, each went his own way. Zhang, after marching through thegrasslands, refused to keep going north but went back through thegrasslands again to Xikang province and wanted to establish his basethere. And Mao Zedong, together with Peng Dehuai, Lin Biao(1907–1971), and Ye Jianying (1897–1986), went to southwesternGansu province. In October 1935, Mao and his men, only about 3,000left, surmounted the Liupan Mountain and reached the northern part ofShaanxi province. To their surprise, Liu Zhidan was there with his7,000 men. So they settled there.
As for Zhang Guotao, whohad started with 80,000 men, he wanted to found a new CentralCommittee of the Communist Party and to be the chairman himself. Butmost of his men had died through the Long March. He had no hope forhis personal ambitions. So he turned himself in to the NationalParty. The Communist Party called him a traitor.
It happened like this: onApril 4, 1938, leaders of both the National Party and the CommunistParty were to go to worship at the mausoleum of Emperor Huang, alegendary hero recorded in Chinese history books, supposed to havelived five thousand years ago. Zhang went there as the chairman ofthe Communist Party and met Jiang Dingwen, a leader of the NationalParty. After the rites were concluded, Zhang told his attendants togo back first as he had something else to deal with. But he jumpedinto a car the National Party provided for him. And he was gone. Hewas no longer a member of the Communist Party. At the end of 1948, hearrived in Taiwan in poverty. He seemed to be a forgotten man. In thewinter of 1949, he went to Hong Kong with his wife and three sons. In1958, he went to Canada where his eldest son lived. In 1976 he had astroke and was paralyzed on the right side. He died on December 2,1979, at the age of 82.
An interesting note fromrecent times: People doubted the actual distance the Red Armycovered. Therefore, on November 3, 2003, two young Englishmen startedon their way to retrace the route the Red Army had covered. Theyspent 384 days and covered 13,000 li, not 25,000 li.

July 26th, 2019, 01:13 PM
Themilitary coup d’état in XiAn CityAs Japan invadednortheastern China (details in Chapter 3), the Communist Party seizedthis opportunity to demand that the Communist Party and the NationalParty unify against Japan in January, 1936. And as Japan occupied thenortheastern China, Zhang Xueliang was driven out. Therefore, ChiangKai-shek ordered Zhang to besiege the Communist Party in northernShaanxi province on the 20thof September, 1935. But on the 1stof October, in the battle at Mt. Lao, the Red Army annihilated tworegiments of Zhang’s army. On the 29th,in another battle, the 107thdivision and the 619thregiment of Zhang’s army were wiped out, too. On the 22ndof November, his 109thdivision went alone towards Wuqi Town and camped on the way at ZhiluTown for the night. The division commander thought that the Red Armywas far away and could not attack him, and so he let down hisvigilance. However, the Red Army took a quick march all night longand surrounded the division. In the morning, the Red Army put thedivision to rout.
After these defeats, ZhangXueliang made secret contact with the Communist Party seeking atruce. On the 9thof April, 1936, Zhang went to YanAn city to talk with Zhou Enlai, therepresentative of the Communist Party. Zhang Xueliang accepted theCommunist Party’s demand to unite against Japan. Zhang Xueliangeven put in a request to join the Communist Party. Nevertheless, hisrequest was not granted because his father, Zhang Zuolin, a warlordin the northeastern China, had killed some Communist Party members.Anyway, when Deng Xiaoping (1904–1997), an important leader of theCommunist Party, was dangerously ill, Zhang procured medication forhim and saved his life.
Chiang Kai-shek heardabout the situation and was upset with Zhang Xueliang. But at thetime, an event happened in Canton, on the 1stof June, 1936, called the 6/1 event. Chen Jitang in Guangdongprovince and Li Zongren (1891–1969) in Guangxi province wanted tobe independent from the central national government, and on that daythey sent a telegram from Canton to the central government askingpermission to go north to fight Japan. But their real aim was tooverthrow the central government.

July 29th, 2019, 12:51 PM
Chiang Kai-shek sent hisarmy to conquer Chen in Guangdong province and simultaneously broughtover Chen’s subordinates. In July, the commander of Chen’s airforce betrayed him and turned over to Chiang Kai-shek by flying 70airplanes under his command to Nanking. Then the commander of his 1starmy declared his loyalty to Chiang Kai-shek. So on the 18thof July, Chen Jitang escaped to Hong Kong. Then Li Zongren in Guangxiprovince had to announce his obedience to the central government.
On the 22ndof October, Chiang Kai-shek flew from Nanking to XiAn city to urgeZhang to continue the attack of the Red Army, but Zhang raisedobjections. They had a quarrel and Chiang went to Luoyang City. Onthe 29th day,Zhang went to Luoyang for the celebration of Chiang Kai-shek’sbirthday. He wanted to persuade Chiang to unite with the CommunistParty against Japan, but Chiang refused. On the 27thof November, Zhang asked to go and fight Japan, but was rejected byChiang. On the 2ndof December, Zhang flew to Luoyang to inform Chiang that his armymight riot and asked Chiang to go to XiAn to talk to his soldiers.This was really a trick to lure Chiang there for a certain purpose.Chiang Kai-shek, unwise as ever, agreed and flew to XiAn with Zhangon the 4th ofDecember. He lodged at Huaqing Pool on Lishan Mountain. Huaqing Poolwas a resort built around a bathing pool with hot spring water.Actually the bathing pool was also inside a room. It was built inTang Dynasty (AD 618–907) for the famous Yang, imperial concubineof Emperor Xuanzong (AD 685–762).
On December 9, theCommunist Party organized a demonstration with crowds. A boy was saidto be injured by the police, which incited the wrath of the mob.Zhang went to see Chiang Kai-shek, who wanted Zhang to stop thedemonstration, but Zhang did not follow Chiang’s instruction. OnDecember 11, at night, Zhang summoned his generals and asked them tomake preparations for a military coup the next day. Accordingly, inthe morning of December 12, Zhang went to see Chiang Kai-shek withsoldiers and took him into custody.

July 31st, 2019, 01:55 PM
That evening, MailingSoong, Chiang Kai-shek’s wife, was told of the event andimmediately thought of Donald William Henry (1875–1946, died inShanghai), an Australian reporter, who was a friend of both Chiangand Zhang. Soong and Henry immediately took the train to Nanking. At8 o’clock in the morning on December 13, Soong sent Zhang atelegram and Henry did, too, saying that they would be flying to XiAnCity. On December 16, the national government ordered Zhang torelease Chiang at once, but Zhang declined. So the governmentgathered, intending to attack XiAn, and prepared to send bombers. TheCommunist Party suggested killing Chiang. But on the 17th,Stalin wrote to the Communist Party saying that he was opposed tokilling Chiang, who, in his opinion, would be a qualified leader inresisting Japan. He demanded that Chiang Kai-shek be released. So theCommunist Party agreed.
When Soong and Henryarrived in XiAn, they went to see Chiang Kai-shek at once. Soongpersuaded Chiang to go along with the plan, saying that it would bebetter to act against Japan than to be killed by the Communist Party.As a player in the anti-Japan resistance, he would be a hero. Killedby the Communist Party, he would be nothing. So Chiang Kai-shekaccepted the agreement on the 24thday about the unity with the Communist Party to fight Japan, etc. Buthe did not sign on the agreement. Some of Zhang’s subordinates werenot satisfied. Zhang said that if Chiang wanted to go back from theagreement once he was released, he would do that even if he signedthe agreement. If Chiang kept his promise, what did it matter that hesigned it or not.
Chiang Kai-shek was let goin the afternoon of December 25, and Zhang accompanied him back toNanking. He was kept in secret confinement till Chiang Kai-shek diedon April 5, 1975. Then he was restored to freedom and died on October15, 2001, in Hawaii. This event ended the war between the CommunistParty and the National Party and began the Sino–Japanese war allover China.

August 2nd, 2019, 01:06 PM
Chapter3. The Japanese Invasion of ChinaEvents Leading Up to the Sino–Japanese War in 1937

The 9/18 eventThe Japanese army had begun enteringChina even during the latter stages of the Qing Dynasty. Around thebeginning of the 20th century. Russia had built a railroadin northeastern China. In 1905, Russia and Japan had had a war there,on the territory of China, and Japan took control of the part of therailroad from Changchun City south, called the South ManchuriaRailway.
A legend about the origin of theJapanese says that 2,000 years ago, when the first emperor of the QinDynasty was on the throne, his next ambition was to live eternally.He sent a man by name of Xu Fu to go east in ships together with 100boys and 100 girls. It was said that there were islands in theeastern seas on which dwelt immortals. The errand of Xu Fu was tofind these immortals and ask for an elixir. Once he got it, he was tobring it back to the emperor. Xu Fu reached the Japanese islands andlived there with boys and girls, never returning to China. Those weresaid to be the earliest inhabitants and the earliest ancestors of theJapanese.
About 10:22PM on September 18, 1931,some Japanese soldiers laid gunpowder under the rails of the SouthManchuria railway for blew it up. This part of the line went by theLiutiao Lake, a bit north of Shenyang City. Then they left threeChinese corpses in the uniform of Chinese soldiers as evidence thatit was Chinese soldiers who had blown up the rails. On this excuse,the Japanese army attacked the Chinese army in Shenyang City. TheChinese army was ordered not to cause trouble with the Japanese army;so two of the three Chinese regiments guarding the city withdrew. Butthe third 620th regiment did not receive the order, and ofcourse, resisted the attack. The next afternoon, Japanesereinforcements came and the Japanese army entered the city. Theyencountered resistance and fought street by street till all theregiment fled the city. This was called the Liutiao Lake Incident (orMukden Incident, by foreigners), and was the beginning of the whole9/18 event. But this was not really counted as the beginning of theSino-Japanese War as the Chinese central government did not declarewar against Japan yet.
On September 19, Japanese army attackedand conquered 18 towns along the South Manchuria Railway. Thedefensive Chinese army in Changchun City also counterattacked theJapanese army, but on the next day, the city fell into Japanesehands. On September 21, Xie, chief-of-staff of the headquarters ofthe Chinese army in Jilin province, changed sides and went over toJapan. So the Japanese army took Jilin. On October 1, Zhang Haipeng,guarding Tiaoliao Town, changed sides, and under instruction from theJapanese sent three regiments of his army to assault Qiqihar City,but on October 16,theywere defeated by theChinese defenders. By the 26th of October, the Japanesearmy had occupied the chief towns along the Sitiao Railroad. FromNovember 4 to 18, the Chinese army in Heilongjiang province foughtthe Japanese army. Then they had to retreat from Qiqihar afterleaving heavy casualties, and the next day, the Japanese army enteredit.
At the start of the 9/18 event, ZhangXueliang, who was responsible for all the northeastern provinces,left Shenyang for Jinzhou. On the 8th of October, theJapanese army sent 12 bombers to raid Jinzhou. On the 15thof December, after occupying the important towns of Heilongjiangprovince, the Japanese army began to attack Jinzhou. On the 17th,reinforcement came directly from Japan. On December 28, the 2nddivision of the Japanese army crossed Liao River to attack Jinzhou.On January 3, 1932, the Japanese army took Jinzhou. On February 5,the Japanese army occupied Harbin City. These battles were still notwritten in Chinese history as the outbreak of Sino-Japanese War.
The army in the northeastern provincesunder the command of Zhang Xueliang had 18 brigades of foot soldiers,five independent brigades of cavalry, and four regiments and abattalion of artillery, plus 262 airplanes and fleets. They couldhave fought off the Japanese invaders, but they simply abandoned thenortheastern provinces. A shameful strategy.

August 5th, 2019, 01:43 PM
The1/28 eventAfter Japan occupied northeasternChina, it took aim at southeastern China.
Shanghai was an ideal place for Japan.At 4 o’clock in the afternoon on January 18, 1932, five Japanesemonks were instructed by the traitor Kawashima Yoshiko, formerly theLast Princess of Manchuria and now a Japanese spy using a Japanesename, to throw stones at workers at a Chinese factory. This caused afight to break out. But some thugs were sent by the Japanese, andthey beat one of the five monks to death and severely injuredanother. Then 50 Japanese young men went to the factory at midnighton January 19 and burned the factory down and murdered threepolicemen.
On January 20, around a thousandoverseas Japanese in Shanghai held a demonstration to demand theJapanese consulate and the Japanese Mariner headquarters take revengeon the Chinese. But on the way there, they began to riot and smashedChinese shops.
On January 21, the Japanese generalconsul demanded the Mayor of Shanghai to apologize, punish themurderers, make compensation for the losses, and disband all theanti-Japanese organizations. Although the mayor accepted all of thesedemands, the consul further ordered that the Chinese army back awayfrom Zhabei district on the pretext that they posed a threat to theoverseas Japanese. He added that if Chinese army did not leave before6:00PM on January 28, they would attack. On January 24, more Japanesemariners came to Shanghai. At 11:30 at night on January 28, Japanesemariners attacked the Zhabei district in Shanghai, which was in thecontrol of the 19th army of the national government. The19th army fearlessly resisted the Japanese attack with thesupport of the people of Shanghai, which forced the Japanese toaccept the mediation of England and America for a truce. But onFebruary 3, the fight started anew. On the 23rd, a fiercebattle took place and 3,000 Japanese mariners and 2,000 Chinesesoldiers were killed. On February 24, two more divisions from Japanarrived in Shanghai as reinforcements. Only the 5th armyof the national government came to the aid. On March 3, with themediation of England and America, the Songhu armistice was signed.The Chinese army were to be stationed in the region from Shanghai toSuzhou City. But Japan could still have their army in Shanghai.
One episode during all this took placeon April 29 when Japan held a military parade in Hongkou Park tocelebrate the birthday of the Japanese emperor, or “Sumera mikoto,”and their victory. A Korean hero, disguised as a Japanese man,entered the park with a grenade in the shape of a water flask. Whenthe Japanese were singing their anthem, he flung the grenade onto theplatform, where it exploded. The chairman of the committee for theJapanese in Shanghai died on the spot. The commander of the Japanesearmy in Shanghai for the event was severely injured and died in thehospital. A regiment commander and the Japanese envoy for China eachbroke a leg. And one eye of the commander of the 3rd fleetwas blinded. The Korean hero was caught and sentenced to death; hewas sent to Japan and executed at a Japanese army base. After WorldWar II, his remains were taken back to Korea and a monument waserected in his honor in Hongkou Park in Shanghai.

August 7th, 2019, 01:33 PM
Theestablishment of Manchukuo Afraid of international interference,Japan desired to establish a puppet government in northeastern China,and they thought of the abdicated emperor Henry. He was 18 years oldwhen he was driven out of the Forbidden City on November 5, 1924; heescaped to the Japanese embassy and traveled to Tianjin City, andlived under the protection of Japan ever since. So he was their firstchoice for the puppet government.
Therefore,Henry was escorted from Tianjin City on the 10th ofNovember, 1931, to Changchun City, where Manchukuo (meaning the stateof Manchuria) was established on March 1, 1932, with Changchun as itscapital and Henry as the head of Manchukuo.

On the 15th of September,1932, the Japan–Manchukuo Protocol was signed, in which Manchukuoasked that Japan station its army on its territory. On September 23,1932, the Soviet Union consented to allow Manchukuo to set upconsulates in Moscow and New Siberia. But the League of Nationsreproved Japan for this and disavowed Manchukuo as an illegal entity.On February 24, 1933, the League of Nations declared that Manchuriabelonged to the Republic of China, as the establishment of Manchukuohad not been decided by popular vote but by the government of Japan.The League of Nations adopted the “Stimson Doctrine” specifyingthat new states created by force of arms would not gain internationalrecognition. Japan protested and withdrew from the League. Of course,the national government in Nanking also refused to recognize it.
On March 1, 1934, the designationManchukuo was changed to Manchu Empire, and Henry got to be Emperoronce again. On May 24, 1934, El Salvador recognized the ManchuEmpire. On April 6, 1935, Emperor Henry visited Tokyo, Japan, for thefirst time and the Sumera mikoto came to welcome him at the railwaystation. On November 28, 1936, Italy signed a protocol with Japanrecognizing the Manchu Empire. On February 20, 1937, Germanyrecognized it and signed a treaty in Berlin on the 12th ofMay. In August of 1940, Denmark recognized the Manchu Empire. Ahandful of other nations also recognized it.

Changchun City,as the capital of this empire, had expanded to cover an area of 30square miles by 1944 and its population reached 1,217,000, largerthan the population of Tokyo at the time. The population was composedof Manchus, Han, Mongolians, Koreans, Russians, and of course, twomillion Japanese (as Japanese citizens, not subjects of the ManchuEmpire). The total population was divided into different classesaccording to their different tribes. Among the regulations thatreflected this stratification was one prohibiting non-Japaneseresidents from eating rice and white flour. Any non-Japaneseresident, if found to have rice or white flour, was taken in as an“economical criminal.” Three languages were used officially:Chinese (Han), Mandarin (the language of Manchu officials) andJapanese. As the population was mostly of the Han tribe, Chinese wasthe chief official language.
However, onFebruary 24, 1942, Poland abolished its recognition of the so-calledempire and in August, 1945, the empire came to an end when Japansurrendered and the Soviet Army occupied its territory. Henryabdicated once again on August 17 and was captured by the Soviet armyas a prisoner of war.
He was handedover to the Communist Party of China. He was released on December 4,1959, and died of uremia on October 17, 1967.

August 9th, 2019, 02:15 PM
The12/9 event After Japanseized the northeastern provinces, they wanted to encroach moreprovinces further south such as Chahar and Hebei. They intended toestablish another puppet government in these provinces. But theChinese people had had enough. The students rose up in protest. At10:00AM on December 9, 1935, three thousand students fromuniversities and high schools in Peking demonstrated in opposition tosuch Japanese aggression. They fought with the police. Many studentswere injured and at least ten students were arrested. On December 10,all the students in Peking went on strike.
Students inHangzhou followed suit. On December 11, the Peking government (stillcontrolled by the Republic of China) sent policemen to theuniversities and schools to forbid the students going out todemonstrate. On December 12, students in Shanghai, Nanking, Wuhan,Canton, and many other big cities gave their support. The next day,the principals of six universities in Peking told the students thatthey must go back to classes since those who had been in custody wereall released. On the 15th, the mayor of Peking invitedstudent representatives to have a talk. On the 16th, thePeking government and the university authorities announced that anystudents who refused to attend class would be punished. But on thesame day, 10,000 students went out to demonstrate again, and around30 students were arrested and about 400 injured. Then 20,000 Pekingresidents joined in. Workers and shop owners all went on strike. OnDecember 17, the mayor asserted that the students were beinginstigated by the Communist Party.
In January,1936, students in Peking and Tianjin organized propaganda groups togo south among the workers and peasants to let them know about theinvasion by Japan and calling on them to rise up against theJapanese. On March 31, Guo Qing, a student at the 17thhigh school in Peking, died in prison. Students indignantly crowdedinto the streets, carrying his coffin. On May 28, all Peking wasprotesting, with the slogans “Down with Japan” and “The 29tharmy must fight Japan.” On May 30, the commander of the 29tharmy announced that if the Japanese army moved any further, it wouldface resistance. On June 13, students in Peking demonstrated again,and this time the police did not interfere; on the contrary, theyshowed their sympathy. On December 12, students held the fifthdemonstration. These student protests, though not enough to preventthe Japanese from trespassing further into China, roused the Chinesepeople at large to resist the invaders.

August 12th, 2019, 02:54 PM
TheOutbreak of the Sino–Japanese War, Or the Anti-Japanese WarThe double 7s event—Lugou Bridge event At 7:30PM onthe 7th of July (07/07), 1937, the Japanese army,stationed at the other side of Lugou Bridge over the Yongding River(with the Chinese army on this side of the bridge), 15 km fromPeking, began to exercise, conducting a sham battle in the desertedfields under their control close to Wanping Town. (Wanping had beenfounded in 1540 in the Ming Dynasty as a satellite town for thedefense of Peking.) At about 12:40 that night, reports of gun shotswere heard by the Chinese soldiers across the river. Japaneseofficers said that a soldier in their army had gone missing in theexercise and they heard reports of guns, so the soldier must havebeen killed by Chinese soldiers. On this pretext they tried to comeinto Wanping town to search for him. The Chinese army guarding thetown, of course, refused their request, answering that everyone inthe town was asleep and must not be disturbed, and besides, noChinese soldier had fired a shot. Therefore, at 5 o’clock in themorning on July 8, they opened fire on the defensive Chinese army atthis side of the bridge and also blasted the town with artillery. TheChinese army had to fight back. Historians consider this is the eventthat lit the fuse of the Sino–Japanese War.
Next day, theCommunist Party sent out a public telegram to call on people toresist the Japanese invaders. And Chiang Kai-shek made a speech,saying, “No matter where you are, in the south or in the north, nomatter who you are, old or young, everyone has the responsibility toresist, everyone must be determined to make a sacrifice.” in theprevious six years Chiang Kai-shek had stuck to a policy of notfighting the Japanese because he was not confident they could achievethe final victory, and he needed time to prepare. He had hired Germanadvisors to train his officers and soldiers up to German standards.He stored ammunition and expanded his air force. He communicated withEngland, the US and Russia seeking diplomatic support. Though helacked the self-confidence to win the war, he foresaw that the finalvictory belonged to China. As a small country, however strongmilitarily, Japan could never occupy such a big country like China.
In the firsttwo days of fighting, Japan could see that they were not going totake the bridge easily. So they proposed peace talks to make time togather more troops. Japan maneuvered its army from Korea andnortheastern China to where the battles were, amassing 400,000troops. On July 9, 11and 19, peace agreements were signedthree times, but they were useless, only serving to numb the Chinesearmy with a false outlook of peace.
On July 25, theJapanese army suddenly attacked the Chinese army stationed atLangfang, and 14 Japanese airplanes raided the barracks of theChinese army. At noon on July 26, the Japanese army occupiedLangfang. Then Japan demanded the Chinese army to withdraw from theregion of Peking and Tianjin City, a demand that was of courserejected. At 1:00AM on July 26, a Japanese regiment started fromTianjin City and arrived at Fengtai, close to Peking, at 2:00PM. Theyasked to enter Peking to protect their citizens in the city. Theywere permitted in. When just half of the regiment was inside the citygates, the Chinese army fired at them. The regiment was cut in two,half inside and half outside the city. The inside half escaped to theembassy area, into the Japanese barracks in the Japanese embassy. Theother half returned to Fengtai. On July 28, the Japanese army startedto assault Peking. Chinese army resisted and suffered hugesacrifices. In the night of July 28, the Chinese army had to retreatfrom Peking. The next day, Japan took Peking, and the day after,Tianjin City fell into their hands as well.

August 16th, 2019, 01:37 PM
The8/13 event—battle in Shanghai In southernChina, Japan wanted to occupy Shanghai. On August 9, two Japanesemariners in Shanghai drove a car and trespassed into the Hongqiaoairport area to fire guns, but they were shot dead by the Chineseguards. On August 13, Japanese mariners following their tanksattacked the Chinese army stationed along the Songhu railway, butthey were beaten. On August 14, the national government made astatement calling for self-defense in resistance of Japan. Thestatement was really a general mobilization order to all Chinesepeople. The central national government organized several militaryblocs to defend Shanghai. On August 15, the Japanese governmentissued a statement, too, saying that in order to punish the Chinesearmy for its rash action and to urge the Nanking government not totake severe steps, the Japanese government had to resort to war. Theysent more troops by sea to the Shanghai area. In joint action withthe mariners, the Japanese army planned to occupy the strategicallyimportant zone in the north of Shanghai.
Chiang Kai-shekdivided the warring area into five zones. Shanghai was in the thirdzone. On August 17, the Chinese army counterattacked and the 87thdivision took the Japanese sailors’ club. The 88thdivision fought Japanese troops in Hongkou park. The two divisionsjointly broke through the Japanese defensive line to Huishan wharf.At the same time, the Chinese air force attacked that of Japan andalso their warships. They downed 47 Japanese airplanes and sank oneJapanese cruiser. Two divisions sailed from Japan to the easternregion of Shanghai, arriving on the 22nd. And on the 23rd,they landed at Wusong district. On August 24, the Chinese 15thmilitary bloc entered Shanghai and assailed the two Japanesedivisions just as they were setting foot on land. On September 1, athousand Japanese soldiers attacked the Chinese cannon site and bothhad heavy casualties. Japan gathered 30 warships to support theirarmy in an attack at Baoshan.
After September11, Chiang Kai-shek himself took the command of the third zone. Fromthen till the beginning of October, the Japanese army increased to200,000 strong. But they did not have a decisive advantage over theChinese army till early November. At dawn on November 5, under thecover of heavy fog and lifted by the rising tide, Japanese armylanded at Hangzhou Bay. On November 6, they took Jinshan and used avise strategy to attack the Chinese army from two sides. On November8, under such unfavorable conditions, Chiang had to give order toretreat. On November 9, the Japanese army occupied Songjiang Town andon November 12 they took Shanghai. During the battles, the people ofShanghai had contributed 3.3 million yuan to support the Chinesearmy.

Art Man
August 17th, 2019, 06:47 AM
You can find this same thread at The Literature Network website forums. Same person?

August 19th, 2019, 01:49 PM
Thebattles in Shanxi provinceThe Japanese army from north marchedtoward Pingxing Pass in Shanxi province on the 24th ofSeptember, 1937, but the Chinese army was lying in wait for them. AJapanese regiment entered the ambush zone and was annihilated. OnSeptember 29, the Japanese army broke through the Chinese army’sdefensive line at Ruyuekou and attacked the rear of Chinese army atPingxing Pass. The Chinese army had to beat a retreat to TaiyuanCity, capital of Shanxi province. Qikou was an important strategicplace, the gate to Taiyuan. On October 14, the Japanese army used avise ruse to attack Qikou from two wings, but met with strongresistance. There were heavy casualties on both sides. On October 21,the Japanese army sent a division to attack Niangzi Pass with theintention of going in as an indirect route to take Taiyuan from thenorth side. On October 26, a Japanese division sent a detachment togo round to the back of the Chinese army defending Niangzi Pass. TheChinese army in the Pass had to withdraw. The Japanese army tookNiangzi Pass and chased the retreating Chinese to Yangquan. Then theJapanese army occupied Yangquan and marched toward Shouyang, closerto Taiyuan, on the 2nd of November.
Another Japanese military bloc took adifferent route and took Xiyang on its way to Taiyuan on November 2.The two Japanese blocs converged on Taiyuan. On November 3, theJapanese 5th bloc reached the northern edges of Taiyuan.On November 5, the Japanese broke through the Chinese defensive lineand approached the city wall on November 6. In the meantime, theJapanese 20th military bloc penetrated the Chinesedefensive line in the southern perimeter. On November 7, the Japanesearmy surrounded Taiyuan and on the 8th they began anonslaught on the city; at night they entered the city from thenorthern side. The Chinese army had to escape and then the Japanesearmy took the whole city.
In February of 1938, the Japanese 108thmilitary bloc took Dongyang Pass and then another two towns. In earlyMarch, more towns were taken. By then all the important cities andtowns in Shanxi province had fallen into the hands of Japan. Out of105 cities and towns in Shanxi province, 102 of them were occupied byJapanese army.

August 21st, 2019, 02:03 PM
Theslaughter in NankingBy October 1937, Nanking, the capitalof the national government, was exposed to the attack of Japanesearmy. Therefore, Chiang Kai-shek decided to set up a temporarycapital in Chongqing City in Sichuan province in southwestern China,at a safe distance from the Japanese army.
At first some generals persisted indefending Nanking at any cost. So the national government gathered100,000 soldiers for that purpose. No matter, as Japanese armyapproached Nanking, the government at last had to declare that thegovernment was moving to Chongqing City on the 20th ofNovember. Government offices, universities and schools moved inland,one after another. Even residents of the city escaped from Nanking.In June, there were 1,015,000 residents in the city, but in December,only 468,000 or 568,000 remained. On the 20th of December,for humanitarian reasons, over 20 Westerners were still thereorganizing the international committee of the Nanjing safety zone totake in and protect refugees.
The Chinese national governmentrecognized their efforts and supplied them with cash, food and policeprotection. Japan was far from pleased, but declared that if therewere no Chinese soldiers hiding there, they would not attack it. Butafter they took the city, their soldiers forced entry into the zone,stealing private belongings, raping women and arresting and killingyoung men. Several times the international committee made protests tothe Japanese embassy and Japanese army authorities, but in vain.During this slaughter, the committee protected 250,000 refugees. Onthe 18th of February, 1938, the organization was renamedthe Nanking international rescue committee, acting only in a rescuerole. By June, it was closed entirely.
On the 7th of November,Tokyo gave orders to limit the action of the Japanese army to theeast of Suzhou and Jiaxing region. But the army ignored the order andpursued the retreating Chinese army, intending to occupy Nanking.They advanced quickly as no Chinese army fought them on the way.Seeing this, Tokyo issued orders to take Nanking on December 1.
The Japanese army marched so fast thattheir supply units were left far behind. When they were approachingNanking, food was scarce. The soldiers pillaged the Chinese villagesfor anything edible and wantonly violated women. To cover theircrimes, they even slew all the people in the village and burnedeverything. As they came to Nanking, at least 30,000 Chinese peoplewere killed along the way. It was a rehearsal for the slaughter inNanking.
On December 8, the Japanese army tookall the defensive sites outside Nanking. The worst battle took placeat Yuhua Terrace outside the city. Two Chinese brigades were guardingthe place. From December 9–11, the Japanese army kept on sendingreinforcements for the attack, aided by their artillery and airraids, until every Chinese soldier was killed. When the Japanesetroops reached the terrace, no one was alive. Then the Japanese armycleared all the defensive lines outside the city, and the Chinesearmy in the city had to retreat. On December 13, the Japanese armyentered the city. Some Chinese soldiers who did not have time toescape stripped off their uniforms and disguised themselves ascivilians. Some ten thousand Chinese were taken captive. They wereall killed on instructions from the Japanese army authorities. Theyalso searched for other Chinese soldiers in disguise. Anyone theysuspected was killed. Many of them were really unarmed civilians.They even murdered old people and children. They killed all the womenthey had raped.
On December 13, 1937, a Japanesenewspaper, Tokyo nichi nichi (mainichi shimbun), reported that twoJapanese officers, Mukai Ming and Noda Takeshi, had a competition tosee who could kill more Chinese people. Encouraged by theirsuperiors, they declared that whoever was first to kill 100 Chinesepeople was a hero. They practiced this slaying from Gourong toTangshan, and Mukai Ming killed 89 while Noda Takeshi killed 78.Certainly, we can all agree they were not heroes. However, thecompetition continued. When they met at Mt. Zinjin, both had dentedthe blades of their swords. Noda Takeshi said that he had killed 105and Mukai Ming said that he had killed 106. However, there was nowitness. So they started the competition anew, aiming at 150. Thenewspaper ran pictures with captions. Both these brave men wereexecuted in Nanking for their crimes after the surrender of Japan.
Statistics showthat during the two months the Japanese occupied Nanking, about80,000 women were raped, some of them pregnant, from girls as youngas 12 to women as old as 65. Many died after the violence. They rapedwomen right in front of their families. Many people were buriedalive. The victims were forced by the Japanese soldiers to dig theirown pits. During the six weeks of the occupation, 23.8% of structuresinside and outside the city were destroyed by fire, 63% had beenplundered and 88.5% were structurally damaged. They used militarytrucks to carry away their loot. By some estimates, 26,584 antiquecurios or artifacts were missing, such as bronze wares from the ShangDynasty (1765–1122 BC), along with 7,720 paintings and 45,979valuable books. Some 109,000 casualties were found and buried. TheNanking branch of the World Red Swastika Society gave out statisticsin 1945 claiming that from December 22, 1937 to October 30, 1938,they found and buried 43,123 bodies—1,793 inside the city and41,330 outside the city, including 75 women and 20 children. Thosestatistics were from just one organization. The victims totaled300,000 in all.

August 23rd, 2019, 01:30 PM
Thebattles in Shandong provinceNow the Japanese army occupied thenorth of China and also Shanghai and the Nanking area. What morecould they want? Well, the Shandong province, which is between thenorthern provinces and the southern area. Shandong province was thenstill under the control of the Chinese army. Xuzhou City was a placeof strategic importance. So battles were waged in its vicinity andexpanding into adjoining provinces. If the Japanese army occupiedXuzhou, they could go west along the Longhai railway to attackZhengzhou in Henan province and then go south along the Pinghanrailway to attack Wuhan in Hubei province. So the Japanese army camedown from the north and came up from the south.
At the beginning of the Anti-JapaneseWar in 1937, Han Fuju, the chairman of the government of Shandongprovince, was ordered to take charge of the defensive line along theYellow River and prevent the Japanese army from crossing the river.But when the Japanese army rushed down upon him from the north, hefled as if to open the gate and invite the enemy in. The Japanesearmy easily crossed the river. In early March 1938, they occupiedJiNan, the capital of Shandong province.
On the 26th of January,1938, the 13th division of the Japanese army marched fromthe south towards Fengyang and Bangbu in Anhui province. The Chinesearmy stationed there, after efforts at resistance, fell back towardsthe west. On the 3rd of February, the Japanese divisiontook Linhuai Pass and Bangbu. On February 9–10, the 13thdivision crossed the Huai River to the north. The 51stChinese army stationed itself on the north bank and fought theJapanese army.
Between March 1–17, the Japanese armyattacked Teng Town in the southern Shandong province. On March 14,the battle reached its climax. The Japanese army used 30 cannons. OnMarch 17, Teng Town was lost.
Meanwhile in late February, theJapanese 5th military bloc came down to the south, aftertaking over a few towns, and approached Linqi Town where the 40tharmy of the national government held the defense. Then the 59thChinese army came for reinforcement. From February 14to18, the 59th Chinese army attacked the Japanese bloc fromthe rear and one wing. The Japanese had to retreat this time, leavingbehind heavy casualties.
On March 20 a Japanese brigade, aftertaking a few towns, approached TaiEr village area, which was thefront defensive line to Xuzhou. The brigade attacked alone withoutwaiting for the 5th division and another brigade of theirarmy; they were supposed to break through the defensive lines on theleft wing and on the right wing. From March 24, the Japanese armyassailed fiercely. The 2nd Chinese military bloc held theline. Then the 20th Chinese bloc attacked the Japanesearmy from behind. The 59th Chinese army arrived in time tocontribute their endeavors. They surrounded the Japanese army. The10th Japanese corps was wiped out and the 5thJapanese corps was put to rout. It was the first and only time thatthe Chinese army defeated the Japanese army in the early period ofAnti-Japanese War.
Anyway, Japan aimed at taking Xuzhou.On the 18th of April, two Japanese divisions attacked the20th, the 3rd and the 59th Chinesearmies. On the 5th of May, the main forces of the Japanesearmy divided into two detachments and went from west side of Xuzhouto the north and south sides of the city, intending to surround it.On May 14, the 14th Japanese division came from Puyang inHenan province, and crossing the Yellow River, occupied Heze. On May15, the Japanese army surrounded Xuzhou. So under the command ofChiang Kai-shek, the Chinese army in Xuzhou broke through the circleand escaped to the mountainous area in Henan and Anhui provinces.Xuzhou was at length taken by the Japanese army on May 19.
Now the Japanese army marched westalong the Longhai railway and on the 6th of June occupiedKaifeng City in Henan province. To prevent the Japanese army from anyfurther advance, Chiang ordered his men to blow up the south dike ofthe Yellow River at Huayuankou on May 9, on the northeastern side ofZhengzhou in Henan province. The water from the river flooded southand the Japanese army had to flee eastward. Thus ended the battles inShandong province. Han Fuju was executed for running away from thebattlefield and allowing the Japanese to cross the Yellow Riverunopposed.

August 26th, 2019, 01:23 PM
Thebattles at Wuhan City areaAfter taking Nanking, the Japanese armywanted to conquer China in three months with blitzkrieg attacks likeHitler did in Europe. They marched along the Yangtze River towardsWuhan, gathering large numbers of troops, amounting to 300,000strong. If they took Wuhan, half of China would be in theirpossession. But they neglected to consider that even so, they onlyoccupied the cities and towns in this half of China, not the wholearea. They had no manpower to control the countryside. As they pushedforward, they had to leave some of their troops to guard the citiesand towns they had captured. And so they could use less and lesstroops, and then there were those lost in battle. Poor strategy.
The Chinese army totaled 1,100,000 indefense. The whole defensive line extended for 250 miles. Thefighting went on for four and a half months, the longest in terms oftime and the largest in scale of all the battles between Japan andChina. The Japanese casualties were 35,500 while those of the Chinesearmy were 256,000. After that, the Japanese did not have enoughforces in China to make the lightning attacks they preferred; nowthey had to change their strategy and concentrate on keeping a holdon what they had secured so far.
On the night of the 11th ofJune, 1938, a Japanese brigade, under the cover of a rainy night,gave a surprise attack and took Anqin the following day. Anqin wasthe first defensive spot en route to Wuhan. Then they went west bywater, riding their warships. In late June, they arrived at Madang,where the Chinese army had built a strong defensive line. ChiangKai-shek hoped that this line could block their advance for at leastone month.
At first, the Japanese army wanted toget through the line by water. On June 22, they approached Madang andfound that the water was full up mines, sunken ships, and artificialreefs so that their warships could not go through. They had toadvance by land and break through the line through the mountainousareas.

September 2nd, 2019, 02:44 PM
Li Yunheng, the Chinese commander incharge of the defense in Madang, wished to show that he was a clevergeneral—without realizing how serious the situation was. Heorganized a training class for officers in charge of regiments,battalions, companies and platoons in his army for two weeks startingon June 10. And at 8 o’clock in the morning June 24, he thought hewould hold a ceremony marking the completion of the class. So on the23rd, all the officers went to the headquarters and stayedthere for the ceremony next morning. Someone in the training classwas spying for the Japanese and gave this information to the Japanesearmy. So they sent surprise squads to attack some of the fortressesalong the front. As there were no officers to direct the action ofthe soldiers, there was chaos and the squads took the fortresseseasily. But when the squads went on to attack Changshan, theyencountered strong resistance, because the officers there had refusedto attend the ceremony. The fight lasted for two days and the Chinesetroops were short of ammunition and telegrammed headquarters. The167th division was sent as reinforcement. But Xue Weiying,the commander of this division, was a coward and approached slowly toavoid being killed in the battle. At dawn on the 26th, theJapanese squads stole through a thick patch of reeds to attackanother frontier post. They used poisonous gas and killed all thedefensive soldiers there. Then the Japanese army cleared all mines inthe water by firing at them and got rid of other barriers. Theyshipped mariners to attack Changshan and broke through the defensiveline there. The Chinese defense had to withdraw out of Madang and theJapanese army occupied it. Madang was the ‘gate’ in the middle ofthe Yangtze River to Wuhan. Commander Li Yunheng was severelypunished and the division leader Xue Weiying was executed for neglectof his duties.
After taking Madang, the Japanese armycontinued west. On the 29th of June, they took Pengze.Under orders from Wuhan headquarters, the 64th Chinesearmy came in hopes of taking back the town, but it was defeated andchased to Hukou, which was soon taken by the Japanese army on the 4thof July. The 64th Chinese army then went to Jiujiang,which was situated by the Poyang Lake. On July 22, the Japanese armyattacked the city. At dawn on July 23, the Japanese army stole intothe lake in the rain and set foot on the shore at noon. The Chinesedefensive army did not see them coming. They spotted the enemy andreported to headquarters only at 4 o’clock. By then, the Japanesearmy had surrounded the city. The Chinese army inside had to fightthrough the circle and escape. The city fell into the hands of theJapanese army on July 24.
The next goal of the Japanese army wasTianjia Town. The hilly ground was easy to defend and hard to attack.The river was only 500 meters wide. The Chinese army set up a strongdefense here with artillery. On the 21st of August, theJapanese army attacked Matou Town, about 10 miles downstream fromTianjia Town, and took it after more than 20 days of struggle. On the26th, the Japanese army sailed in warships upstreamtowards the town. There were more barriers in the water, so theJapanese army advanced very slowly. On August 29, another Japanesedetachment went to attack Guangji. If they could take this town, theycould go on to attack Tainjia from behind. Tianjia Town was about 25miles northeast of Guangji Town. The attack began on August 30and lasted until September 6. Between Guangji Town and TianjiaTown there was only a narrow road between two small lakes. TheJapanese army followed that road on September 15. There were somedefensive outposts set along this road. Coming to a roadblock, theyused poisonous gas again. Some Chinese soldiers were injured and theChinese army had to retreat.

September 4th, 2019, 01:29 PM
The Japanese mariners went to Wuxue,some distance from Tianjia. Wuxue was defended only by a company ofChinese soldiers. In the evening of September 15, the mariners beganthe offensive. The defensive soldiers fought the invaders alley byalley till only a few soldiers left, and they slipped away. Butbefore they left, they destroyed the dike at the river bank and thewater flooded Wuxue area, which hindered the advance of the mariners.
A Japanese brigade that was surroundedby the Chinese army was running short of rations and ammunition. AJapanese commander learned about this and called for an air lift tore-supply them. So Japanese airplanes dropped the necessities andammunition to the brigade. But as the fighting continued, theirammunition was soon used up. The Japanese soldiers were reduced tothrowing stones at the Chinese attackers and sometimes threw back thegrenades the Chinese soldiers cast at them. The Chinese army figuredout that the enemy was in a tight spot and marched forth in adownpour of rain to wipe them out. However, more Japanese troops cameto the rescue and assailed the Chinese army from behind, so they hadto withdraw. Few men in the Japanese brigade were left alive.
On September23,some of the wounded Japanese soldiers were shipped away, but thefirst field hospital was still full. Because of the lack of helpinghands, those who were lightly wounded and who could still walk, wentto the field hospital by themselves. Sometimes they had to crawl inthe rain and in the mud. By the time they reached the hospital, theywere almost dying. Some died on the way owing to the loss of blood.The hospital had little food to spare and could only give them whatthey had. War is cruel to all participants.
After the sunset on the 26th,the 4th Japanese battalion attacked Xinwo. Their soldiersall put on gas masks and cleared out the Chinese company there,except about ten of them who had already escaped. The Japanesesoldiers then went in and used bayonets to kill any Chinese soldiersthat had not died yet.
The 4th battalion wenttowards Lujia Mountain without leaving any soldiers to guard Xinwo.It was dark and the mountain contours were complicated. The 4thbattalion lost its way in the mountains. The 339th Chineseregiment was taking shelter on this mountain. But after a fewbattles, only one battalion was left. As Xinwo was lost, the regimentcommander chose some hundred soldiers to form an expendable squad tomake one last try at Xinwo. When they reached there, they found noJapanese soldiers guarding the place. But by coincidence the 2ndJapanese battalion came into their firing zone. The Japanese troopsthought that their 4th battalion had already wiped out bythe Chinese soldiers defending the city, but now they encountered theChinese squad by surprise. So 61 soldiers of the 2ndJapanese battalion were killed and 17 escaped. At daybreak, the 4thbattalion found that they were at the foot of Lujia Mountain and theyclimbed up to attack the Chinese soldiers on the top, who were justready for breakfast. When they detected Japanese soldiers creeping upthe mountainside, they disappeared.
In the early morning of September28, the cannons from the warships on the river and from landpoured heavy fire upon Tianjia and all the defensive structures andweaponry were destroyed. It looked like a sea of flames. At the sametime, all the outer defensive spots were lost. The Chinese army inTianjia was ordered to withdraw. At 10 o’clock on September29,when the Japanese army entered the town, the Chinese defenders werenowhere to be seen.

September 6th, 2019, 01:33 PM
At the same time, the 106thJapanese military bloc had been marching south along Nanxun railroadto Nanchang. On the August 20, this bloc, aided by the 101thJapanese bloc, broke through the Chinese defensive line at Xingzi.But the Chinese army had a second defensive line. The two Japaneseblocs could not go further this time. In September 1938, a Japanesereconnaissance airplane found that there was a gap in the defensiveline after the fight had been going on for a month. So the 106thJapanese bloc was sent to go stealthily through that gap and comeupon the Chinese defensive army to attack them from behind. OnSeptember 25, the 106th bloc began to steal through thegap, but lost their way in the mountains. They were soon discoveredand surrounded by Chinese soldiers. On October 7, the Chinese armyattacked and the fight went on for three days. The bloc had noreinforcements and ran out of ammunition. On September 10, 3,000Japanese soldiers died. The rest escaped.
On the August 27, the 2ndJapanese army attacked Dabie Mountain area and took LiuAn andHuoshan. They split into two detachments. The first went through theDabie Mountain area to approach Wuhan directly. The second detachmentwent to Lushan through a circuitous route to Wuhan. But Mt. Fujin wasright on their way to Wuhan. They had to occupy Mt. Fujin first. Asevere battle commenced. They failed to take the mountain bySeptember 6. On September 11, the 16th Japanese bloc camefor reinforcement. The Chinese defensive army in the mountains had towithdraw. As the Japanese army approached Wuhan, there was no moreChinese army seen. The Chinese army already retreated from Wuhan,leaving the city to the Japanese army.
Although the Japanese army took controlof many cities and towns, they really did not annihilate the Chinesearmy, which still had enough strength to fight back when needed. Onthe contrary, the Japanese army suffered great losses and had no morestrength to wage battles on a large scale. As China is such a hugecountry, even with all the Japanese armies thrown into the territoryof China, they could not cover the whole area of the nation. Besides,when they took a city, they took on an additional burden. As theyacquired more and more burdens, they had less and less strength tofight. That has to be factored into any military strategy.

September 9th, 2019, 02:35 PM
TheJapanese army takes Canton in the southThe top brass of the Japanese army hada meeting on September 7 and decided to overrun southern China asthey had already occupied the northern and middle China. Their finalgoal was to occupy the whole of China and then occupy all thecountries in East Asia to establish what they called Great East AsiaCoprosperity Sphere.
However, historians question why theyattacked Pearl Harbor, since Hawaii was not in East Asia. Thisill-advised action, or ill-advised stratagem, made them pay heavilywhen America declared war against them. of course, even if theyhadn’t attacked Pearl Harbor, the United States would finally havejoined the war in East Asia after Germany was conquered, becauseJapan was one of the axis countries, just as the Soviet Union enterednortheastern China to fight the Japanese army.
Anyway, Chiang Kai-shek misjudged thesituation, thinking that since Japan was still fighting in theYangtze River area, they could not go south to Canton. So hemaneuvered four divisions from the Canton area to support thosebattling in Wuhan. In other words, he weakened the defensive forcesin Canton. But Canton was a harbor city, an outlet to the sea, aplace of strategic importance.
On October 12, 1938, the Japanese 18thand 104th blocs set out for Canton by sea and air from thePescadores Islands (located between the mainland and Taiwan, whichwas known at the time by the name Formosa, given by the Portuguese)with the aid of four aircraft carriers. They entered Daya Bay in theGuangdong province. The next day, they dropped bombs on Huiyang Townand after three days, they took it. On October 19, they suddenlyattacked Zengcheng and put the Chinese defenders to rout. On October21, the Chinese army withdrew from Canton and the Japanese army tookit. Another burden. On October 22, 110 Japanese airplanes and the 5thfleet pounced upon Humen, a very important strategic spot. Within tendays, they occupied Canton and Human.

September 11th, 2019, 01:19 PM
TheJapanese army attacks Changsha City three timesAlthough the Japanese army occupiedNanking and Wuhan, two big, important cities, there were otherimportant cities in between that had not taken yet. Changsha was oneof them. On the 14th of September, 1939, they gathered100,000 soldiers and marched towards Changsha. But they had to fightthrough one Chinese defensive line after another.
The 101th Japanese blocattacked GaoAn on September 18. On the 19th, the Chinesegave up the town after a severe fight and receded to Shiguling. Then,the Chinese 32nd army counterattacked in GaoAn onSeptember 21. On September 22, the Chinese army took back GaoAn. TheJapanese 106th bloc took Ganfang on September 24. The nextday, the Chinese counterattacked in Ganfang. On the 6th ofOctober, two Chinese blocs surrounded the Japanese army, who fledback to where they had come from. The Chinese army chased them andtook back a few towns that had been captured by the Japanese army. OnOctober 13, Chinese army stopped its pursuit. Thus ended theChanghsha battle for the first time, and the people there had amoment to recover.
In early September of 1941, Japangathered 120,000 men, with artillery and air support, and marched onChanghai once more. On September 7, the Japanese 6th blocattacked Dayun Mountain as a decoy to screen the gathering of their3rd, 4th, and 40th blocs on theright bank of the Xinqiang River. The 4th Chinese armygave up the front line on the mountain. On September 10, the Chinese58th army came as reinforcements and took back themountain position. At the daybreak on September 18, the Japanese 3rd,6th, and 40th blocs crossed the Xinqiang Riverand the next day they reached the north bank of the Miluo River. TheChinese 37th and 99th armies were stationed onthe south bank of the river and they prevented the Japanese army fromcrossing. Meantime, the Chinese 20th, 58th ,and 4th armies went to attack the wing side of theJapanese army. But a telegram from headquarters to the armies at thefront was intercepted and deciphered by the Japanese, who changedtheir original plan and went to assail the Chinese army coming fromtheir wing side. On September 24, the Japanese army crossed the MiluoRiver. On the 26th, the Japanese 4th bloccrossed Laodao river and the next day crossed Liuyang River andapproached Changsha. On the afternoon of September 27, they enteredthe city from the southeast side and shortly occupied the whole city.
But Chinese armies came from all sidesand surrounded the city. The Japanese supply lines were cut andprovisions inside the city ran short. On October 1, they had toescape north. So the Chinese army pursued them. On October 5, theycaught up with the runaways on the south side of the Miluo River andfought there. The Japanese army had to cross the river to the northside. On October 6, the Chinese army crossed the river, too, keepingup the chase, and they crossed the Xinqiang River on October 8. OnOctober 11, the Chinese army restored all the positions taken by thefoe. The second battle for Changsha was over.
After the 7th of December,1941, when Japan made their semi-secret bombardment of Pearl Harbor,Japan was scheming to attack the Chinese army in Changsha area againlest they should go south to assist the Britain in the defense ofHong Kong.
On December 23, the Japanese armycrossed the Xinqiang River once again to pounce upon the Chinese armyin Changsha, who put up a firm resistance. Other Chinese armiesaround the area came to surround the Japanese army, who gradually ranlow on ammunition and their supply line was cut off. On January 15,1942, the Japanese army had to break through the encirclement andescape. They lost 50,000 soldiers.
The victory in these battles made adeep international impression just when the situation appearedunfavorable to the Allies in East Asia. On January 1, 1942,twenty-six nations held an assembly in Washington D.C., and made ajoint declaration. The United States, Great Britain, the SovietUnion, and China, the four greatest powers in the world, signed thedeclaration. And Xue Yue, the commander of the Chinese army in theChangsha defensive war, was conferred a Medal of Honor by Americangovernment.

September 13th, 2019, 02:01 PM
Thebattles in Nanning CityOn the 1st of September,1939, Germany invaded Poland. World War II broke out in Europe. Japanthought that it would be best to speed up the process of conqueringChina. Considering that China got all its supplies from internationalsupport through its southwestern border, Japan understood it had tocut off this supply line and China would soon surrender. Japan sentarmy and navy forces to occupy Nanning City in Guangxi province andtook control of the railroads there. And the Chinese defensive forceswere not so strong there as around Changsha.
On the 9th of November,1939, the Japanese attackers gathered at Shanya Bay, ready foraction. On the 13th, a Japanese fleet started out fromShanya Bay and arrived at Beihai on the 14th. As theChinese army there was not ready to fight, Beihai soon fell to Japan.On November 17, the Japanese army took Qinzhou and continued north.Guided by bandits through the mountains in that area, the Japanesearmy accelerated its advance. On November 22, they reached the southbank of the Yong River in the vicinity of Nanning City. But at thetime, Chinese armies had already arrived in the city and itsoutskirts.
On November 23, the Japanese armycrossed the Yong River with air cover. At dawn on November 24, theattack on the city began. The Japanese army saw strong resistance,but took the city at last in the afternoon. The Chinese armyretreated to Gaofeng Pass. On November 26, the Japanese army attackedthe pass, and they captured it by December 1. Three days later theyhad Kunlun Pass as well. Then, both sides held their respectivepositions for a while. No fighting went on.
On December 7, the Chinese army beganto attack the invaders. On December 16, the Chinese army surroundedKunlun Pass. The newly organized Chinese 22nd divisionwent round the pass from its right side to block Japanesereinforcements from Nanning. Two regiments went round from its leftside to block the Japanese army’s escape route. At daybreak onDecember 18, the Chinese army commenced the assault and took KunlunPass. At the noon the next day, the Japanese army came back and tookthe Pass again. It changed hands several times. On December 18th,the Chinese 170th division attacked the Gaofeng Passdefended by the Japanese army and took a hilltop nearby, but thatsame night, the Japanese army gave a surprise attack and occupied thehilltop again. On December 20, the Japanese army at Kunlun Pass couldnot hold out anymore. And the reinforcements were blocked. In theafternoon of December 26, both Japanese forces escaped and safelyarrived in Nanning.
At night on December 28, the Chinesearmy attacked Jieshou Highland, the gate to the Kunlun Pass. Thefollowing morning, the Chinese army took the highlands, and on the30th of December, the Chinese army took Kunlun Pass. OnDecember 31, they wiped out all enemies in the area of Kunlun Pass.If the Chinese army could have advanced in the pursuit of theirenemies at the time, the situation might have been different.

September 16th, 2019, 01:05 PM
On January 1, 1940, Japan sentreinforcements, and the warfare continued. On the 7th,Chiang Kai-shek flew to Huilin City and on January 10, went to theheadquarters at Qian River to hold a meeting with all the frontiercommanders. At that time, Japan had not gathered all the forces itneeded. So at the request of some of the commanders, Chiang decidedto launch an attack, but next day, when he returned to Liuzhou, hechanged his mind and missed the chance to annihilate the remainingfoe in that area, which proved that Chiang was not a good militaryleader.
On January 14, 3,000 Japanese soldierslanded in Qinzhou, and two days later, they began to assail theChinese army. On the 27th, the Japanese army resumed theirassault. The Chinese commanders did not have enough information aboutthe maneuvers of the Japanese army and made a terrible mistake. Theydid not have enough time to make proper arrangements.
On February 1, the Japanese army madetheir all-out attack. But Chiang changed the commander-in-chief atthe front, which really runs counter to the fundamental rules of theart of war. In the afternoon on February 2, the Japanese army enteredBinyang Town. On February 3, they took Kunlun Pass and other spots.The Battles for Nanning City ended in failure for the Chinese.
It was actually Chiang Kai-shek’sfault, as he often changed orders, confusing his subordinates. ChiangKai-shek was not really a good commander himself, though he hadgraduated from a famous military academy in Japan. He should havebeen able to beat Mao, who had no such advantage but only learned histactics from Chinese history books. This leads to the inevitableconclusion that Mao was more intelligent than Chiang Kai-shek. EveryChinese person knows that Chiang Kai-shek’s rulership was bad, butmany found that the rule of the Communist Party under Mao was worse.Part of this is due to personal characteristics of the leaders, partof it is due to the fact that under Mao China remained on amore-or-less war footing under constant menace from the West, andsome of it depends on the position of the people talking. Obviously,when the Communists started expropriating private property, those whohad something to lose were never going to forgive them. Somehistorians said that if Chiang could have beaten Mao, the Chinesepeople wouldn’t have suffered so much during all the cruelpolitical movements under Mao, some of which were quite poorlythought-out and highly destructive. Even so, no one can claim thatthe regime in Taiwan, after Chiang Kai-shek’s eventual defeat, waseither democratic or open.

September 18th, 2019, 01:48 PM
Thebattles of 100 regiments of the Communist PartyIn the Anti-Japanese War, most battleswere waged between the Japanese army and the army of the nationalgovernment. The Communist Party, though having their own army, didtheir best to shun any major fights with Japan so that they wouldstill have enough forces to fight Chiang Kai-shek after theAnti-Japanese War; this way, they could seize power and rule China.
That was why Mao Zedong thanked thefirst Japanese delegation when they came to China for saving theCommunist Party, and himself too, from the destruction Chiang mighthave inflicted on them, if Japan hadn’t invaded China. Maograciously gave up the right to war indemnities from Japan,regardless of the demands of the Chinese people for some compensationfor their extraordinary losses.
Anyway, at that time, Japan also wantedto occupy the territory the Communist Party possessed. So warfare didbreak out at last between the Japanese army and the army of theCommunist Party, from the 20th of August to the 10thof September, 1940, in the first stage. The Japanese army was 300,000strong, while the Communist Party had gathered 105 regiments. Theycalled this the “100 regiments battles.” Their commander-in-chiefwas Peng Dehuai. At that time, the Red Army changed their name to the8th Route army, included in the military system of thenational government. Their aim was to damage the railroads so thatthe Japanese army could not get supplies by train. They attackedZhengtai railway, Tongpu railway, Pinghan railway, and Jinpu railway,especially Zhengtai railway, the main route for the traffic of theJapanese army. Japan in the northern China didn’t have so manysoldiers to guard every inch of the rails and as a result, all thefour railways did not function any more after the attacks.

September 20th, 2019, 02:03 PM
From the 22nd of Septemberto the 10th of October, for the second stage, the 8thRoute Army attacked some important strategic spots controlled byJapan. At 8:00PM that day, the 8th Route Army began toattack the Lailing area and took some Japanese front fortresses roundLaiyuan Town, but they could not break through the defense of thetown itself because they did not have effective weapons for that kindof attack. On September 23, they stopped besieging the town andchanged their stratagem to first seize the defensive spots outsidethe town.
On September 25, they turned to attackthe stronghold at Dongyuan. The Japanese army inside gave a robustresistance, even using poison gas. However, they were forced towithdraw to the central redout, which the 8th Route Armythen surrounded. As the Japanese soldiers knew that they could neverescape, they committed suicide by self immolating.
On September 28, 3,000 Japanesesoldiers came as reinforcements. That changed the situation and itwas no longer possible to attack the town and so the Chinese forceswithdrew. On October 1, the Japanese army took back most of theplaces that the 8th Route Army had occupied. On October 7,the Japanese army at Lingqiu got some intelligence indicating thatthe 8th Route Army was planning to attack their position,and so the Japanese just headed out to meet the right wing detachmentof the 8th Route Army and give them a trouncing. From thenight of October 8to dawn, the left wing detachment ofthe 8th Route Army took their chances now that theJapanese army had left their position; they took it over as well asother positions in the vicinity. But on October 10, the 8thRoute Army learned that the Japanese army had gathered together andwould clean out the area where the 8th Route Army was inplace, so they withdrew from the combat. Thus ended another 18 daysof warfare.
In this period, the 8thRoute Army had suffered heavy casualties, more than the Japanese armyhad lost. After the combat, Mao Zedong criticized Peng Dehuai forlosing so many soldiers. Mao’s intention was to keep his losses aslow as possible so that he could fight Chiang Kai-shek after theAnti-Japanese War.
But during the Japanese army’sclean-up operation, the 8th Route Army always retreated toelude any fight with the Japanese army. They called this the mobilewarfare strategy. So the Japanese army just vented theirdisappointment and wrath on the common Chinese people who hadsupported the 8th Route Army. Records show that on the25th of January, 1941, when the Japanese army ran aclean-up operation without finding any 8th Route Armysoldiers in the northern Hebei province, they just encircled avillage called Panjiayu in the area of Fengrun Town and slaughtered1,237 villagers and burned 1,000 houses there. The 8thRoute Army had already escaped, deserting the villagers.

September 23rd, 2019, 02:01 PM
Thecampaigns in northern Burma and western Yunnan provinceIn 1942, a detachment of the Chinesenational government army went to Burma through Yunnan province tohelp fight the Japanese army, who had entered Burma through Thailandon the 4th of January, 1942, and occupied Rangoon (Yongon)on the 8th of March. Japan’s goal was first to cut offthe supply line to China from western countries, and second to enterIndia in the future. The British army was in Burma at that time andfought the Japanese army. The Chinese detachment went to Burma toassist the British army and secure the supply lines.
The Chinese detachment went into Burmain 1942, but at first was defeated by the Japanese army. A section ofit escaped to India and was trained there by US advisors, and theother section returned to the western Yunnan province. Both sectionswould attack the Japanese army in Burma when they were ready.
On October 24, 1943, the 112thregiment of the new 38th division began to attack theJapanese army and on October 29, took Shinbwinyang and enteredHukawng Valley. When the Japanese army there found the regiment, theysurrounded it. In resistance, the regiment lived on Japanese bananasand on food delivered by air drops. The Japanese army could not breakthrough their defense. On November 24, the new 38thdivision came to assist and on November 29, they took the position ofthe Japanese army, who lost round 1,000 soldiers.
The campaign continued in January 1944,when the Japanese army receded into the valley and made theirdefensive line at Dalou and Tabajia. The Chinese new 38thdivision came to attack Tabajia, and the new 22nd divisioncame to attack Dalou. At dawn on January 28, the American air forcecame to bombard the Japanese position at Dalou and the tanks of thenew 22nd division ran through the Japanese defensive line.The new 22nd division took all the fortresses outsideDalou. On January 31,, Chinese tanks entered Dalou andcrushed the Japanese headquarters. On that day, the new 38thdivision attacked Tabajia. The American air force raided the Japanesearmy there, who had to retreat. On the 1st of February,the new 38th division occupied Tabajia.
The Japanese army retreated to Mengguanand Walupan, 8 miles apart. They wanted to induce the Chinese army toattack Walupan so that another section of their army could attackfrom the back. The new 22nd division assaulted Mengguanwith artillery and tanks. The new 38th division stationedat the left rear to protect its back. The Japanese section came toattack the new 22th division from behind, but was blockedby the new 38th division. As the new 22nddivision attacked for a week and could not secure the place, the new38th division sent its 113th regiment to attackWalupan to distract the attention of the Japanese army. On March 1,the American 5307 corps reached them and launched their onslaught. Sothe 22nd division broke through the Japanese defensiveline. On the 4th of March, the new 22nddivision took Mengguan. Now the Japanese army was surrounded in thenarrow strip of Walupan. At noon of the 8th of March, theChinese army and the American corps jointly attacked Walupan and tookit on the 9th of March. Thus ended the campaign in thisarea.

September 25th, 2019, 02:22 PM
Thecampaigns in the western Hunan provinceAfter the outbreak of the Pacific War,the US air force helped China to fight Japan. Towards the terminationof the Sino–Japanese War, the Americans got the upper hand over theJapanese air force. American bombers raided important Japanesemilitary bases, including airports. More than once, the Americanfighter planes engaged Japanese fighter planes in the air and gainedvictory. There was an airport for US airplanes at the Zhijiang in thewestern Hunan province. The goal of Japan at the start of thiscampaign in 1945 was to capture the airport. It was the last majorbattle in the Sino–Japanese War.
On April 9, 1945, the Japanese 47thmilitary bloc and the 116th bloc started their onslaughtat Lantian. The commander of the Chinese defensive 73rdarmy in that area estimated that the Japanese army had not finishedpulling together its forces. And so he gave orders to launch asurprise attack. The Japanese 47th bloc suffered the blow,and later when it was ready, the 47th bloc began to crossthe Zi River on April 14. The Chinese commander let the Japanesecross the river, but as most of the Japanese army was reaching thebank of this side of the river, the Chinese army struck them withartillery while American airplanes attacked those Japanese soldiersstill on the boat. Many boats were sunken. The Japanese army had aheavy loss.
On April 28, the Japanese 116thbloc was surrounded by the Chinese army and signaled to the 47thbloc for rescue. When the 47th bloc arrived, they couldnot break the Chinese 73th army’s defense. On the 30thday, the Chinese army fought back and defeated the enemy, aided byair raids. The Japanese army had to retreat back to where they hadcome from. The battle ended in this district, but the warfare stillcontinued in other districts.
On the 12th of April, theJapanese 34th bloc had attacked Xinning. A Chinesebattalion under the 58th division of the 74thArmy fought them for three days. Then as the Japanese reinforcementscame, the battalion had to withdraw from Xinning, which was taken bythe Japanese army. On April 21, 4,000 Japanese soldiers marchedtowards Meikou. On April 23, they began to cross the Wushui River.The Chinese 44th division waited there patiently till thefirst 200 Japanese soldiers set foot on the bank. Then they fell onthem fiercely and slew them all. The Japanese kept on crossing, buthad to stop under heavy cannon fire. On April 27, they turned toattack Wuyang, and after two days’ fighting, they took half ofWuyang. On April 29, the Chinese 44th divisioncame and the Japanese army had to give up the attack and turn back tofight the 44th division, who soon put the Japanese army torout.
On April 27, another Japanesedetachment attacked Wugan, which was an old town. The walls were verystrong, because the bricks were stuck together using sticky ricecooked in water, which became glue. Many ancient tombs were alsobuilt this way to prevent them from being dug through. So when theJapanese cannon balls exploded and hit the walls, the shards didlittle damage to the walls. On May 1, the Japanese formed suicidesquads, but the soldiers, who had not reached the wall yet, werekilled by gunfire from the battlements. At last, some soldiers got tothe wall and blew a hole in it with dynamite. However, the Chinesepeople, who helped their soldiers in the defense of the town, heavedbags filled with sand down on the spot and the hole was blocked bythe sand bags. Then the Japanese army used long wooden siege ladders.But the Chinese army used flame throwers, provided to them by theUnited States, to burn the ladders. For seven days the Chinesesoldiers, aided by civilians, kept the small ancient town safe andsound. The Japanese army was defeated by the Chinese reinforcements.
Other battles also took place in otherdistricts in the western Hunan province. The whole campaign ended onJune 2 with the failure of the Japanese army.
Failure or victory in war mostlydepends on two factors: how strong are the forces and how wise arethe strategies used. But oftentimes, using a very wise ruse, theweaker side can defeat the stronger and the few fighters can defeatgreater forces.

September 27th, 2019, 01:56 PM
Buildingthe Communist Ranks in YanAnGathering studentsAfter the XiAn event at the end of1936, the Central Committee of the Communist Party moved in Januaryof 1937 to YanAn, a small backward town in the north of Shaanxiprovince. At that time, Chiang Kai-shek would not come to fight themanymore as they had an agreement. Therefore, the Communist Party wasready to gather lots of people with intelligence and talent, nomatter young or middle aged. Their party members in big cities, wherethe most intelligent and talented people generally lived, adoptedevery possible means to allure such people, especially youngstudents, to YanAn to serve the Communist Party. Young people wereeasier to entice than middle-aged ones. So many young people went toYanAn, thinking that they could be trained to fight the Japaneseinvaders. Most young people went there in 1937, 1938, and 1939. Latermany of those who became communist cadres were those who had gonethere in 1938. So ’38 cadres became a special name for those.
The Communist Party founded a so-calledAnti-Japanese military and political university and some schools tomentally train the students to become communist cadres. Yue Shan, astudent in Duize high school in Changsha city, recalled that one dayin 1938, Xu Deli, a Communist Party member and a representative ofChangsha bureau of the 8th Route Army, came to give aspeech about the Japanese invasion and called on young people to goto YanAn. His speech was so touching that Yue Shan and some otherstudents enrolled on the spot.
Duan Xuesheng, a Communist Party memberand a writer, worked in Shandong province as a teacher, andpropagandized to students about communism and instigated them to goto YanAn to take part in the revolution. In Suiyang province andinner Mongolian district, more than 100 young people were attractedto YanAn. In Peking, from May to August in 1938, 107 young peopledecided to go.
The Central Committee of the CommunistParty set up 8th Route Army bureaus in many towns andcities to enroll young people, especially students, to go to YanAn.Statistics showed that the bureau in Lanzhou of Gansu province sent3,000 in the autumn of 1937. The bureau in Wuhan sent 880 from Marchto May in 1938. Chongqing sent 2,000. However, those who werepermitted to go to YanAn had to have three interviews. Everyone hadto produce a letter of recommendation from an organizationestablished by the Communist Party in the place he or she lived. Thelast interview was held by the organization department of the CentralCommittee of the Communist Party.

September 30th, 2019, 02:23 PM
The tide of young people flowing toYanAn caused concern in the National Party. Chiang Kai-shek orderedthese young people to be detained. In Yanyang, 103 students weredetained by the military police of the national government. Aftermore than ten days, 40 students were carried away in a truck andothers were still in custody. In November 1939, labor camps were setup to confine all the students on the way to YanAn. They wereassailed with counter-propaganda and “mentally trained” untilthey expressed their loyalty to the national government, and thenthey were freed. By the end of 1940, 1,167 students had been detainedin the labor camps. From 1939 to 1943, 2,100 students were taken intocustody on their way to YanAn.
By the end of 1943, there were 40,000young newcomers in YanAn, and half of them were female. Many of thefemales married high-ranking cadres of the Communist Party. Those ofthe cadres who had already married village girls deserted their wiveswhen they entered big cities like Beijing after 1949, and simplymarried young city girls.
A special case must be mentioned. WenLianchen, alias Xia Sha, a girl of 14 at the time, was the daughterof a town mayor. When the family was in Wuhan, she stole out of thehouse and wanted to go to YanAn, but was stopped in a train and takenhome by a friend of her father’s at Zhengzhou. When the familymoved to Chongqing, she insisted on going to YanAn. Her father coulddo nothing but let her go. He bought a plane ticket for her to XiAn.She found the 8th Route Army bureau there and was safelysent to YanAn. This was the only case when someone went to YanAn byplane.

October 2nd, 2019, 03:49 PM
JiangQing—Mao Zedong’s 4th wife —in YanAnJiang Qing (1914–1991) was born inZhu Town of Shandong province. Her original name was Li Yunhe. Herfather Li Dewen ran a carpentry shop. Her mother was his concubine,who had been a maidservant. In the summer of 1921, Li Yunhe was inprimary school, but in 1926, she was expelled. Her father died ofsome disease in the same year and her mother took her to live withher brother-in-law in Tianjin City; he was an officer in the army ofthe warlord Zhang Zuolin. Li Yunhe had worked for three months as achild laborer in the factory of the British–American Tobacco Co.,Ltd. In 1928, the brother-in-law moved his troops somewhere else, andher mother took her to live with her cousin in JiNan. In spring of1929, when she was 15 years old, she learned to be an actress in atheater in the city. In May of 1931, she married a man from a wealthyfamily, but got divorced in July. Then she went to Qingdao, and fromJuly of 1931 to April of 1933, she worked in a library there. But inFebruary of 1932, at the age 18, she was living with (not married to)Yu Qiwei, three years older than she, a university student majoringin biography, who was also the leader of the propaganda department ofthe Communist Party there. He had contact with those in the circlesof so-called communist culture.
Li Yunhe had acted in a one-scene playnamed Put Down Your Whip, which could be performed in thestreet as a protest against the Japanese aggression. In February of1933, she took an oath and joined the Communist Party through YuQiwei in a warehouse in Qingdao. In April, Yu was arrested and sheran away to Shanghai. In May, she attended “The Great ChinaUniversity” by auditing classes. In July she worked as a musicteacher in a primary school in the western suburb of Shanghai andacted in some amateur plays after work. In September of 1934, she wasarrested, but in February 1935, she was released and went to Pekingto live with Yu Qiwei again, who had been released, too.
But in March, she returned to Shanghaito join the Diantong Film Company, using her stage name Lanping. Sheacted the heroine in the play Nara, and got good reviews.Afterwards, she played roles in two movies. In September, she wasliving with Tanner, a movie reviewer. In April of 1936, she wasmarried to him. The ceremony was held together with two othercouples, before Liuhe Pagoda in Hangzhou, in the moonlight. Aromantic ritual.

October 4th, 2019, 01:51 PM
However, she still kept in touch withYu Qiwei and by July Tanner could not bear it; he failed in anattempted suicide. She went back to Shanghai and joined the LianhuaFilm Company. She had a role in the film Blood on Wolf Mountain.In February of 1937, she acted in the drama Thunderstorm. Onthe 30th of May, Tanner attempted suicide again, but stillto no avail. Afterwards he went to France and lived there forever.
In September of 1937, as theAnti-Japanese War broke out, Li Yunhe left Shanghai and in August,she arrived in YanAn and changed her name to Jiang Qing. In November,she was enrolled in the Anti-Japanese Military and PoliticalUniversity. On the 10th of April, 1938, the Lu Xun ArtsCollege was founded and she was appointed instructor of the dramadepartment. She acted in two dramas, and in August acted in a Pekingopera. Her efforts were appreciated and soon afterwards, she waspromoted to secretary in the office of the military committee, closeto Mao. It was said that she often went to see Mao and asked forinstructions from him. The intimacy changed their relationship andsoon she was living with Mao in place of his current wife He Zizhen,who was studying in Moscow at the time. In 1939, Mao married her. Butat the time, she had not been divorced from Tanner yet and Mao hadnot been divorced from He Zizhen. Both committed bigamy.
Quite a few Communist Party leadersopposed the marriage, Zhang Wentian first and foremost. He maintainedthat He Zizhen was a good comrade and must be respected as a legalwife. Besides, she had been wounded in the Long March and could notbe ignored like this. Wang Shiying had been in Shanghai and knew allabout Jiang Qing’s love affairs, which were really scandals. And asthe leader of the Communist Party, Mao should not marry a woman withsuch a background. So he wrote a letter outlining these scandals. Heasked Nan Hanchen to sign the letter, too, who also worked inShanghai and knew about it all. (Both were later persecuted to deathby Jiang Qing in the Cultural Revolution.) Only Kang Sheng(1898–1975) supported their marriage.
Then the Communist Party had a meetingand put up three conditions: 1) Jiang Qing should not interfere inpolitical affairs; 2) Jiang Qing could not take up any office, insideor outside the Communist Party; 3) Jiang Qing’s main task was tolook after Mao in his health and personal life.
Jiang Qing had a daughter with Mao,born in 1940 and called Li Na, who is still alive now, in retirement.

October 9th, 2019, 02:14 PM
Mao’smarriage history and his other womenMao had four formal marriages. Hisfirst wife was Ms. Luo (no given name known), whom Mao married inaccordance with arrangements made by his parents. She was then 20years old while Mao was only 16. The Mao family and Luo family wererelatives. Though she was a pleasant woman, Mao did not like her.They married in 1907. But in February of 1910, she died of somedisease. Using this as a pretext, Mao left his family and went toPeking.
His second wife was Yang Kaihui(1901–1930), whose father, Yang Changji, was a graduate returnedfrom England who became a professor of ethics at Peking University.At that time Mao worked in the library and studied as a gueststudent. He and Yang Kaihui were classmates. In 1919, Mao began tocourt Yang Kaihui, and in 1920, they lived together without legallymarrying. At that time Mao was 26 years old and Yang was only 18. Shebore three sons for Mao. In 1921, Yang joined the Communist Party,but afterwards she was arrested by the national government and wasexecuted on the 14th of November, 1930. Her first son, MaoAnying (1922–1950), died in the Korean War. Her second son, MaoAnqing (1923–2007), was escorted by Kang Sheng to Moscow. He joinedthe Communist Party in 1947. In July of 1949, he was given the rankof Lieutenant Colonel, but he was engaged in research work in theAcademy of Military Sciences, not combat. He died of heart disease.Yang’s third son, Mao Anlong, was a riddle. It was said that hewent missing as a child and no one knew what became of him even now.And no one ever appeared claiming that he was Mao’s third son.

October 11th, 2019, 01:48 PM
Mao’s third wife was He Zizhen(1910–1984), sister of marshal He Long. In 1927 when Mao went toJinggang Mountain after the riot, he met He Zizhen there. That year,Mao was 35 years old while she was only 17. In June of 1928, they gotmarried while his second wife Yang Kaihui was in prison. It has neverbeen said that Mao had endeavored to rescue her from the prison. WhenHe Zizhen grew up, she became the secretary of the frontier committeeof the Red Army and director of the women’s league in thesouthwestern Jiangxi province. In the Long March, while protectingthe wounded soldiers from air raids, she was wounded herself. InJanuary of 1938, she went to study in Moscow and returned to China inthe summer of 1947. Then she took up offices like director of thewomen’s league in Hangzhou City. He Zizhen had her first child withMao in 1929, and when they had to escape, He Zizhen left her daughterwith a local family. The child was called Mao Jinhua. In April, 1932,when He Zizhen wanted to find the child, she was told that the childhad died. In fact, the child did not die. At that time some agents ofthe National Party had come to inquire about the child and so theadoptive family lied, saying the child had died, lest they kill it.The child grew up and was named Yang Yuehua. In 1973, an old Red Armyman came to the place and learned something about Yang Yuehua and henotified He Zizhen’s brother, who informed his sister of the truth.However, it was during the Cultural Revolution when Jiang Qing was inpower, so the mother and the daughter could not see each other. Thedaughter is alive now in retirement. He Zizhen had another daughtercalled Mao Jiaojiao. But afterwards when Mao Zedong changed his nameto Li Desheng to avoid being arrested by the national government,this daughter changed her name to Li Min, which is used now. HeZizhen died in Shanghai at the age 75.

October 14th, 2019, 01:34 PM
His fourth wife was Jiang Qing (seeabove). But he had many other women outside of marriage. The firstone we know about was Tao Siyong, from a rich family. She was knownas a woman of talent and a beauty, too. From 1919 to 1920, she andMao opened a bookstore in Changsha. Mao wrote many love letters toher. Five of them were found later. In 1921, she went to study inJinling College in Nanking. As her father did not like Mao, she didnot marry him. She died in 1931 at the age of 36 without marryinganyone. The next one was Ding Ling, a so-called red writer. She wasborn on the 12th of October, 1904. She was a classmate ofYang Kaihui in high school. She joined the Communist Party in 1932and was arrested too, but in September of 1936, with the assistanceof the Communist Party, escaped from prison in Nanking and went toYanAn. Mao loved her at first sight. She was the chief editor ofJournal of Literature and Arts, and then the party secretaryof the Chinese Writers Association, and the chief editor of People’sLiterature, etc. But in the anti-rightist movement in 1957, shewas declared a rightist and was exiled to a cold region innortheastern China. She died on March 4, 1986.
Another was Wu Lili, born in 1912. Shewent to America for further studies after graduation from the NormalUniversity in Peking. When she learned of the outbreak of theAnti-Japanese War, she came back to China, to YanAn, to fight Japan.She became Mao’s interpreter and they fell in love. But when HeZizhen heard about this, she went there and caught them together. Shewanted to kill them both. This became such a big scandal that theCentral Committee of the Communist Party had to intervene. Wu Liliwas sent away. Afterwards, she married an officer of the NationalParty and went to live in Taiwan.

October 16th, 2019, 01:55 PM
Sun Weishi was also one, whose fatherwas a fellow fighter of Premier Zhou. When he died in 1927, SunWeishi was only 5. So Premier Zhou took care of her and looked uponher as his adopted daughter, but openly known as his niece. Then shewent with Zhou Enlai to YanAn. She was called the red princess. In1939, she went with Zhou Enlai to Moscow to study drama. In December1949, Mao went to the Soviet Union with Zhou; Sun Weishi was theirinterpreter and also taught Mao some Russian. Mao had a carriage ofhis own in the train. One night Mao raped her in his carriage. Suntold Zhou about it, but Zhou did not dare to say anything. In theCultural Revolution, her brother was tragically beaten to death andSun wrote to Jiang Qing to ask for an investigation. She also wroteto Zhou. Both without result. In December 1967, her husband was putin prison on spying charges. Her home was searched and some lettersto Mao were found. Jiang Qing took these letters to see Zhou Enlaiand blamed him for it. Jiang even slapped Zhou’s face in wrath.Zhou could not do anything to her. Before long Sun Weishi was put ina secret prison on the orders of Jiang Qing and was tortured todeath. A long nail was driven into her head. Jiang Qing wanted ZhouEnlai to sign an order to execute Sun Weishi; Zhou did not dare torefuse and signed it. No comment needed here. Everyone can see what aman Zhou was.
Feng Fengming was a returned overseasChinese and was talented in drama. When she arrived in YanAn, she wasenrolled in the Lu Xun Arts College and then became an actress. Oneday after a performance, Mao invited her to his place to discussacting. Then and there, he violated her. She was so infuriated thatshe left YanAn. No one knew where she went.
In 1962, Mao went to Shanghai. Themayor Ke Qingshi at the time made arrangements for Mao to meet thefamous movie star Shangguan Yunzhu. A friend of hers had witnessed anote Mao had written to Shangguan. Mao wrote that “A hero loved abeauty since the olden days. I am the hero. You are the beauty.”The next year, Mao came to Shanghai again and met her again. Everytime, they would stay together for several days. In 1965, she wasbrought to Zhongnanhai (literally, central south sea) in Beijing,where Mao lived. They openly lived together. Not long later, Mao tookher back to Shanghai and she never saw him again. In 1966, she wasarrested under orders of Jiang Qing and she died in jail.
In Mao’s late years, Zhang Yufengworked as Mao’s secretary and looked after him day and night. Zhangwas born in 1944 to a poor family in northeastern China. In 1958,Zhang worked as a train attendant. Then she was transferred to thespecial train for Mao in 1962. In 1967, she was married to a manworking in the railway department. But in July 1970, Mao took aliking to her and she was sent to work in Zhongnanhai. She lookedafter Mao’s health and daily life. She lived with Mao till hisdeath. Then she moved out of Zhongnanhai. Now she’s enjoying aquiet retired life.

October 18th, 2019, 02:07 PM
ThePuppet Governments in China Under JapanThe assassination of Wang JingweiJapan knew that for such a big countryas China, they would need to set up some puppet governments as theycould not rule all China by themselves. Manchukuo in the northeasternChina was the first puppet government Japan established. As Japanexpanded into other provinces, they founded other local puppetgovernments. From December 1937 to March 1938, puppet governmentswere set up in Peking and in Nanking.
Japan always wanted to induce ChiangKai-shek and the national government to surrender to Japan and becamethe central puppet government, but never succeeded. In November,1938, Japan sent someone to talk to Wang Jingwei (1883—1944) andhis clique. His two important followers were Chen Gongbo (1892—1946)and Zhou Fohai (1897—1948). Both were originally members of theCommunist Party. It was said that most of the members of any partywere mainly opportunists. They would go where personal benefitsbeckoned to them.
Wang always wanted to be the head of agovernment, but he was no rival to Chiang Kai-shek who controlled thearmy. Now Japan offered him a chance to be one, though only the headof a puppet government. Better than nothing. So the representativesof both sides had a secret talk in Shanghai and signed an agreementstating that the new government recognized Manchukuo, and that Japanhad priority over any natural resources in China, etc. On the 18thof December, 1938, Wang Jingwei, Chen Gongbo and Zhou Fohaistealthily left Chongqing, the temporary war-time capital, and wentto Kunming, where they took a plane to Hanoi in Vietnam.

October 21st, 2019, 01:55 PM
On December 29, 1938, Wang sent out apublic telegram stating three points as his principles fornegotiating with Japan: firstly, be friendly to the adjacentcountries; secondly, to cooperate with Japan against the CommunistParty; thirdly, to get financial assistance from Japan. The nationalgovernment and the Communist Party both saw Wang’s statement as abetrayal of China and a capitulation to Japan. So Wang and hisfollowers were defined as traitors.
Therefore, on New Year’s Day of 1939,Chiang Kai-shek had a meeting to announce that Wang was expelled fromthe National Party and dismiss from all his offices. Next he plannedto get rid of Wang physically. Some special agents were sent toassassinate him in Hanoi.
Wang and his wife, Chen Bijun, andanother follower, hid in a house and seldom went out. The specialagents were composed of 18 experienced assassins, called “18Arhans,” which came from the Buddhist culture, but meant “strongmen” in Chinese culture. They arrived in Hanoi and got all theinformation they needed about Wang, and where he lived. They werewaiting for the final order from Chiang Kai-shek. Chiang stillharbored a hope that Wang would turn back to the national government.He sent an emissary to Hanoi to have a talk with Wang, but Wangrefused the request to go back. Wang and his wife knew that they werenow in danger of being killed.
On the 19th of March, ChiangKai-shek gave the final order to rid of Wang. So the 18 Arhans gotready for action. At 9 o’clock on the 20th day, when theagents had a meeting to arrange for the action, they heard that Wangand his men were getting ready to leave the house. So the agents cameto chase them, riding in two cars. When Wang and his men found thatthey were being followed, they succeeded in shaking the agents off inthe heavy traffic at an intersection.
At 4 o’clock the next day, Wang’snew location was disclosed. So six agents went there. They had to actfast because they were in a foreign country. Vietnam at that time wasunder French rule. Wang’s guards could not carry guns. But theagents secretly had guns carried in. So when the agents attacked, theguards were defenseless. One agent went to the room where Want wassupposed to be. The agent used an ax to make a hole in the door andsaw a man and a woman inside. He shot at the man three times. Hewitnessed the bullets hit home and left as fast as he could. Three ofthe agents escaped and three of them were arrested by the police inHanoi. Afterwards, while they were happy thinking that they hadfinished off Wang, information arrived that Wang was still alive.Only one of his followers was killed. Some of the agents left andsome remained behind for further action. But they never killed Wang.

October 25th, 2019, 02:00 PM
Theestablishment of the puppet government in NankingOn March 27, Wang published an articlerevealing the minutes of a national government meeting where theconditions of peace proposed by Japan were discussed. And ChiangKai-shek basically agreed to the conditions. Wang wanted to show toChinese people and the world that Chiang Kai-shek was the first tonegotiate with Japan, not he. But he did not know the differencethere. Chiang Kai-shek only wanted to negotiate with Japan for atruce while Wang himself was ready to surrender to Japan.
On March 22, the Japanese generalconsulate reported to the Japanese government about the assassinationattempt on Wang. On March 25, Wang and his men went on board a Frenchship under the protection of Japan and then were transferred to aJapanese ship. He arrived in Shanghai on the 6th of May.Then Wang went to Tokyo to have a talk with the prime minister aboutthe establishment of a central puppet government in China. On the30th of March, 1940, the puppet government was founded inNanking, with Wang at its head.
Japan called it the Nanking nationalgovernment, but Chiang Kai-shek refused to recognize it. But Germany,Italy, Hungary, Romania, Denmark, Spain, Croatia, Slovakia, andBulgaria recognized it. The puppet government imitated the nationalgovernment in organization and had its own puppet army, which wasthus called by people. But the puppet army took orders from theJapanese army, not directly from the Wang and his men. The puppetgovernment did everything under the supervision and command of Japan,just like the Manchurian puppet emperor in northeastern China.
In March of 1944, Wang was very ill andwent to Japan for treatment. On the 10th of November, hedied in the hospital there. Then Chen Gongbo, one of the founders ofthe CPC, became the head of the puppet government. When Japansurrendered in 1945, Chen Gongbo and his wife flew to Japan but wereextradited to China on October 3. He and Chen Bijun, the wife ofWang, were put in prison in February of 1946 in Suzhou. On the 4thof June, Chen Gongbo was executed. Chen Bijun was sentenced to lifeand died in prison on the 17th of June, 1959. She pleadedfor herself, saying that she had wanted to save the nation in anindirect way. “Trying to save the nation in an indirect way” wasa common term of ridicule thereafter.
As for Zhou Fohai, another foundingmember of the CPC, when he sensed that Japan would soon perish, hesecretly made contact with Chiang Kai-shek and the Nationalists.After the victory, Chiang Kai-shek appointed him ascommander-in-chief to maintain law and order in Nanking and Shanghaitill the national government army came. But on the September 30,1945, he was apprehended and sent to Chongqing, then brought back toNanking. On October 21, his case was tried in court, and on November7, he was sentenced to death. But in March of 1947, Chiang Kai-shekissued an order of amnesty for him, and the sentence was commuted tolife imprisonment. He died of heart disease in the jail on February28, 1948.

October 28th, 2019, 01:59 PM
Therectification campaign of the Communist Party in YanAnBesides the 8th Route Army,the new 4th army was also under the control of theCommunist Party. The new 4th army had their position inthe southern Anhui province. So the Communist Party had two armies oftheir own, one in the northwest and the other in the southeast. Maoalways hated Chiang Kai-shek and had once planned to attack ChiangKai-shek from behind with 150,000 men. But the plan was aborted whenthe Communist International objected to it. In 1941, an incidentflared up between the new 4th army and the 32ndmilitary bloc of the national government.
On the night January 4, 1941, 9,000 ofthe new 4th army under the command of Xiang Yin maneuveredfrom the southern Anhui province to the north side of the YangtzeRiver through the southern Jiangsu province, without notifying thenational government. The National 32nd bloc thought thatthe new 4th army was trying to attack their 40thdivision, and on January 6, they surrounded it and assailed it.Several times, Xiang Yin telegrammed YanAn, but Mao never answered orgave any instruction what to do. On January 10, the new 4tharmy telegrammed Mao again. On January 12, Mao asked Zhou Enlai toprotest to the national government and request the withdrawal oftheir army. So the next day, Zhou protested to the nationalgovernment. The fight had already been going on for seven days. Ofthe 9,000 soldiers in the new 4th army, only 2,000escaped.
After the incident, Mao decided thatthe Communist Party of China should not follow the guidance of theCommunist International any more. They should make decisions on theirown. Therefore, the Communist Party launched a rectificationcampaign, which is considered to have begun in May 1941 when Mao madea speech, “Reform Our Studies.” In June, the propagandadepartment of the Central Committee of the Communist Party issued adocument, “Instruction concerning how to wage the campaign ofstudies and rectification within the whole party.” But the campaignactually started in February, 1942, when Mao made another speech,“Rectify Our Style of Work,” and it ended when a bill was passedin a session of the Central Committee of the Communist Party, “Theresolution of some historical problems,” in April 1945.

October 30th, 2019, 01:52 PM
However, what really happened in therectification campaign was that everyone had to make some kind ofconfession about their inner thoughts to show loyalty to the party.Many people who had come to YanAn from the regions under the nationalgovernment were suspected of being spies of the National Party. Manyof those were forced to confess that they were indeed spies sent bythe National Party. If they wanted to be punished less severely, theyhad to expose others who were also spies. Mao hinted that to achievethis purpose, some harsh measures would be necessary. The most commonmethod was not to let the one being cross-examined get any sleep. Itwas called fatigue-torture. In American it’s called sleepdeprivation. Another method was to let those suspects watch someonebeing shot; just a little psychological pressure.
In April 1943 alone, several thousandpeople were put under custody. Some were locked up in caves. Somewere just confined to their work places—“equivalent prisons,”they called them. There were not enough jailers to watch over theprisoners, so their colleagues assumed the task. This was a cleverinvention of Mao. To show their loyalty to the party, the colleagueshad to do their duties faithfully and keep watch over the prisoners.No one could escape their vigilance. About a thousand people died.Some committed suicide. To them this was not a political movement,but terrorism. Many people who had come to YanAn in hopes of fightingJapan died at the hands of their own comrades.
On August 15, 1943, Mao said that insuch campaigns, some errors were unavoidable (like a bit of torture).The errors should not be corrected too early, or there would be notargets and that would hinder the development of the campaign. If theerrors were corrected too late, people would be very upset and itwould cause too much loss. So the principle was to watch the campaignclosely, calculating accurately, and stop it at the right time.
As it became more apparent that Japanwas likely to lose the war, Mao liberated those prisoners who luckilyhad survived and who, in Mao’s calculation, could be sent to fightChiang Kai-shek after the victory. To assuage their enmity, Maoapologized several times, saying that the aim of the rectificationcampaign was to let them have a political bath to wash off the dustthey carried from the regions under Chiang’s government, but toomuch potassium permanganate (which can cause caustic burns) was used,which had hurt the tender skin of the new comers. He added that if ason was beaten by the father, he should not hate his father.

November 1st, 2019, 01:33 PM
Chapter4. The Second Civil War Between The National Party and the CommunistPartyConflicts Between The Two Parties to Take Over AreasOccupied By JapanAfter Japan surrendered, there arose aproblem as to who would take over the areas that had been occupied bythe Japanese army. The National Party thought that they were thelegal government and had the right to these areas. Afraid that theCommunist Party would take those areas when the Japanese armywithdrew, the national government ordered the Japanese army to remainin the areas they occupied till the army of the national governmentcame to take them. However, the Communist Party declared that theyhad the right to these areas. So regardless of any orders from thenational government, they marched to some of the areas controlled byJapan and took over by force.
Now, most of the national governmentarmy was in the southwestern provinces and part of it was stationedto south of the Yangtze River. Almost no national Army forces were inthe areas north of the Yangtze river. And the army of the CommunistParty spread widely in the countryside north of the River and in thenortheastern provinces. But when the Communist Army commanded theJapanese army to surrender to them, the Japanese army refused as theyhad received orders not to surrender to the Communist Army.Therefore, the Communist Army had to fight the Japanese army and thepuppet army to occupy towns possessed by the Japanese army.
Even before Japan surrendered, thenational government and the Soviet Union signed a treaty stipulatingthat the national government recognized the independence of OuterMongolia (as the Chinese called it), and the special rights of theSoviet Union in northeastern China, in exchange for the SovietUnion’s promise not to support the Communist Army in occupying thenortheastern provinces. From then on, Outer Mongolia became theMongolian Republic and Inner Mongolia still belonged to China.

November 4th, 2019, 02:34 PM
From August 14–23, Chiang Kai-shektelegrammed Mao three times to invite him to Chongqing to talk aboutthe future of China. On August 25, the Communist Party issued adeclaration that the national government must recognize thegovernment in YanAn (denoting the local red government of theCommunist Party) and its army in the so-called liberated areas aslawful, and that all the parties were legal and would have toorganize a joint government. On August 26, the Communist Partydecided that Mao should go to Chongqing to negotiate. But the talksdid not produce an agreement, especially about who would take overall the areas occupied by the Japanese army. So while the talks weregoing on, the fighting was going at the same time. For the CommunistParty, when they attacked the Japanese army and the puppet army totake over towns in their possession, they had to fight the NationalArmy as well, as both wanted to take the same town.
By August 26, the Communist Army took59 towns from the hands of the Japanese. Then under orders from thenational government, the Japanese army and the puppet army attackedthe Communist Army and restored more than 20 towns by the end ofSeptember. The Communist Army changed their original plan; they gaveup the eastern part of the Ping-Han railway line and concentrated onthe northern provinces. So many of the Communist Army set out for thenorth and by the end of November, more than 100,000 communistsoldiers reached northeastern China, the farthest place, where theNational Army could not arrive ahead of them.
On the 10th of September,the Communist Army attacked several towns under control of thenational government in Shanxi province and took most of them withinten days. Then they surrounded Tunliu. The national defensive army inChangzhi sent 6,000 soldiers to Tunliu, but they were blocked on theway by a communist detachment. This strategy was often used by theCommunist Army to surround some place and lay an ambush along thelikely approach route by which reinforcements would come. So theNational Army from Changzhi could not go to Tunliu and had to returnto Changzhi. On September 12, the Communist Army took Tunliu and cameto surround Changzhi. On the 2nd of October, a nationalreinforcements went to Chingzhi, and as usual, encountered acommunist detachment who came out of ambush and surrounded them. Asthe communist detachment met with strong resistance, they adoptedanother stratagem. They surrounded the national reinforcements fromthree sides, leaving one side open for them to escape, and laidanother ambush down that way. The reinforcements did escape, only tofall into the second ambush, and was wiped out on the 5thof October. This ruse was often used in Chinese war history. It wasnot invented by the Communist Party.

November 6th, 2019, 03:09 PM
On the 10th of October,after lengthy peace talks, the National Party and the Communist Partyat last signed an agreement, called the 10/10 agreement, whichcontained the articles to form a joint government, to nationalize thearmies of both sides, and to implement democracy andconstitutionalism.
Although the peace agreement wassigned, the Communist Party still planned to stop the National Armyfrom going to the northern areas to accept the surrender of theJapanese army there. They looked upon the northern areas as belongingto them, and considered the National Army to be trespassing if theywent there.
On the 20th of October, whenthe National Army arrived at Zhuang River, on the way to Handan, andon October 22crossed the river, the Communist Army waswaiting for them. On October 24, the National Army broke through theblockade and reached Matou Town in a narrow valley where they wereencircled by the Communist Army. On October 28, more Communist Armytroops came and they began the attack. At the same time the CommunistParty sent an envoy to see the commander of the new 8tharmy of the national government and persuaded him to betray thenational government. On October 30, the new 8th armydeclared their insurrection. On October 31, the main national forcesbroke the encirclement of the Communist Army and escaped south. FromOctober of 1945 to January of 1946, the Communist Army occupied Jinpurailway line, Longhai railway line, Jiaoji railway line, and all thetowns along the three lines. These areas had strategic importance andwere threats to the safety of Nanking and Shanghai.

November 8th, 2019, 02:50 PM
America’smediation between the National Party and the Communist PartyAfter the outbreak of the Pacific War,beginning with the Japanese raid of the Pearl Harbor, America aidedChina a lot, in both military action and supplies of goods. JosephStilwell, chief of staff of the Allies, came to China. His main jobwas to guarantee that the supplies needed in the Anti-Japanese Warreached the hands of the National Army through the highway from Burmato Yunnan province.
At the request of the Allies, in early1942, the national government sent its army into Burma, where itwould be under the command of Joseph Stilwell to aid the Englisharmy. But when the Chinese army reached Burma, the English army therewas already defeated by Japan. Then the Japanese army surrounded theChinese army, which, nevertheless, succeeded afterwards in breakingthrough the encirclement, and separated into two parts. The firstpart, under orders from Joseph Stilwell, went to India, and thesecond part returned to Yunnan province through the virgin forest.The international supplies were mostly used in the Burmesebattlefields and only a few reached the national government. ChiangKai-shek was dissatisfied with this and also with the failure of theChinese army under the command of Joseph Stilwell in the Burmese war.Therefore, in 1943, Chiang asked twice for Stilwell to be replaced.But Chiang did not succeed because of the opposition of AlfredMarshall in the United States.
After the spring of 1944, thewithdrawal of the National Army after the Japanese army attack madePresident Roosevelt send his vice president Wallace to China to seewhat was the real situation. Wallace was not impressed with thenational government of China. In August, three times, PresidentRoosevelt asked Chiang Kai-shek to give the command of the Chinesearmy to Stilwell, but Chiang replied that if he had to give up hiscommand of the army to Stilwell, he would rather break off relationswith the Allies and fight Japan with Chinese forces alone. At length,after consideration, President Roosevelt gave order to replaceStilwell and appointed Wedemeyer for the task, on the 18thof October, 1944.
Meantime, with the quick development ofthe communist forces, an American delegation headed by ColonelBarrett went to YanAn, in July of 1944, followed on the 7thof November, 1944, by Patrick Jay Hurley, American ambassador inChina, who went to YanAn to talk about the legal status of theCommunist Party. They reached an agreement to end the dictatorshipand one-party rule, to include all the parties in the Anti-JapaneseWar in the joint national government, to recognize the legal statusof all the parties, and to distribute all the supplies among them.

November 11th, 2019, 02:24 PM
Patrick Jay Hurley came back toChongqing and had a conversation with Chiang Kai-shek, who had threeconditions: 1) the national government recognized the lawful statusof the Communist Party and would reorganize its army; 2) theCommunist Party must give the command of its army to the militarycommittee of the national government and the national governmentwould appoint some generals of the Communist Party as members of themilitary committee; 3) the aim of the national government was torealize Three Principles of the People. Of course, two conditionswere denied by the Communist Party. They could never yield thecommand of their army to anyone else, and their aim was to installcommunism. But in face, no one in the Communist Party knew whatcommunism really was. They mainly used it as a slogan to misleadpeople.
After Japan’s surrender, theCommunist Party and the National Party fought each other over theareas occupied by Japan. To appease both sides, Hurley suggestedChiang Kai-shek invite Mao to Chongqing for a talk. Though Mao came,the fight continued. The Communist Party, supported by the SovietUnion, took the initiative to attack the National Army. On November26th, 1945, Hurley handed in his resignation to PresidentTruman. Fearful of a civil war in China, President Truman sent AlfredMarshall there, who arrived in Shanghai on the 20th ofDecember, 1945.
Alfred Marshall talked to both sidesand then formed a trio group. Besides Alfred Marshall, Zhang Junrepresented the National Party and Zhou Enlai the Communist Party. Onthe 10th of January, 1946, they reached an agreement fortruce, effective at zero hour on the 13th of January. Bothsides issued orders for a ceasefire.
On the 5th of January,Chiang Kai-shek made a suggestion to Alfred Marshall about how toreorganize the army of both sides. On January 23, a trio groupdiscussed it. Alfred Marshall suggested that after thereorganization, there would be only 60 divisions, 20 of them underthe communist command. As to the navy and air forces, the CommunistParty would have 30% of each. Chiang did not consent to that, butmade some concessions. However, on 25th, the trio signedan agreement. Then they flew to Peking and YanAn to oversee thepreparations.

November 13th, 2019, 07:15 PM
On the 11th of March,Marshall went back to the States. The two parties went back to war.When Marshall came to China again on April 18, the situation wasserious. Chiang Kai-shek told Marshall that the Communist Party wouldnot abide by the agreement and was continuing its attack on ChangchunCity. Chiang added that the National Army might withdraw from thenortheastern provinces and leave the problem up to the internationalparties to decide. Marshall promised to transport the 60thnational army and the 93rd national army to thoseprovinces, but he refused to have two more armies transported there.(If two more armies had been transported there, China might have hada different future. Was this a typical case of a gentleman fighting arogue?)
In late May of 1946, the National Armycounterattacked the Communist Army and took Changchun and pursued theCommunist Army to the Songhua River, approaching Harbin. Then, underpressure from Marshall, on June 6 Chiang Kai-shek had to give orderto the National Army to stop further attacks for 15 days. (Anotherwrong decision.) During the truce, the military trio had talksconcerning the restoration of traffic and a truce throughout thenortheastern areas. In July, Marshall found that the militaryconflicts had become worse. In mid-July, seven American mariners werekidnapped by the Communist Army in the eastern Hebei province and atthe end of July, some American transport trucks were ambushed by theCommunist Army on the way from Tianjin to Peking. Three mariners werekilled and 12 wounded.
At Marshall’s suggestion, on the 11thof July, John Leighton Stuart was appointed ambassador in China tohelp Marshall with the mediations. As Chiang Kai-shek said that thefinal goal of the Communist Party was to attain power over all thecountry, not just a truce with the national government, all thesenegotiations ended in nothing. On the 15th of November,1946, the People’s Conference for drawing up the constitutionopened and the Communist Party refused to attend. On the contrary,they declared on November 16that they considered theconference unlawful. On January 8, 1947, Marshall went back toAmerica. The national government was about to send a delegation toYanAn for peace talks, but the Communist Party said that there was noneed unless the People’s Conference and the Constitution weredeclared unlawful.
So the door to peace talks was closed.

November 15th, 2019, 02:32 PM
Thenational Government Was Expelled to TaiwanThe second civil war actually beganOn the 26th of June, 1946,the day when the effective truce period was over, the National Armystarted their onslaught to the Communist Army, but they had alreadyescaped. This date is considered by historians as the actual outbreakof the second civil war between the Communist Party and the NationalParty.
To protect the Nanking wing, from Julyto December, the National Army attacked the Communist Army in thenorthern Jiangsu province seven times. The result was that theNational Army occupied all the towns in that area, but the CommunistArmy annihilated the 69th division of the National Army.Who was the winner? The Communist Party. The towns were still there.If they were lost, they could be retaken some time later. But once adivision was wiped out, the National Army had lost a divisionforever. Mao Zedong’s strategy was to make the first aim theannihilation of the national army, not to keep possession of towns.Once the National Army was totally wiped out, who could fight themfor the towns? Therefore, from a strategic point of view, ChiangKai-shek and the National Party were doomed to lose in the long run.
On the 20th of July, theCommunist Army began their attack of Datong Town in Shanxi province.In August they surrounded the town, but by September they could nottake the town and had to retreat. In October, Marshall was hard atwork trying to broker an agreement, but the national government madetwo last minute demands that again sabotaged his efforts. On October11, the National Army made a surprise attack and took Zhangjiakou inHebei province. When Liang Shuming, a mediator belonging to none ofthe parties, read in the newspapers that Zhangjiakou was taken by theNational Army, he sighed, “By the time we woke up, the peace wasalready over.”
But he was wrong in that. When Maosecretly made up his mind to rule China by himself with his party,peace was already out of the question. Chiang Kai-shek only wantedfor his rule and that of the National Party to last a bit longer,hoping to defeat the Communist Party by force. However, he alwayschose wrong tactics; so his case was already hopeless. Wisestratagems can enable the weak to conquer the strong. If statesmen orgenerals wish to be wise and victorious, they must learn fromhistory.

November 18th, 2019, 02:40 PM
On August 10, the Communist Armyoccupied some hundreds of miles of railway line between Tangshan andLanfeng. When the National Army counterattacked, the Communist Armywithdrew, but they annihilated another division of the National Armyduring the process in early September. In late October, the NationalArmy took 25 towns and it looked like victory was theirs. But theywere wrong. The Communist Party still had their full forces while theNational Army was diminishing, division by division. Once they had atown, they had taken on a burden, just like the Japanese army haddone. If Chiang Kai-shek had been wise enough, he would haveconcentrated his army on wiping out the Communist Army bit by bit.Instead he lost the mainland to the Communists. The tragic fate ofthe common Chinese people was thus sealed.
From December in 1946 to April in 1947,the Communist Army eliminated more than 40,000 of the National troopsand took 11 towns in the northeastern provinces. On the 10thof March, 1947, the National Army came to assail YanAn. The CommunistArmy withdrew from it and adopted their well-known guerrillastrategies. The National Army could not get at them, let alone toextinguish them.
In Shandong province, the CommunistParty often boasted of their best strategy used in the campaign inMenglianggu area from late March to early May. The National Armygathered 450,000 men and planned to occupy all the so-calledliberated areas from the Communist Party. The National Army strategywas to advance step by step, pushing forward like a wall and leavingno gap for guerrilla movements, which was temporarily successful. Butthe strategy of the Communist Army was to make a sham retreat to letthe enemy think that they were trying to escape, while they wouldseek for chances to attack a small part of the National Army. Likeeating a big cake, bite by bite.
The 74th division of theNational Army was thought of as a trump division, but Zhang Lingfu,their commander, was an arrogant and thoughtless man, though brave.He marched ahead, leaving other two divisions far behind. Althoughthis region was controlled by the National Army, there were gapsbetween their troops. So the Communist Army made a bold plan to wedgebetween the groups and surround the 74th division. WhenChiang Kai-shek learned that his 74th division was indanger, he commanded other divisions close to Zhang to rush to hisrescue. The Communist Army knew that reinforcements would be comingfrom the National Army, as usual, and so they ambushed them atHuangya Mountain and blocked the way to Menglianggu.

November 20th, 2019, 02:34 PM
This was the decisive battle. Whoeverwon in this battle would win in the entire campaign in the region.The Communist Army reached the top of the mountain a few minutesearlier, seizing the high ground, and got control of the entirebattlefield. Though the national reinforcements did their best tolaunch attack after attack from the foot of the mountain, geographywas not in their favor. Meanwhile, the Communist Army poured fire atthe surrounded 74th division. The Communist Army sent asuicide squad to steal in and make a surprise attack on the commandcenter of the 74th division, which was in a cave. Whenthey got to the entrance, only three of them were still alive. Theyshouted, “The first battalion go east; the second battalion west;the third battalion, block the front exit.” Then they yelledinside, “Hands up!” When Commander Zhang Lingfu came out and sawonly three of them, he fired and killed one. But a Communist soldiershot him dead before he could do more. The whole 74thdivision and a regiment from the 83rd division with themwere all eradicated, over 30,000 in all.
On the 31st of July, 1947,the Communist Party officially named their army the Chinese People’sLiberation Army (PLA, as it is known today), and it was divided intofour so-called field armies. They recruited mostly young people inthe countryside, who were generally illiterate and easily trickedinto sacrificing their lives. So their army swelled in size. Theyused ten times the troops to attack the National Army and it was saidthat when one enemy soldier was killed, they could sacrifice ten oftheirs.
In the second civil war, there werethree major campaigns besides many minor battles.

November 22nd, 2019, 03:04 PM
Thecampaign in the northeastern provincesThe first campaign was waged from the12th of September to the 2nd of November, in1948, in the northeastern provinces. There the situation wasfavorable to the Communist “Liberation” army, because during theAnti-Japanese War, they had guerrillas in the northeastern Chinacontrolling wide swathes of the countryside. When the National Armywas transported there to take over what was in the hands of theJapanese army, they only occupied cities such as Shenyang, Changchunand Jinzhou. The Communist Party wanted to take over all theprovinces in the northeastern China first, because there werefactories that could make weapons for them, and also this areaprovided grain supplies for their army. Then they would go down southto the coastline.
For this campaign, the 4thfield army, under the command of Lin Biao, gathered 700,000 men whilethe National Army had only 550,000. As a result, the casualties ofthe Liberation Army, including those wounded, were 609,000 and thoseof the National Army 470,000.
At the beginning of the campaign, theCommunist Liberation Army had already surrounded Changchun. Theyoriginally planned that if they could take Changchun, they would getsupplies from it. However, the city was built so strong that it wasnot easy to take. Therefore, they had to surround it lest theNational Army in the city came out to interfere with their otherschemes. On the 7th of September, Mao telegrammed Lin Biaoto attack Jinzhou. If they occupied Jinzhou area, they would blockthe National Army from escaping south.
On the 24th of September,1948, the National Army telegrammed Chiang Kai-shek forreinforcements. Chiang commanded Wei Lihuang in Shenyang to send adetachment to rescue the army in Jinzhou, but Wei refused to carryout the order on the excuse that it might jeopardize the safety ofShenyang. Chiang had to transport the 49th army by air toJinzhou. But only two regiments landed successfully. Then the airportwas blocked by Communist anti-aircraft guns on the 28thand the airplanes could not land any more. On October 1, theCommunist Liberation Army surrounded Jinzhou after taking over allother towns in its vicinity.

November 25th, 2019, 02:33 PM
On October 2, Chiang Kai-shek flew toShenyang to summon a military meeting and decided to send sevendivisions from Shandong province by sea to the Hulu Islands, and fromthere to Jinzhou. Next day he left Shenyang by plane. When Lin Biaolearned of Chiang’s plan, he accelerated his attack on Jinzhou. Ifthe Tashan line was broken through by the national reinforcements,the whole campaign would end in failure.
On October 10, the nationalreinforcements reached Tashan and the fight started. On October 13,Tashan was still under the control of the Liberation Army. On the14th, Tashan changed hands nine times, but the NationalArmy still could not break through the line. While the fighting wassevere at Tashan, an attack on Jinzhou began at 10 o’clock thatmorning. Some 500 cannons fired at targets in the city. At 11:30AM,the communist foot soldiers rushed forth. When the soldiers in thefront fell, the soldiers behind took up their positions. The attacklasted till 6:00PM on October 15 when the Liberation Army entered thecity. Over 100,000 National Army fighters were eliminated. The vicecommander-in-chief, Fan Hanji, and the commander of the 6thbloc, Lu Junquan, were captured. When the national reinforcementsheard of the fall of Jinzhou, they retreated to the Hulu islands.
There were only two cities left to beconquered: Shenyang and Changchun. The eastern half of Changchun wasguarded by the 60th army, under the command of ZengZesheng, who was a friend of Lu Junquan. Therefore, Lin Biao orderedLu Junquan to contact Zeng Zesheng to talk him into betraying ChiangKai-shek and turning over to the Communist Party. A telegram was sentto Zeng in Lu’s name. Seeing the National Army was in a badsituation, Zeng declared an uprising on October 17, with his threedivisions, 26,000 in number. That night, the Liberation Armystealthily took up position in the eastern half of Changchun. OnOctober 19 day, the new 7th army surrendered to theLiberation Army. The commander-in-chief in the city, Zheng Tongguo,contacted the Liberation Army and asked for permission to put up twomore days’ fake resistance before he surrendered. After hesurrendered, a false news bulletin should then be issued that he wascaptured. Thus Changchun City fell into the possession of theLiberation Army. On October 31st, the Liberation Armysurrounded the last city, Shenyang, and at dawn November 1, theattack on the city commenced. After one day’s fight, the CommunistLiberation Army occupied the city. All the northeastern provinceswere under the control of the Communist Party.

November 27th, 2019, 03:11 PM
Thecampaign in Huaihai River areaThe Huaihai River campaign took placebetween the 6th of November in 1948 and the 10thof January in 1949. The Liberation Army threw in 600,000 men and theNational Army had 800,000. The casualties, including wounded, of theLiberation Army were over 100,000 while those of the National Army,including those captured, were as high as 550,000.
The defense minister of the NationalParty was convinced that if they wanted to control the Yangtze Riverdefensive line, they must control the Huaihai River defensive line.Obviously, the war in the Huaihai River area was very important tothe national government. While the campaign in the northeasternprovinces were still going on, a battle in JiNan City was engaged.The Liberation Army used 140,000 soldiers to attack the city and180,000 to block the reinforcements from Xuzhou City. At that time,the National Army in Xuzhou area should have gone to the rescue ofthe army in JiNan. But the Liberation Army blocked their way. Theyhesitated to advance.
After the Liberation Army took JiNan onthe 24th of September, 1948, they marched towards Xuzhou.The National Army gathered in Xuzhou area for the defense. On thenight of the 6th of November, the Liberation Armyofficially began its campaign in the Huaihai River area. When theyfound that the national 7th military bloc was receding,they pursued and caught the 7th bloc on the 7thday while the bloc was crossing the Great Canal.
The 63rd army and the 83rddivision, bringing up the rear, were quickly wiped out. When thecommander of the 7th bloc called the commander of the 13thbloc, the latter refused to come to his assistance, saying that hehad to adhere to the original plan to retreat. (That was one of thereasons why the National Army was eaten up bit by bit. No cooperationbetween commanders. They could not form a fist to strike at the foe,only using fingers separately to tear at it.) On the 8thof November, three-fourths of the national Army defending the riverline held an uprising under the instructions of the Communist Partymembers who were lurking within the army. Therefore, the LiberationArmy cut through the line easily.

November 29th, 2019, 03:21 PM
Having crossed the Great Canal, thenational 7th bloc decided to stay at Zhanzhuang and tofight the pursuing Liberation Army. Anyway, more liberation forcescame and surrounded the 7th bloc on November 11. ChiangKai-shek ordered the 13th bloc and the 2nd blocto rescue the 7th bloc, and moreover, sent the 6thbloc and the 8th bloc to the Xuzhou area. The forces ofthe National Army increased to 800,000. On November 13, thereinforcements of the 2nd and 13th blocs cameto the Daxujia line, and were stopped there by the liberation 3rdfield army. Since the reinforcements of the National Army got throughthe blockading line, the Liberation Army quickened its attack andannihilated the 7th bloc on November 22.
On the 30th of November,300,000 defensive National Army under the command of Du Yuming leftXuzhou and went south. A detachment of Liberation Army of 300,000chased them. At the time, Chiang Kai-shek ordered Du to go southeastto rescue the 12th bloc, the 2nd bloc, the 13thbloc and the 16th bloc, separately surrounded in theregion northeast to Yong Town. But on the 4th of December,the 16th bloc acted on its own, trying to break throughthe encirclement, and was eliminated. On December 12, the LiberationArmy pounced on the 12th bloc and wiped it out on theDecember 15.
Then the Liberation Army aimed at DuYuming and asked him to surrender, but Du refused, even though he wasalready surrounded. Two more blocs were annihilated on the 9thof January in 1949, and Du was taken captive on the 10th.The 6th and 8th blocs deserted their defensiveposts between the Huaihai River and the Yangtze River and retreatedto the south of the Yangtze River. The vast expanse of land to thenorth of the Yangtze River fell into the hands of the LiberationArmy. Thus ended the campaign in the Huaihai River area.

December 2nd, 2019, 03:03 PM
Thecampaign in Peking and Tianjin areaThis campaign lasted for 64 days, fromthe 29th of November, 1948 to the 31st ofJanuary, 1949. The Liberation Army threw 1,000,000 troops into thatcampaign and the National Army gathered over 500,000. The LiberationArmy had 39,000 casualties (including the wounded) while the NationalArmy lost 52,000 (including captured).
When the liberation 4thfield army occupied the northeastern provinces, they marched south toattack Peking and Tianjin. General Fu Zuoyi (1895–1974) was thecommander of the defense of Peking. Before the campaign started,Chiang Kai-shek wanted Fu to bring his army south to strengthen thedefensive line by the Yangtze River. But Fu did not follow Chiang’sorders. Fu planned to keep only Peking and Tianjin area in hiscontrol and give up the other towns. If the situation becamecritical, he could escape by sea and get to south of the YangtzeRiver.
The Liberation Army’s strategy was tosurround each of the cities and towns separately to prevent anyonefrom escaping. They saw Peking as the center of this area andattacked towns along the outermost circle, and closing in theirencirclement towards the center. In late December, they took over twotowns in the west. On the 14th of January, 1949, theybesieged Tianjin City when the defensive army refused to surrender.After fighting for 29 hours, they entered the city, eliminating 10divisions, 160,000 soldiers (including captured).
At last they came to Peking. They didnot want any damage done to the old capital city, and they thereforesent someone to talk to Fu Zuoyi. Seeing that escape was out of thequestion, he declared an uprising and went over to the LiberationArmy. Later, in the second republic of China, he was appointed theMinister of Water Resources.

December 4th, 2019, 02:59 PM
Theend of the second civil warAs the situation became more dire forthe national government, Chiang Kai-shek resigned, leaving everythingin the hands of the vice president Li Zongren (1891–1969), whoproposed starting peace talks with the Communist Party. Meanwhile,Chiang transferred 4.5 million taels of gold and $384 million toTaiwan (the island of Formosa). At the beginning of 1949, thenational government had already moved its capital from Nanking toCanton. On April 1, 1949, the representatives of both the CommunistParty and the National Party had peace talks in Peking. The CommunistParty wanted the National Party to accept conditions that amounted toa complete surrender. of course, the national government spurned sucha suggestion.
On the night of the 21st ofApril, the combined Liberation Army of the 2nd and 3rdfield armies crossed the Yangtze River in wooden sailboats in theface of artillery fire from the National Army along the river. Theybroke through the weak spots of the defensive line and set foot onthe south bank of the River. The 35th army, belonging tothe 8th bloc of the 3rd field army, were taskedwith attacking Nanking. On the night of the 23rd, theycrossed the river and reached Nanking. All the important members ofthe national government had already left the city by air. So on April24, the Liberation Army entered the city as if it was entirelyundefended. Afterwards, the Communist government decided that the23rd of April should be the anniversary of the liberationof Nanking, though formally they took over the city on the 24th.
The Liberation Army took over Hangzhouon May 3, and Hankou on May 18, and Wuchang and Hanyang on May 17.They took Nanchang on May 22. At the same time, on May 12, theLiberation Army began to attack Shanghai. They first laid siege tothe satellite towns around Shanghai and met strong resistance.Anyway, they took them one by one, and on May 26, they entered theurban area of Shanghai. The next day, all of Shanghai was controlledby the Liberation Army. People in Shanghai welcomed the LiberationArmy just as they had welcomed Chiang Kai-shek’s army after thelong occupation by Japan, as they had been disappointed by thecorruption in Chiang Kai-shek’s government. So now they pinnedtheir hopes on the Communist Party, not knowing at that time whetherthe Communist Party would disappoint them just the same.

December 6th, 2019, 02:46 PM
On April 24, the Liberation Army tookTaiyuan, the capital of Shanxi province, and took XiAn, the capitalof Shaanxi province on May 20. They stormed into Qingdao, a harborcity in Shandong province, on June 2. On August 4, Cheng Quan,chairman of Hunan province and Chen Mingren, commander of the 1stbloc there, declared he was betraying the national government andwent over to the Liberation Army, and so the capital Changsha changedhands peacefully. The Liberation Army occupied Lanzhou, the capitalof Gansu province, on August 26, and then Fuzhou, the capital ofFujian province, and then Canton on October 14. The nationalgovernment had already packed up and moved to Zhongqing again. OnOctober 17,they took Amoy but failed in the attempt totake Quemoy on the 25th and the Zhoushan islands on the3rd of November.
In November, Chiang Kai-shek flew toChongqing and on November 20, Li Zongren went to Hong Kong. OnNovember 15, the Liberation Army took Guiyang, the capital of Guizhouprovince, and Chongqing on November 30 when the national governmenthad already moved to Chengdu. On the 7th of December, thenational government declared it was moving its capital offshore toTaipei in Taiwan. So from December 8 to 10, all the VIPs of thegovernment were flying to Taipei. On December 9, the chairmen ofYunnan province and of Xikang province declared they were siding withthe Liberation Army, which entered these provinces without any hitch.On December 27, they took Chengdu, the capital of Sichuan province.The next spring, on March 27, 1950, they took Xichang. By then,almost the whole country was under the control of the CommunistParty.

December 9th, 2019, 03:12 PM
PartTwo The Second Republic—The People’s Republic of ChinaChapter 5. The Establishment of the People’s Republic of ChinaThe Chinese People’s Political Consultative ConferenceWhen the Communist Liberation Army wasstill fighting the National Army, the Communist Party summoned theChinese people’s political consultative conference from the 21stto 30th of September, 1949. A few so-called democraticparties attended the conference, such as the Revolutionary Committeeof the National Party (part of the National Party that favored theCommunist Party), Chinese Democratic League, China DemocraticNational Construction Association, China Association for PromotingDemocracy, Chinese Peasants and Workers Democratic Party, ChinaZhigong Party, and Jiusan Society, eight in all. These so-calleddemocratic parties have been give the ironic label of “vases” asthey were nothing but empty vessels to decorate the politicalCommunist Party conferences as symbols of democracy, because theyhave no say in whatever national affairs. They can only say yes towhatever the Communist Party says, and if there is a vote, every oneof them will put up their hands to make up a 100% positive vote sothat the Communist Party can boast of having full support. A standingcommittee was formed to handle routine matters. The chairman, vicechairmen, and the chief secretary controlled everything. But thechairman had to be a top-ranking Communist Party member.
In this conference a so-called CommonProgram was passed as the temporary constitution, which was composedof 7 chapters and 60 articles. The Common Program outlined the statesystem and the system of the government as the “democracy anddictatorship of the Chinese people” (meaning democracy to thepeople and dictatorship to the enemy), who consisted of theproletariat (workers), peasantry, petty bourgeoisie, nationalbourgeoisie, and other democratic patriots. (The Communist Partydivides the bourgeoisie in China into two types: national capitalistsand bureaucratic capitalists.) It was a united front with theproletariat in the leadership (through the Communist Party) on thebasis of the alliance of workers and peasants. The government wouldconfiscate all the private properties of the bureaucraticcapitalists, which denoted only Chiang Kai-shek, Tse-ven Soong(Chiang’s brother-in-law, who was the head of the executive office,equivalent to the Cabinet), Kung Hsiang-His (simplified as H. H.Kung, and jokingly called Ha-Ha- Kung, who married the sister ofChiang Kai-shek’s wife and was the financial minister most of thetime), and the Chen brothers, Chen Guofu (the minister of the centralorganization ministry of the National Party) and Chen Lifu (educationminister). Their father was the sworn brother of Chiang Kai-shek. Allother private business owners were defined as national capitalists.
The major articles of the CommonProgram—the temporary constitution—stated that citizens of thePeoples’ Republic of China had the rights of voting and nomination,but actually none but the leaders of the Communist Party had therights to nominate candidates. They could nominate whomever theyliked and even themselves. As for voting rights, common voters couldnot vote for whomever they preferred, but were forced to vote forthose on the list made by the party leaders. If there were tencandidates, a voter could not vote for fewer than ten. He or she hadto make a mark next to every name on the list, or he or she would getin trouble. Once a young worker crossed out a name on the list andadded the name of his boss. Although he was also a party member, hewas severely criticized for not following the rules.
Another major article asserted that thepeople of the republic were to enjoy freedom of thought, speech,gathering, organizing societies, communication, personal liberty,living anywhere, moving anywhere, religions and beliefs, and todemonstrate. But all these rights existed only on paper. In reality,no one could exercise such rights. Everything going on under the sun,or even at night, was monitored by the Communist Party.

December 11th, 2019, 02:27 PM
The Ceremony of the Establishment of the People’sRepublic of ChinaAt 2:00PM on the 1st ofOctober, 1949, the committee of the central people’s government hadits first session and selected Mao Zedong as chairman. Zhu De, LiuShaoqi, Soong Ching-ling, Li Jishen, Zhang Lan, and Gao Gang becamethe vice chairmen. Zhou Enlai was the Premier of the state counciland the foreign minister as well, and Zhu De was thecommander-in-chief of the Chinese People’s Liberation Army. At3:00, a ceremony marking the establishment of the People’s Republicof China was held at TianAnMen (literally Gate of Heavenly Peace).Chairman Mao announced the formation of the People’s Republic ofChina. On December 2, the central people’s government approved thedecision to make October 1 the national day every year.
Accordingly, on the 1st ofOctober, 1950, the leaders of the Communist Party were expected tostand at TianAnMen to watch the parade going through TianAnMenSquare. A plot was revealed to murder the leaders. Two tenants hadmoved into a house at No. 17 in the Ganyu Alley northeast ofTianAnMen, two mercenary spies, one Italian and the other Japanese.One night in February 1950, two strangers came to see the Japaneseman, who had an 82 mortar. In mid-September, the Chinese policedepartment intercepted a letter mailed to Tokyo, Japan, in whichthere was a sketch of the clear outline of TianAnMen with two blackarrows, one pointing to the top of the gate and the other pointing totiny figures drawn on the square. The letter described the layout ofTianAnMan Square. Through analysis, Beijing police declared that itwas evidence of a serious scheme to murder the government leaders.After further investigations, at dawn on September 27, the policerushed to the No. 17 house and broke in. They took the Japanese andItalian spies into custody. In the Japanese man’s room they foundletters, documents, diagrams, the 82 mortar, and a pistol with 235bullets, and found in the Italian’s room a packet of poisonouspowder, a diagram with the outline of TianAnMen and a parabolapointing to it. On October 10, the Central Committee of the CommunistParty (not the central government) issued an instruction to round upand arrest reactionaries, including spies. Who would be considered areactionary? Those executing the instruction would define it at will.

December 13th, 2019, 02:53 PM
The Ruling System of the People’s Republic of ChinaThere are two vertical hierarchies inthe ruling system under the Communist Party. One is the formalgovernment line and the other is the party line. On the same level,there are party organizations as well as government departments.Let’s take Shanghai for an example. On the municipal level, themayor is the head of the Shanghai government, but there is also theparty secretary of the Shanghai municipal committee. The mayor mustobey the party secretary, which means that the party secretary is thereal head of the city, the over-lord. For every department or bureauin the municipal government, there is also a party organization onthe same level.
Urban Shanghai is divided into 10precincts with the same two-dimensional ruling system at every level.Under the precinct level are street committees, under which areresident committees which are the basic ruling cells. Every residentcommittee comprises the residents in one block. All cadres of thesecommittees at different levels are paid by the government. Then everyblock is divided into several groups. The group leaders, thoughappointed, get no pay from the government. They are either housewivesor retired people. The group leaders must report to the residentcommittee what happens in the block and if they suspect any residentof anything unusual, they must report on that. The head of theresident committee is called director and there is also a partysecretary.
The municipal police station also has aparty secretary. On the precinct level, there is a precinct stationunder which there are several police branches at the same level withthe street committees. Every police branch will assign a policeman towork with the resident committee and the resident committee cadresobey the policeman.
In the suburbs of Shanghai there are 10counties. Every county ruled over several villages, which more arecalled communes in the period from the Great Leap Forward to the endof the Great Cultural Revolution. Under the commune level there areproductive teams. All peasants belong to different teams. Peasantsand city residents are all tied to where they live and are notgenerally free to relocate. All their behavior and actions will bereported to the party at different levels. People may work incompanies of all sorts, or in stores and schools, belonging to thegovernment. They are told to watch over each other’s behavior andactions and report to the party if anything is suspicious. Everyonetakes it seriously, because if one reports some colleague’smisbehavior, he is deemed loyal to the party and will receive somecompensation such as a promotion, a small raise, or even be allowedto join the party—the fastest way to become an official. Evenrelatives and family members will report on their near ones for theirown benefits. Under this sort of system one feels that there arespies all around. That is how the Chinese people lived until DengXiaoping’s 1978 economic reform and “opening up” policy. (Ofcourse not everyone liked that either: Under this sort of system, itseems that everything is suddenly open, like prostitution,embezzlement and corruption.)

December 16th, 2019, 03:18 PM
Chapter6. The Massacre of Reactionaries and the Suppression of BanditsThe Movement to Arrest and KillReactionariesThe action against “reactionaries”began in December 1950 and went on until October 1951. It involved 3million people. So lots of innocent people were arrested and many ofthem were executed. At that time, people were easily executed withoutproper legal procedures. A person could be killed just on the word ofa work team leader. Fan Yuanmao, a communist activist, told of hisexperience at that time. He had been a district government leader andpresided over many public judgments, that is, meetings to decide howmany people and which ones should be executed. At one of suchmeeting, twelve people would be shot to death. A few more people werealso named, who were called “to accompany those going to die,”but in fact they were sent there to watch the twelve people beingshot, which served as a lesson to others not to do anything againstthe Party. At Fan Yuanmao’s order, those persons were dragged outinto an open field to be executed just as pigs are dragged into aslaughter house. One of the few watchers was mistakenly killed. Whenasked what to do about the error, Fan answered that he would justhand in another form with the name of that person to bring the numberof those executed up to thirteen. Easily settled. No other proceduresneeded. The lives of common Chinese people weigh no more than afeather, as a Chinese saying goes.
In some places, father and son,brothers, cousins, were killed together, maybe the whole familyexecuted, just like in the feudal age under the rule of the emperors.One “funny” story says that the names of those who were to beexecuted were written in a booklet, which would be given to a cadreof higher rank for final approval. That guy would stamp a seal oneach page that meant that the death decision was final. After the guystamped a few pages, he stood up to get a glass of water. Then a gustof wind blew in and turned two pages over. When the guy came back tosit at his desk, he continued to stamp the pages till the last page.So the couple of people whose names were on the pages without a stampwere not executed. The gust of wind saved them. All in all, yearslater, the Party admitted that many innocent people were mistakenlyexecuted. They died for nothing. Victims of the Party and Mao’soverly drastic actions.

December 18th, 2019, 03:14 PM
It has been argued that in so manydynasties in the history of China, and elsewhere, many innocentpeople have been mistakenly killed. It’s difficult to makecomparisons. But it is totally wrong to kill innocent people and itdoes not matter how many or how few are killed. According to theCommunist Party, all the dynasties in history were a form offeudalism, a bad political system. That innocent people were killedin a bad system may be no surprise. But the Communist Party of Chinaboasted that socialism is the best political system in the world andclaimed from the beginning that the Party was serving the people. Sothey have no right to kill innocent people as they said they are forthe people. Apparently, a hypothetical system is one thing and theindividuals who seek to establish and implement it may be a differentstory altogether.
Some ridiculous things happened duringthis movement. In February of 1951, Mao summoned a meeting to decidethe rate at which people should be executed. They decided that therate should be one in a thousand, and at first, half of this numbershould be killed, and then the policy should be reviewed. Mao gaveclear instructions to the mayors of Shanghai and Nanking, saying,“Shanghai is a large city of 6 million, and in Shanghai hardly morethan 200 are executed out of over 20,000 arrested. It is not enough.In my opinion, at least 3,000 or so should be executed. Nanking wasthe capital of the National Party; the reactionaries there should beexecuted and I don’t mean a few more than 200. Far more must beexecuted in Nanking.” Mao’s decision to kill people was not basedon crimes those people committed but based on his own whim.
On the 21st of February,1950, the state council issued the “Rules for punishingreactionaries in the People’s Republic of China.” Herereactionaries were defined as: people contacting imperialists;contacting, instigating and bribing officials, armed forces andmilitia to commit treason; gathering armed crowds for rebellion;joining spy organizations; organizing or utilizing any religiousgroups for reactionary purposes; robbing or damaging public orprivate property or public equipment; using poison to kill people;making fake documents or IDs; instigating crowds against thegovernment; sowing discord among government officials; spreadingrumors; stealing across territory borders; breaking into or escapingfrom jails; hiding or protecting reactionaries, etc. It didn’tmatter if the action had been completed or not.

December 20th, 2019, 03:08 PM
Even those Party members who had workedas communist spies in the former government were deemed traitors andkilled; let alone those generals who had changed sides from ChiangKai-shek’s government to the Communist Party. They were alsokilled. In some people’s opinion, those generals, if they saw nohope of winning the day, should have gone abroad to live a free, safelife, not change sides to the Communist Party to be killed later.They should have known that the Communist Party had killed their owncomrades even while they were still at YanAn. Those comrades believedin communism and went there to help wage the revolution. They couldnever dream that they would die in the hands of their own comrades inthe name of revolution. Talk about betrayal.
Then there was the “Revolt ofRestitution Party.” It involved over 1,300 persons, including 80Communist Party members, in PuEr Town in Yunnan Province. PuEr isfamous for its PuEr tea. Even the town’s party secretary and thedeputy director-general of the police station were included. Thefirst party secretary of the province said that he did not believeit. The party organization itself could not get so many members insuch a short time—how could a reactionary organization achieve it?Then it was found that the case was made up. No evidence at all,except for one sign calling for revolt, which was drawn by a primaryschool teacher under threat. So the ridiculous case was dismissed.
In January of 1954, Xu Zirong, the viceminister of the police department, reported the statistics. In thismovement, over 2,620,000 people were apprehended, “over 712,000were executed, over 1,290,000 were imprisoned, and over 1,200,000were placed under police control. Over 380,000 were released becausetheir crimes were not serious.” If 712,000 were executed, the ratiowas 0.124% as the population at that time was 500 million.

December 23rd, 2019, 03:58 PM
TheSuppression of BanditsThere were two types of banditsoperating at this time. One was the kind who had already been banditsduring the civil war owing to the chaotic situation. Many of themwere common people who had had no other way to survive. The otherwere former soldiers of the National Army who had escaped from thePeople’s Liberation Army to dwell in the mountains. They acted asguerrilla warriors for the National Party, but were deemed bandits bythe Liberation Army. Most of those bandits hid in the mountainoussouthwestern regions, but some lived in towns.

Bandits in Western HunanWhen most of Hunan province fell to theCommunists, some of those men still loyal to the National Armysettled in Western Hunan and formed three groups called theAnti-Communist Army, over 100,000 in all. From October 14 to 16,1949, the 47th Liberation army besieged Dayong andannihilated their 122nd army (4,333 men) and incorporated12,000 into the Liberation army. This battle frightened otherbandits. Some of them decided they’d better go ahead and join theLiberation Army. But when the Liberation Army marched towards thesouthwest, they no longer wanted to surrender. On the contrary, inmid-December, they went to take back Dayong. Some of these banditsattacked a squad of the Liberation Army and killed some local armedpersonnel and pillaged 20 trucks belonging to the army.
To deal with the deterioratingsituation, the 47th Liberation Army returned to theWestern Hunan province and occupied 8 towns. The bandits escaped tosome caves in the mountain. The Liberation Army found the familymembers of the bandits and made them go into the mountains to asktheir husbands to come down and surrender. Finally the LiberationArmy attacked the caves and eliminated the rest of the bandits inOctober.

December 25th, 2019, 02:56 PM
Banditsin the southwestern provincesThere were 148 groups of bandits inYunnan province, 541 groups in Guizhou province, and 300 groups inSichuan province. The big groups had a few thousand men. In February1950, the bandits in all those areas grew from 400,000 to 500,000.
To annihilate them, the Communist Partysent the 3rd corps, the 4th corps, the 5thcorps, and the 18th corps, plus the 7th army toseparately attack the bandits in different districts. The attacksbegan in March 1950. During one month, the Liberation Army wiped outseveral groups of bandits numbering 23,000 in southern Sichuanprovince. By the end of July, 950,000 were eliminated in the easternSichuan province. After September, the Liberation Army in the easternSichuan province maneuvered to the region in the northeastern Guizhouprovince and annihilated another 320,000 bandits there. By the end of1950, over 193,000 bandits were eliminated in the eastern Sichuanprovince, over 293,000 in the southern Sichuan province, over 83,000in the western Sichuan province, and over 80,000 in the northernSichuan province. It was reported that by 1953, more than 1,160,000bandits in the northwestern provinces were wiped out, and over 700cannons and over 600,000 firearms of all kinds were captured. Duringthe whole process, the bandits assassinated 157 Liberation Army menand local cadres, spread poison 223 times, and set 316 fires. In1952, the bandits received 10 airdrops including 13 radio sets, and14 trained spies were sent from Taiwan and landed in those areas.

Bandits in the western Guangxi provinceThe bandits gathered more than 90,000men, spreading over 97 towns out of 102 towns in western Guangxi.They killed more than 500 cadres, took away more than 28,000,000catties of grain (17 tons) and more than 260,000 livestock. They hidin Dayao Mountain. The Liberation Army gathered 14 regiments plusmilitiamen from 18 towns, and blockaded all the waterways and roadsto outside. The bandits tried to break through and escaped more than40 times, but in the end it all failed. On the 8th ofJanuary, 1951, the Liberation Army started into the Dayao Mountainand wiped out more than 400 men in mountain villages. But the banditswere spread throughout the mountains, and so on the 2nd ofFebruary, the Communist Party gathered 13 battalions to go village byvillage and cave by cave searching for them. This campaign went onfor 50 days and no more bandits were left in that area. Theringleaders were all executed.

December 27th, 2019, 03:06 PM
Aspecial caseA weird thing happened one evening in1950. Near Wulong Town in the southeastern Sichuan province, therewas a restaurant called Danxin Restaurant which was famous forsteamed buns stuffed with ground meat. But what kind of meat it was,no one knew. Someone suspected that it was the human flesh. In theolden days, there were always stories about steamed buns stuffed withhuman flesh sold in “black inns.” This small restaurant was ameeting place for bandits in this area. The owner of the restaurantwas an old man with a fake hunchback: the real owner had a hunchback,but he had murdered him. He took over the restaurant and brought intwo of his men, disguised as waiters.
On the 21st of October, tenLiberation Army soldiers passed the restaurant. They were on theirway back from the mountain fighting bandits. As they were tired andhungry, they went into the restaurant. They were served steamed buns.A young soldier observed that the meat stuffing didn’t taste likepork, or mutton or beef. So he asked the owner what meat it was. Theowner turned to leave without answering the question. Soon thesoldiers were drugged, lying on the floor, and were dragged to thebasement.
At daybreak on October 23, another fiveliberation soldiers came into the restaurant and were also served thesteamed buns. Soon they all lay on the floor and were put into thebasement. Next, more than 100 soldiers came, but this time theyentered the restaurant without asking for any food. They had learnedthat this restaurant was a hideout and meeting place for bandits andhad come to arrest those working here. The basement was found and 5newcomers were still lying on the ground; two of the former tensoldiers were still alive. The other eight soldiers had been killed.One of the two was the squad leader and he told the story. He went onto live his life; but the other, a younger soldier, went mad and wasput into an asylum. He died in March of 1959.

December 30th, 2019, 03:33 PM
How CPC treatsTibet

I. Previous relationshipbetween Tibet and China
Therelationship between Tibet and China began the earliest in TangDynasty (618—907 AD). In the year of 640 AD, when the famousemperor Tang Taizong (01/28/598—07/10/649) was on the throne(626—649), Srongtsen Gampo,the sovereign of Tibet at the time, dispatched his premier to thecapital of Tang Dynasty, bringing 5,000 taels of gold and many kindsof other treasures as gift and asked for the hand of a princess. TheTang emperor was pleased and granted the request of marriage. Alegend had it that chieftains of other minorities close to theterritory of Tang Dynasty also desired to marry the princess. Theemperor wanted to test the wisdom of all the emissaries to decidewhom he should choose as his foreign son-in-law, and so gave them ariddle to see who could solve it. He gave them a thin silk thread anda piece of jade with a zigzag hole in the middle, not straightthrough. Whoever could get the thread through the hole, his sovereigncould marry the princess. No one could do it except the premier fromTibet. He got an ant and tied the thread on the ant. He blew hisbreath at the ant and it went through the winding hole carrying thethread through. Therefore, Princess Wencheng (625—680) was sent toTibet and married the Tibetan sovereign. The princess brought withher the Chinese culture, the silkworm, seeds of grains, herb medicineand medical equipments, etc. The Tibetan sovereign built the PotalaPalace in Lhasa for her, in imitation of the style of Tang palace. Inthe year of 740 AD, another princess of Tang Dynasty married thegreat grandson of Srongtsen Gampo. At that time, Tibet was anindependent nation and did not belong to China. It was at most deemeda subordinative state to Tang Dynasty, but only in name, as they hadmarital relationship. Certainly not part of China.
Atthe beginning of the Qing Dynasty (1636—1912), Qing army had onceconquered Tibet. However, Tibetans were still free to keep theirculture and religion. But with the fall of the Qing Dynasty, Tibetdeclared its independence in 1913, which was recognizedinternationally at the time. So Tibet should be deemed an independentstate. When the national government was established, Chiang Kai-shekhad sent twice the envoy, but he did not take any military means toput Tibet under his rule.

January 1st, 2020, 02:58 PM
II.CPC (Communist Party of China) wants to change Tibet to their liking
Onthe 6th of October, 1950, the communist army defeated the Tibetanarmy, which had to surrender. So under the order of communistgovernment, Tibet had to send a delegation to Beijing. On the 23rdof May, 1951, the communist government forced Tibet to sign the“Seventeen Point Agreement for the Peaceful Liberation of Tibet.”(The Communist Party of China always uses ridiculous words to coverup the facts. Their so-called “Liberation” is the equivalent tovanquishing and rule by force. How can it be peaceful? Mao's famousquotation is “Political power comes out of gun.”) In theagreement, the Communist Party of China promised autonomy in Tibet,and freedom of religion, but when the communist army entered Tibet,they went back on their promise and never gave Tibet autonomy, andinterfered with their belief, just like they had promised Chinesepeople a united government, democracy and freedom of speech, whichare still written in their constitution, but when they seized power,they broke the promise and exercised one-party tyranny. That is thebasic problem why the Tibetan people are opposing the communistparty, for their breaking their promise. Their promise is not wortheven a farthing. The believer in their promise is always found to bedisappointed. In 1959 when Mao was pushing his reform all over thecountry, he wanted to have reform of some kind in Tibet, too. Thecommunist party never wants to know what people really think andreally need. They just force their ideas on people. If people refuseto take their ideas, they just exercise oppression or even slaughter.That was why from the 10thday to the 20thday of March, 1959, 100,000 Tibetans followed Dalai Lamaover Mt. Himalaya and escaped to the north of India. Then thecommunist party began to persecute the Tibetans.

January 3rd, 2020, 03:07 PM
Whydid Dalai Lama want to escape from Tibet to India? The event of Lhasahappened like this. In the morning of the 10thof March, 1959, people of Lhasa thronged outside Norbulingka summerpalace, where Dalai Lama lived. Their purpose was to prevent DalaiLama from going to the camp auditorium of the communist army to watchsome performance. Why did they want to do this? The situation at thattime in Tibet told the reason. The Tibetans were really angry withthe communist army who came to occupy their land and didn't give themautonomy. CPC set up their puppet government called the “PreparatoryCommittee for the Tibet Autonomous Region” to rule over Tibet. SoTibetans vented their dissatisfaction by preventing their leader fromgoing to mix with the communist army. People who surroundedNorbulingka shouted, “Chinese, get out of Tibet.” Though DalaiLama declared that he wouldn't go in hopes that people woulddisperse. But they still gathered there without intention to leavewhatsoever.
Whenthe army leaders reported to the Central Party committee, CPCconcluded that the reactionaries in Tibet wanted to kidnap DalaiLama. Therefore, on the night of the 11thof March, CPC instructed the army leaders in Tibet to prepare for themilitary action. On the 12thof March, Mao instructed his army leaders “to induce the enemy toattack.” Why? Because the army could “counterattack” on thepretense that the enemy attacked first. It meant that CPC and Mao hadalready made the decision for killing, not having a peace talk withTibetans to iron the differences. This is the rule of CPC to dealwith people under their control, just like in the event of TianAnMenSquare on the 4thof June, 1989, Deng Xiaoping had already decided for the killing ofthe students. No matter how Zhao Ziyang made efforts to have talkswith students.

January 6th, 2020, 02:46 PM
Actuallyin 1950, Dalai Lama decided to cooperate with the communistgovernment, regardless of the advice of his brother in India then toleave Tibet as soon as possible. However, after his cooperation withCPC for five years, he was so disappointed in CPC as Tibetans grewangrier and angrier at the communist government since the governmentforced land reform in the region Tibetans lived. The resistance ofthe Tibetan people was already on the swing. So Dalai Lama was nowbetween the devil and the deep sea. He didn't want to support hispeople for armed riot, not could he send his troops to kill his ownpeople. So his last decision was to escape to India. At first he hadstill hesitated, but the explosion of two Mortar shells from thecommunist army very close to his residence expedited his escape. Theevent ended with the communist army killing the Tibetans inprotestation.
Howto maintain a peaceful relationship with minorities, there was muchexperience and examples in the history of China. Even the feudalrulers, that is, emperors, knew that if they wanted a peacefulrelationship with minorities, they must win their hearts, not justconquer them physically. If they conquered them by force, they wouldnot obey peacefully. The leaders of the communist party, especiallyMao, who had read a lot of history books, should know the principle.But in reality, those leaders, including Mao himself, are thebelievers of force and violence. Whenever anything happens, they liketo use strong angry words for threatening. They never know lenience.That's why people all over the world often criticize them just inhopes that they can change their attitudes to listen reasonably toothers and act to the common standards of the world.

January 8th, 2020, 02:48 PM
The Land Reform in the CountrysideAs early as 1946, the Communist Partyhad carried out some reform policies in the districts under theircontrol. On October 10, 1947, they issued new land laws to distributethe arable land to those who actually tilled it. They expropriatedthe landowners and gave the land to the peasants, thus winning muchgratitude and support from the rural populace. This support took twoforms: grain and army recruits. Since most of the population in Chinawas in the countryside, when the forces of the National Partydiminished, the Communist Party gained reinforcements by recruitingyoung peasants.
From winter of 1950 to spring of 1953,the land reform movement began in full swing in all the newlycontrolled provinces. They divided the arable land belonging tolandowners among peasants. On June 30, 1950, the central people’sgovernment issued the “Land Reform Law of the People’s Republicof China.”
Many Party cadres formed work teams andwent to the countryside to instruct peasants on how to proceed. Thelandowners were pulled out of their residences and taken to an openspace. They were forced to kneel for long periods on the hard ground.Those peasants who hated their landowners went forward to slap theirfaces, and they slapped hard. But the humiliation and sense ofinjustice were worse than the physical pain. Many of the landownerswere shot to death. Their families were deprived of their property,leaving them only with the bare necessities of life. Peasants movedinto the landowners’ houses.

January 10th, 2020, 02:53 PM
Prostitution Reform in CitiesProstitution was an old business inalmost every nation in the world. Prostitution in China had a historyof 3,000 years in written records, and it was generally practiced incities. Most prostitutes were forced to be in this business; some hadeven been kidnapped and sold to the whorehouse. Occasionally littlegirls were sold to the whorehouse by poor parents on the verge ofstarvation. The parents reasoned that at least their daughter wouldnot starve to death that way. Therefore, girls who were prostituteswere not considered blameworthy for their own sake. (In the presentChina, the importance of money has increased and it is true that mostwho become prostitutes do it of their own accord. There are cafes andclubs where a man can pay a young and pretty girl to keep him companywhile sipping tea, coffee or other drinks, or to dance, and he caninvite the girl for more. These girls were called ‘Miss.’ Sonowadays, if anyone calls a girl ‘Miss,’ she will find itinsulting.)
At the beginning of the People’sRepublic of China, the Communist Party wanted to end the prostitutionbusiness once for all. So every local government closed all thewhorehouses in their cities, starting with Beijing. The mayor simplydeclared, at 5 o’clock in the afternoon on the 21st ofNovember in 1949, a ban on the prostitution business and closed allthe whorehouses. The chief of the main police station in Beijing gaveorders to gather 2,400 cadres and policemen to form 27 groups. At8:00PM, every group went to the designated district, and 224whorehouses were closed and 1,316 prostitutes were penned up inpenitentiaries for half a year. After “re-education” and healingand a skills-training process, about 400 of them married workers andshop assistants to start their new life. Around 200 of them marriedpeasants in the suburbs of Beijing. Another 200 became workersthemselves in textile factories. It is said that 379 returned totheir respective homes, while 62 were assigned jobs in theaters orhospitals.

January 13th, 2020, 03:03 PM
On November 23, Shanghai followed suitand began to close all the whorehouses. In Shanghai 7,400 prostituteswere sent to penitentiaries and turned over a new leaf. During 1951and 1952, all other cities did the same and prostitution was clearedup in China. As there were so many women who had to build a new life,some of them were sent to join the so-called construction army in thevery remote northwest, the Xinjiang Autonomous Region. In April of1955, 920 girls started from Shanghai, in new green uniforms, androde a train to barracks there.
Besides the prostitution problem,another problem in the cities was the great number of beggars,homeless and thieves. They were also rounded up by the local policeand put in penitentiaries. Then after skills-training, they got jobs,too. During these years, passengers in trams and buses had no fear ofpickpockets. Even housewives, if any needed to work to earn money,could be assigned jobs in some kind of factory or low-paying“productive group.” Jobs in the productive groups includingsealing envelopes, making match boxes, or knitting work, etc. Jobswere not searched out and applied for, but allotted by the localgovernment.

January 15th, 2020, 03:00 PM
Chapter9. The Korean WarNorth Korea Invaded South KoreaA legend about Korea and China goesback to the end of the Shang Dynasty (1765–1122 BC). The last kingof that dynasty was a tyrant and often killed innocent people, evenhis courtiers. When he was overthrown by the Zhou Dynasty (1121—476BC), he burned himself to death. His brother Jizi escaped to Koreawith his followers, bringing Chinese culture, etiquette andgovernment systems there. The natives supported him to be the firstking of Korea. It was called Jizi Korea, which lasted from 1122 BC to194 BC.
The Korean War, or Korean Conflict,began on June 25, 1950, when the North Korean army marched across theline of demarcation, the 38th parallel, and suddenlyattacked the 17th Regiment of the South Korean armywithout any warning. The war ended on July 27, 1953, when thecease-fire agreement was signed.
The Soviet Union was behind North Koreain waging the war, helped by China. Before the war, the leader ofNorth Korea asked China to send over three divisions composedentirely of Koreans. These became the 4th field army underLin Biao. The three divisions doubled the military forces of NorthKorea. Then North Korea concentrated great numbers of tanks andtroops to press the South Korean army southward. Meanwhile NorthKorean troops made an amphibious landing at Kangnung on the eastcoast right on the south side of the 38th parallel. ThenNorth Korean fighter aircrafts attacked Seoul and Kimpo Airfield,destroying a US Air Force C-54 on the ground on Kimpo Airfield.Therefore, John Muccio, the US Ambassador to South Korea, conveyed toUS President Truman the request of South Korean government for airassistance and ammunition.

January 17th, 2020, 03:23 PM
The United Nations Security Councilheld an emergency meeting, which the representative of the SovietUnion did not attend. The United Nations Security Council called inunison for an immediate cease-fire and withdrawal of the North Koreanarmy to the north of the 38th parallel and authorized theUnited Nations members to aid South Korea. The United NationsSecurity Council requested that the US government establish a UnitedNations Command under an American officer. General MacArthur wasappointed as commander of the United Nations army, and he ordered theUS Air Force to attack the North Korean units in the south of the38th parallel.
The US government began the airevacuation of its citizens from South Korea. The next day, the NorthKorean army occupied Chunchon, Pochon, and Tongduchon in South Korea.So the US 7th fleet sailed north from the Philippines. TheUS Air Force started to attack the North Korean army, but failed toprevent it from advancing. Soon the North Korean army captured Seoul,the capital of South Korea, overran the port of Inchon, seized theairfield at Kimpo, and threatened the city of Suwon. Then PresidentTruman ordered some units of US navy to approach the Korean peninsulafor the purpose of blockading the North Korea army.
At the end of July, as the North Koreantroops kept advancing, the United Nations forces had to retreat to anew defensive line along the Naktong River. Then the United Statestroops launched their first ground offensive, marching from Masanwestward toward Chinju to stabilize the southwestern end of the Pusanline. A few days later, US troops, with the aid of air strikes, drovethe North Korean army at the Yongsan bridgehead back across theNaktong River.

January 20th, 2020, 02:54 PM
September was the turning point. At thebeginning, the North Korean army almost reached the brink of totalvictory, but at the end of the month it was in full withdrawal to thenorth side of the 38th parallel. The North Korean army’sweek-long offensive did not succeed in driving the forces of UnitedNations and South Korea into the sea. By mid-September when theEighth Army was ready to attack, the United Nations forces found thatthey were facing a North Korean army that was out of ammunition andother necessary supplies. Simultaneously, General MacArthur launchedan amphibious attack at Inchon. The attackers drove a wedge betweenthe North Korean army in the south and its chief supply routes in thenorth, intending to press the North Korean army against the EighthArmy marching from the southeast. So the North Korean army had tobeat a quick retreat northward.
Close to the end of the month, UStroops from Inchon and Pusan joined each other near Osan. The UnitedNations army took 125,000 North Korean soldiers prisoners of war. TheSouth Korean government was now back in Seoul. And the United Nationsand South Korean forces reached the 38th parallel.
The Joint Chiefs of Staff commandedGeneral MacArthur to wipe out the North Korean army once and for allso that there would be no further conflict. To do so, they would haveto march across the 38th parallel into North Korea. Onlythe South Korean army was allowed to do that. So for the first timethe South Korean troops marched into North Korea. Toward the end ofOctober, the South Korean army reached the Yalu River on the Koreanside, but without intending to cross the river into China.

January 22nd, 2020, 02:34 PM
China Sent So-Called Chinese People’s Volunteers IntoKoreaAs the South Korean army did not enterthe territory of China, according to reason and international law,the Communist Party of China should not send its army into Korea.However, the so-called Chinese People’s Volunteers crossed theriver into Korea. Could this also be called an invasion? At firstMarshal Lin Biao (There were 10 marshals in China) was appointed thecommander of the Chinese People’s Volunteers, but he refused totake the assignment. Marshal Peng Dehuai took the position of thecommander. The eldest son of Mao Zedong joined the Volunteers, thoughnot as a fighter. No one knew why Mao let his son join. When the sondied accidentally, it was said that Mao blamed Marshal Peng for it,for not providing adequate protection for his son.
The Chinese forces seriously savaged abattalion of the South Korean army near Onjong. In this battle thefirst Chinese prisoners of war were captured. Then Chinese soldiersattacked the 6th Infantry Division of the South Koreanarmy. Although the US Air Force bombarded the bridges on the YaluRiver, the Chinese soldiers used pontoon bridges and even crossed theriver by walking on the thick ice. Toward the end of November, theChinese army doubled its numbers and fiercely attacked the UnitedNations army and stopped their further advance. Then the Eighth Armyin northwest Korea and the X Corps in northeast Korea withdrewsouthward and at last were back to the 38th parallel. TheX Corps withdrew by sea. The thick snow provided a good cover for thetargets in North Korea.

January 24th, 2020, 02:54 PM
Some US troops were surrounded by theoutnumbered Chinese army in the Changjin Reservoir area. The UStroops fought their way to Hagaru-ri, and at the same time a reliefcolumn from Hungnam marched toward the troops, reaching Koto-rialmost seven miles away. The Chinese army, in great numbers,prevented the two groups from uniting and surrounded bothrespectively. The US troops were only receiving air supplies. The USunits tried to break out from Hagaru-ri and Koto-ri, and finally theylinked up. Then eight C-119s dropped bridge spans to the encircled USunits so that they could cross a 1500-foot-deep gorge to break theencirclement of the Chinese army.
Toward the end of December 1950, theChinese forces crossed the 38th parallel and assaulted theUnited Nations troops. The Eighth Army built their defensive line 70miles from the 38th parallel. Just at the beginning of thenew year, 1951, almost half a million Chinese and North Korean armytook a new ground offensive, and so the Fifth Air force raided theirtroop column. As great numbers of Chinese troops advanced, the EighthArmy began to evacuate from Seoul, the capital of South Korea. TheSouth Korean government moved to Pusan. Seoul changed hands again asthe Chinese troops rushed in. In the mid-January, the Chinese armytook Wonju, reaching their farthest extent of advance into SouthKorea.
To disrupt a new offensive of theChinese army, the US X Corps marched forth, aided by air support, tonear Hoengsong. On the east coast the troops of South Korea crossedthe 38th parallel and entered Yangyang. In mid-February,three Chinese divisions surrounded the United Nations troops,including members of the US 23rd Regimental Combat Teamand the French Battalion at a road junction of Chipyong-ni in thecentral Korea. But a few days later, the Eighth Army wiped out alarge number of Chinese troops and moved the United Nations linenorthward to the Han River. Therefore, the Chinese army had nopresence on the south side of the river. The Communist Party of Chinaalways used the same trick to wipe out their opponents, but this timetheir own army was wiped out.

January 27th, 2020, 02:39 PM
In mid-March, the Chinese forcesabandoned Seoul without resistance when the US troops seized the highground on both sides of the city north of the Han River. Then US airtransports, flying from Taegu to Munsan-ni, a region behind Chineselines some 20 miles northwest of Seoul, dropped the 187thAirborne Regimental Combat Team and two Ranger companies—more than3,400 men. The Fifth Air Force fighters and light bombers conqueredthe opposition of the Chinese army, and so the United Nations forcesmarched rapidly to the Imjin River, capturing 127 Chinese prisonersof war. The Eighth Army moved northward across the 38thparallel.
With the coming of spring, the Chineselaunched an all-out offensive with over 330,000 troops, using their“human wave” tactics. By the end of this month, they advanced tothe vicinity of Seoul again. But under the United Nations assaults onthe ground and in the air, both men and supplies on the Chinese sidereached their limits. So the Eighth Army successfully stopped theirfurther progress.
In spite of the resistance of theChinese and North Korean army, the United Nations forces broke intothe Pyonggang-Chorwon-Kumhwa “Iron Triangle” fortifiedsanctuaries just north of the 38th parallel. Therefore, onthe 23rd of June, Jacob Malik, the Soviet Ambassador tothe United Nations, called for negotiations between therepresentatives of the United Nations forces and those of the Chineseand North Korean forces for an armistice in Korea based on theseparation of the armies along the 38th parallel.
On the 10th of July, ViceAdmiral Turner Joy, leading the United Nations delegation met theChinese and North Korean delegation at Kaesong, some 30 milesnorthwest of Seoul on the south side of the 38th parallel,for the first conference of the armistice negotiations. Therefore,less actions on the ground and in the air was maintained. But on the4th of August, the Chinese ground forces violated theKaesong neutral zone, resulting in suspension of the truce talks.Then on the 10th of August the armistice negotiationsresumed at Kaesong with the North Korea promise to respect theneutral zone. However, on the 22nd of August, the Chineseand North Korean delegation trumped up evidence that a United Nationsaircraft bombed Kaesong (not considering the safety of their owndelegation?), which resulted in the suspension of the armisticenegotiations once again.

January 29th, 2020, 03:12 PM
Then actions on the ground and in theair resumed. United Nations ground forces withstood thebattalion-sized attacks of the Chinese army in the “Punchbowl”,the circular valley in the eastern Korea, west of the Soyang Riverand rimmed by sharply rising hills. On the 25th ofOctober, at the request of the Chinese and North Korean delegation,the peace negotiations resumed at Kaesong after a two-monthsuspension. By that time the United Nations ground forces in thewestern and central sections had gained up to six miles in someplaces along the frontline.
On the 12th of November, thepeace negotiations moved to Panmunjom, a village less than 5 mileseast of Kaesong, in a newly established demilitarized zone on the38th parallel. The United Nations forces ceased offensiveground operations. Toward the end of 1951, the negotiators atPanmunjom argued over the arrangements for an armistice andprovisions about the prisoners of war. Ground actions of both sidesreduced to minimum. However, at Panmunjom, the negotiations made noprogress. To prevent the further attack of the Chinese and NorthKorean army in the frontline, the main strategy of the United Nationswas to hinder the transportation of equipment and supplies to theirfront positions. So the targets of the air raid concentrated onbridges on rivers, railroads, moving trains and trucks.
In April of 1952, there were two majorground engagements. The Chinese and North Korean forces attacked atnight the positions held by the First Marine Division south ofPanmunjom and later assaulted the First Commonwealth Division northof Korangpo-ri. The friendly units withstood these attacks. No otherground actions happened this month.
In June, US 45th InfantryDivision in the central sector near Chorwon launched two attackssuccessfully to gain a high ground and repulsed the counterattack ofthe Chinese troops. But in July, in the eastern sector of Korea, nearthe coast and near Hill 266 in the US Second Infantry Division area,a battalion of the Chinese army attempted to seize the high ground.It changed hands several times, but remained under the friendlycontrol at the end of the month.
In mid-August, somereinforced-battalions of the Chinese army attacked the United Nationspositions in several sectors. Hills in the First Marine Divisionsector and in the South Korean Second Corps sector changed handsseveral times, but United Nations forces retained control of thosesectors.

January 31st, 2020, 03:22 PM
On the 29th of August, atthe request of the US Department of State, US Far East Air Forcelaunched the largest air attack against Pyongyang to serve as adramatic military action during the visit of China’s premier, ZhouEnlai, to the Soviet Union. The State Department hoped that theattack might lead the Soviets to urge the Chinese to accept anarmistice in the peace negotiations at Panmunjom.
In September, the heaviest groundactivity centered in the sector of the Second Corps of South Koreanarmy with intense seesaw fighting, but effected little change in thefrontlines.
Between the 6th day and the15th of October, the Chinese ground forces assaultedchiefly in the western IX Corps area northwest of Chorwon in a vainattempt to improve their position before the onslaught of winter. Inmid-October, the Eighth Army launched an offensive to seize criticalhigh ground in eastern IX Corps area northeast of Kumhwa. But itbecame a seesaw contest to retain domination terrain.
On the 8th of October, trucetalks at Panmunjom recessed over the issue of forced repatriation ofthe prisoners of war. The United Nations delegates proposed allowingthe prisoners of war from opposite sides to choose repatriation ornot, but the Chinese and North Korean delegates insisted that allprisoners of war be repatriated.

February 3rd, 2020, 02:48 PM
On the 16th of October,1952, North Korea sent a strongly worded protest to the Far EastCommand concerning the recess in armistice negotiations, but theycontinued to insist on total repatriation of both Chinese and NorthKorean prisoners of war. At the end of this month they presented anew prisoners-of-war camp list. In Geneva, the League of Red Cross Societies recommended that the combatants exchange sick and woundedprisoners of war before the cease-fire.
On the 22nd of January in1953, Beijing radio announced the capture of Colonel Arnold, pilot ofa B-29 who was shot down on January 13. But the Chinese governmentrefused to release him even during the repatriation of war prisoners.He was released in 1956.
On the 22nd of February, ina letter to Kim Il Sung, Premier of North Korea government andMarshal Peng Dehuai, Chinese commander in North Korea, the UnitedNations command stated its readiness to immediately repatriate thoseseriously ill and wounded prisoners of war who were fit to travel,and asked whether the North Korea and Chinese leaders were preparedto do the same.
During the first half of March, theChinese army attacked in company-sized waves in several areas,particularly along the central front in the Kumhwa and Kumsongregions. Later, sometimes, they attacked by the regiment in thecentral and western sectors. Then US Intelligence found the militarystrength of the Chinese army growing, with from one to three Chinesedivisions en route to or entering the Korean peninsula. The buildupindicated a possible offensive to seize as much territory as possiblebefore the armistice.

February 5th, 2020, 02:44 PM
On March 21, North Korean truce negotiators expressed their willingness to observe the provisions of the Geneva Convention and exchange sick and wounded prisoners. At the same time they hinted that the exchange might lead to a resolution of other issues that had hindered the armistice so far.
On March 30, Zhou Enlai, the foreign minister of China, suggested that prisoners of war not desiring repatriation might be placed in the temporary custody of a neutral nation until negotiations determined their final status. Before his proposal, they had insisted on repatriating all the prisoners of war. Their new flexibility on this issue provided an opportunity to resume truce negotiations.
On the 26th of April, after suspension for six months, armistice negotiations between the Chinese and North Korean delegation and the United Nations delegation reconvened in Panmunjom. Representatives of both sides negotiated details of the repatriation of prisoners of war. Then there followed the exchange of the seriously wounded and sick prisoners—6670 Chinese and North Koreans for 471 South Koreans, 149 Americans, and 64 other United Nations personnel, the count at that time.
US aircraft spread leaflets in North Korea, announcing that anyone who delivered a MiG or other jet aircraft to the United Nations forces in South Korea would receive political asylum, resettlement in a noncommunist country, anonymity, and $50,000. An additional $50,000 bounty would go to the first person to take advantage of this offer. In September 1953, after the cease-fire, a North Korean MiG-15 pilot flew his aircraft safely to Kimpo air base in South Korea.

February 7th, 2020, 03:20 PM
In the last week of May, the Chinese and North Korean troops made a major ground offensive against the United Nations positions on ridges dominating the US I Corps sector, about 10 miles northeast of Panmunjom. Meanwhile, the armistice negotiations faltered over disagreements regarding the repatriation of the prisoners of war. The Chinese and North Korean delegates wanted North Korean prisoners unwilling to return to their homelands to be detained indefinitely, in effect punishing them for their decision. The United Nations delegates wanted to release all prisoners to civilian status on the day the armistice became effective. To let the Chinese and North Koreans know that the continuance of the war would incur additional political and economic costs, the US Air Force attacked targets in North Korea that had been untouched previously. They bombed irrigation dams, whose destruction would, besides interrupting food production, disrupt further preparations for a ground offensive on the part of the Chinese and North Korean army by flooding the rails and road networks.
By mid-June, both sides had agreed to establish a Neutral Nations Repatriation committee. The final session of armistice negotiations at Panmunjom convened. After meeting for one day, the top negotiators agreed to adjourn while technical experts worked out the cease-fire details.
At 10:00AM on July 27, 1953, the armistice agreement was signed to produce the cease-fire in the Korean War between the United Nations forces, South Korea, and the Chinese People’s Volunteers, North Korea. In accordance with the armistice agreement, in August, the prisoners of war were exchanged in Operation Big Switch—77,000 Chinese and North Korean army prisoners of war, for 12,700 prisoners from the United Nations and South Korean army, including 3,597 Americans, the final count. (The above data was taken from the US government booklet entitled “The USAF in Korea”.)

February 10th, 2020, 03:06 PM
Chapter 10. The 3 Anti-’s and 5 Anti-’s MovementsThe 3 Anti-’s MovementIn November 1951, two party secretaries in Tianjin were caught embezzling funds. Therefore, on December 1, 1951, the Central Committee of the Communist Party launched the cost-saving movement which was literally called “Three Anti-’s”: anti-embezzlement, anti-waste, and anti-bureaucratism. This movement was targeted at cadres of the government and government-run enterprises; the ones who had power. Mao wanted to clip their wings. At that time, there were 3,830,000 government cadres. They would be examined through this movement.
The cadres could be divided into three categories. The first were those who had gone through the Sino–Japanese War and the second civil war, who should be dependable. The second category included those newly employed after the establishment of the new republic. The third group were those having worked in the former government, who were undependable, of course. Those who were guilty of the crime of embezzlement were called “tigers.” Through this movement, the Communist Party wanted to “catch big tigers” so that there would not be any embezzlement in the government any more. Anyone who embezzled 10,000 yuan was defined as a big tiger and would be executed. In China, political movements were often carried out with violence. So many targeted persons committed suicide, even though they were cadres.

February 12th, 2020, 03:08 PM
The 5 Anti-’s MovementRight in the wake of the three Anti-’smovement, another program was launched, which was literally called“Five Anti-’s”: anti-bribery, anti-tax-evasion,anti-jerry-rigging, anti-stealing-government-property, andanti-theft-of-government-economic-information. The target of thismovement was all the national capitalists; the ones who had money. Infeudal societies like Imperial China, the emperor considered thateverything on the land he ruled over was his own, and everyone onthis land essentially worked for him. Verbally, Mao declared himselfas a Marxist-Leninist, but his actions often made him look like the“communist emperor of the Red Dynasty.” His actions showed peoplewhat he thought; he didn’t put it in plain words. And given the lowlevel of development and widespread poverty in China, the Communistsunder Mao sought to cover the basic necessities of life for everyone;and that didn’t leave much extra. All excesses would beconfiscated.
On the 26th of January, 1952, theCentral Committee of the Communist Party issued instructions for theFive-Anti-’s movement. In early February, it started in all the bigcities, aiming at businessmen. The Party defined them as capitalists.The Party divided Chinese capitalists into two types: bureaucraticcapitalists like Chiang Kai-shek, Soong Tse-ven, K’ung Hsiang-hsi,and the Chen brothers, who were very wealthy and were called the fourbig capitalist families. All the property they left on the mainlandwas confiscated. All others were defined as national capitalists, andtheir properties remained with them for the time being. Now they werethe target of the five anti-’s movement.
The local governments organizedso-called work teams consisting of cadres, workers and shopassistants. Violence was part of every movement. Some capitalistswere beaten or slapped in their faces. Capitalists were forced toconfess what they had failed to do so far in these five categories.This was called ‘face to face fight.’ Quite a few capitalistscommitted suicide. Then the government changed from face-to-facefight to a back-to-back tactic. Workers or shop assistants justrevealed the crimes of their bosses, behind their backs, so that noretaliation could be inflicted.

February 14th, 2020, 03:11 PM
Statistics showedthat during these two movements, in the whole country, 184,270persons were arrested, 119,355 party members expelled, and 133,760people were killed or disabled, including those committing suicide orbeaten to death, or tortured to death in jails and labor reformcamps. Those who committed suicide were mostly capitalists. The meansof suicide were various. In some secluded corners of public parks,people were found hanging from big trees. Then, patrols increased toprevent hangings in such places. The most popular method of suicidewas to jump from high buildings. It was the easiest way, and hard toprevent. But it was dangerous for pedestrians. A person who jumpedfrom a height could possibly fall on the head of a pedestrian and thepedestrian could be killed, while the one jumping survived. Someoneactually did some research to see why people in Shanghai did not jumpinto the Wangpu River. The answer was that if anyone jumped into theriver, he could possibly be saved; besides, if he was not saved hisbody would be washed out to sea. When his body was not found, thegovernment would suspect him of escaping outside the country and hisfamily would get into trouble. So he had to leave his body to befound. Generally a suicide would leave a note, in which he firstcriticized himself for whatever crime he had been accused of, then hepraised the government so that his family would be treated a littlebetter than otherwise. Poor Chinese people! Even suicide was fraughtwith difficulties.
Both of the “Anti” movements endedin October 1952.
At the end of the 5 Anti-’s movement,the government determined that every national capitalist had at leastcommitted the crime of tax-evasion and would have to pay a big fineto the government. So all the capitalists had to sell personalbelongings like cars, jewelry, or even houses, if they did not haveenough cash in the bank. That was the first financial blow to thenational capitalists. Another financial blow would soon follow.

February 17th, 2020, 03:01 PM
Mao’s Own Lifestyle Mao wanted government officials to savemoney and he took money out of the pockets of the well-to-do. Thushis own spending raised a lot of questions in some people’s minds.He could spend as much as he saw fit. He ordered many villas to bebuilt for his own use only. They were needed, apparently, to providethe best protection and comfort for him. He had over 50 villas in thecountry, 5 in Beijing alone. The villas were all similarly built:looking like a big cement warehouse from outside, but one that couldprotect him even from an atom bomb. Every villa, or bunker, was onlyone storey tall, but they were located in beautiful settings, somewith lakes. The whole surroundings were enclosed. In the vicinity ofevery villa, a transportation network was built, such as a militaryairport, a train line, and a tunnel for cars. Wherever Mao went, thethree means of transportation followed him. When he rode in hispersonal airplane, the airspace would be cleared while his plane flewpast. When he rode in his personal train, other trains had to stopwhile his train went past.

February 19th, 2020, 02:53 PM
Chapter11. The So-Called Gao Gang & Rao Shushi Anti-Party EventMao was familiar with Chinese politicalhistory. When certain new dynasties began, the first emperors ofthose dynasties would find fault with some of their faithfulsupporters who were deemed by those emperors to be potential threatsto their future as rulers. Therefore, those supporters were killed orimprisoned for whatever possible crimes could be attributed to them.So was the case with Gao Gang and Rao Shushi.
Gao (1905–1954) came from a poorpeasant family in Shaanxi province. In January, 1927, he entered theYat-sen Military Academy in XiAn and joined the Communist Party inFebruary. In 1933, he was the political commissar of the 42nddivision of the Red 26th army. In the Communist Armysystem, a political commissar was the representative of the CommunistParty in the army, a little higher in rank than the divisioncommander. Then he was appointed director of the political departmentin the Red 15th corps. But in 1935, he was imprisoned as areactionary and was about to be executed. Just at that time, Mao andZhou Enlai reached the northern Shaanxi province, with the centralRed Army. Mao ordered Gao to be released and Gao was so grateful toMao he became Mao’s faithful supporter ever after. So in the 7thconference of the Communist Party, he became a member of the CentralPolitical Bureau (equivalent to the executive department of theCentral Committee) and the secretary of the northwest bureau. (Allover the country, the Communist Party set up six bureaus. Everybureau rules over several provinces.)
After Japan surrendered, the CommunistParty intended to occupy the northeastern provinces and set up anortheast bureau. Gao was appointed the secretary to take charge ofeverything in that region. In 1946, Lin Biao was sent up to thenortheastern provinces as the commander of the 4th fieldarmy and he worked with Gao in a cooperative relationship. Often theyboth had the same view. After the new republic was established, Gaowas the vice chairman of the central people’s government, the vicechairman of the people’s revolutionary military committee, and alsothe chairman of the people’s government in the northeastern area.After the Korean War broke out, though Gao disagreed on sending theChinese army into Korea, he still gave full support in supplyingwhatever the army needed there. So Marshal Peng Dehuai praised himfor that. Gao was also the chairman of the national planningcommittee—clearly, a very capable man.

February 21st, 2020, 03:09 PM
Rao Shushi (1903–1975) was born inJiangxi province. He joined the Communist Party in 1925. Then he wasmade the secretary of the party caucus of the Federation of LaborUnions of Shanghai and the secretary of the party caucus of theChinese National General Labor Union. During the Anti-Japanese War,he was the political commissar of the new 4th army. Duringthe second civil war, he was the political commissar of the 3rdfield army and the secretary of the east China bureau of theCommunist Party. When the new republic was founded, he was thechairman of the east China military and political committee, thefirst secretary of the east China bureau, and then the minister ofthe organization department of the Central Committee of the CommunistParty. Also an intelligent, qualified leader.
Gao’s and Rao’s paths in life hadnever crossed each other; they were in different regions entirely.But they were both accused of the crime of being anti-Party together.Anyway, why were they not accused of being anti-Party separately? Itwas understood that no man could act against the Communist Party ofChina, only a clique could try that. And you need at least twopowerful persons to form a clique (the same held true during theCultural Revolution, when Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping were puttogether as the powerful men accused of following the capitalistroad).
In accordance with the officialstatement of the Communist Party, the main accusations against Gaowere: criticizing mistakes and errors in the national economic field,namely decisions concerning Liu Shaoqi and Zhou Enlai, members of theSecretariat of the CPC (Communist Party of China) Central Committeein charge of that field. From the same source, Gao was understood tohave further slandered them by saying that Liu and Zhou Enlai hadcliques in the Central Committee. Gao and Rao were alleged to havespread a rumor that An Ziwen, the vice minister of the organizationdepartment of the CPC Central Committee, had put up a list of themembers of the CPC political bureau, at the instruction of Liu. (Thatmeant that Liu privately let An make such a list behind the back ofMao.) Then Gao left Beijing on a vacation to see Deng Xiaoping, ChenYun and Lin Biao separately and tried to persuade them to supporthim. What would his purpose have been? The official statement allegedthat Gao wanted to replace Liu in his higher political position. Butwhy would Rao work with Gao? What could Rao get from it? The officialstatement said that Rao wanted to acquire the power to appoint andpromote the cadres. But at that time Rao was already the minister ofthe organization department of the CPC Central Committee and alreadyhad that power.
In 1951, Gao thought of publishing anarticle he had written as an editorial in the Northeast Daily,but rather than take it upon himself to do so of his own accord, hehanded in the article for Mao to read and give his approval first.Think of that. Historians surmise that Mao did want to get rid ofLiu, which he did in the Cultural Revolution, but at that time, theconditions were not yet ripe. Conceivably Gao got the wind of it andacted earlier than Mao planned. Mao had to get rid of him lest hiscat got out of the bag.

February 24th, 2020, 03:27 PM
Another surmise, which came fromKhrushchev’s memoirs, was that Gao had sent information to theSoviet Union about things that were going on in the Communist Partyof China and what the leaders said. The Soviet Union had providedChina with old, rebuilt tanks, and some such things, and the Chineseleaders were dissatisfied. Those leaders included Liu and Zhou. Gaodid not mention Mao. To secure Mao’s trust and friendship, Stalingave Mao the information he had received from Gao. Therefore, Maowanted to get rid of Gao (but why was Rao included?) and madearrangements with Liu and Zhou. Mao gave Gao the false impressionthat he wanted to rid Liu, or even hinted that Gao should dosomething about it. Gao, thinking that he had Mao’s support, fellinto the snare Mao set up for him. Gao was then taken into custody.He attempted a suicide in April 1954, but in vain. He made anothersuicide attempt in August and died this time. Rao was apprehended onApril 1, 1955, and sentenced to 14 years. After 10 years he was outof the jail, but was put back in again during the Cultural Revolutionand died on March 2, 1975.
It was said that Rao was arrested dueto his involvement in another case. During the movement to arrest andkill the reactionaries, Yang Fan, the chief of the police station ofShanghai, thought of a method to use reactionaries to reveal hiddenreactionaries. In the process, he did not punish those he utilizedand so he was accused of protecting reactionaries—more than 3,300in number. This involved Rao. Moreover, Pan Hannian, a vice mayor ofShanghai in charge of police affairs, feared that since he had workedwith Rao and Yang Fan, he would have to confess his side of the storyto the Party so that he might ride out the crisis. He confessed thatin the summer of 1943, he went to Shanghai from where the new 4tharmy was encamped to meet Li Shiqun, a traitor to Japan, and he waskidnapped and taken to Nanking to see Wang Jingwei. Although he didnot betray the Communist Party, when he was back at the camp he didnot report to the Party what had happened. Now he confessed it andwas arrested. Then Rao Shushi, Pan Hannian and Yang Fan were definedas an anti-Party clique. This clique was separate from the Gao Gangclique.
After the Cultural Revolution, somecases were re-opened and examined. Pan was sent by the Party tocontact the traitor Li to get information. So his case was redressed,and also the case of Yang Fan. Now what about Gao’s and Rao’s“anti-Party” activities? When Gao had sought Deng Xiaoping’ssupport against Liu Shaoqi, Deng reported to Mao, and Gao wasimprisoned. If Gao’s case was wrong, it shows that Mao’s decisionto confine Gao was wrong and Deng’s report to Mao was also wrong.After the Cultural Revolution, Deng Xiaoping was in power and hewould never own that he had done anything wrong, to save face. So thecase was not redressed.

February 26th, 2020, 02:30 PM
Chapter12. China’s First Five-Year Plan (1953–57)Agricultural Collectivization and Peasant CooperativesAs the basis for their ambitiouseconomic planning, the CPC held China’s first modern census in1952. The mainland population was estimated at over half abillion—that’s a lot of mouths to feed. The first step towardimproving efficiency and productivity involved land reforms.
During the land reform movement, firstthe arable land was taken from wealthy individuals and distributed toindividual peasants and their families. But then the Communist Partycalled upon peasants to join productive cooperatives, on a“voluntary” basis but with invisible political pressure behindit. Once they joined the cooperative, peasants lost control of theirland, which automatically belonged to the cooperative. Thecooperative would decide what crops to grow and when harvests weresold, peasants got a certain percentage of income according to thequantity of the land a peasant put in. When a peasant had his landunder his own control, he could decide what to grow and what part ofthe harvest he would keep for his own use, and the rest he would sellin the market.
By the end of 1952, the first 3,600cooperatives were operating on a trial basis. On the 16thof December, 1953, the Central Committee of the CPC passed a bill tospeed up the development of agricultural productive cooperatives.From 1954 to the first half of 1955, cooperatives sprang up all overthe country. In spring of 1954, there were already 95,000cooperatives, which meant that 1,700,000 families had joined them. Inautumn of the same year, the cooperatives had increased to more than225,000. On May 17, 1955, at Mao’s proposal, the Central Committeeof the CPC decided to expand the cooperatives to one million in 1956.By July of 1955, the cooperatives reached the number of 650,000 andby the end of 1956, 96.3% of peasant families had joined thecooperatives.
That was the essential change of theagricultural productive style from individual to collective. Thisprocess roughly coincided with the consolidation of America’sprivate farms into a large-scale industrial agro business which wascarried out by capitalist means involving loans and debt, pricemanipulation and other methods. Different means to pursue the sameend, although not with the same results.

February 28th, 2020, 03:26 PM
Private Businesses Become StatePropertyThe economical ideal of the CommunistParty was that there should be no private businesses in a so-calledsocialist country. Private businesses were the typical symbol of thecapitalist system. So at the end of 1955, Chen Yun, in charge of thenational economy, declared a reform of private businesses over thenext two years. Then Peng Zhen, the mayor of Beijing, proposed tofinish the reform in 1956 in Beijing. In January of 1956, in just afew days, Beijing completed the reform. Mao pushed it by visiting atextile factory owned by Rong Yiren, the biggest national capitalistin China at the time, on the 10th of January. Rong offeredto turn over his factories to government ownership on the 20th.Others followed suit, in all cities where there were privatebusinesses.
The carefully-formulated process wasthat the private business owner must send in an application beggingthe communist government to take over his business. Accordingly thegovernment would approve his application. This was like a traveleroffering his belongings to an outlaw and begging him to take them.The outlaw was only willing to accept the offer for mercy’s sake,as if the belongings were so heavy they would break the traveler’sback if he carried them any longer. The outlaw was only relieving himof a burden.
Anyway, in Beijing, on the 15thof January, 1956, there was a celebration on TianAnMen Square where200,000 people gathered to celebrate the completion of the takeoverof private businesses by the government. The takeover was called a“purchasing policy,” which meant that the government bought theseprivate businesses from the private owners and paid them a certainamount of money called “fixed interests,” which would be paid offat the annual rate of 5% of the value of these private businesses.The government decided what was the value of a factory or a store,and the owner had no right to bargain. As a rule, the governmentshould have paid the owner for 20 years at the rate of 5%, but no,the government promised to pay only for 7 years. And at the end ofthe 7 years it would make a further decision to see whether it wouldcontinue to pay or not. Anyway, this sounded better than outrightexpropriation.
This was the second financial blow tothe national capitalists, leaving them only their personal belongingslike jewelry and antiques, if they had any left after paying fines.But the final financial blow was coming soon.
The payment of fixed interests mightlast for 3 years more, which meant the government only paid for 10years out of the 20 years, only half of the value.
After these takeovers, the former ownerwould be given a position in the business (as a salesman or otherworker). If he was accorded a position like manager, he was onlyholding the position in name, and had no say whatsoever in thedecisions. The party secretary was the one to decide everything, evenif he understood nothing about the business. Older owners justretired and lived on the fixed interests while the younger onesaccepted their salary as well as the fixed interests.

March 2nd, 2020, 03:00 PM
Chapter13. So-Called Three Red BannersThe purpose of the slogan “Three RedBanners” was to help make China a strong and prosperous country inthe shortest possible period by building “socialism with Chinesecharacteristics,” that is, by avoiding certain limitations builtinto other nations’ experiments with communist/socialist models.
Every dynasty in Chinese historyfavored a particular color. For the Qing Dynasty, yellow (or gold)symbolized the imperial authority. The Communist Party has alwaysfavored red. Initially that red was meant to symbolize the blood ofmartyred revolutionaries, but over time this image has been broadenedin some people’s view to include the blood of those bystanders whobecame victims to the various campaigns through which regime changewas accomplished.
Anyway, the “three red banners”meant the General Line (for socialist construction), the Great LeapForward, and the People’s Commune.

The General LineThe General Line was “to keep up fullenergy, to fight your way upstream, and to build socialism quicklyand thriftily, abundantly and well.” On October 11, 1955, Mao saidat a meeting that the cooperatives must be developed abundantly,quickly and well. Then Li Fuchun (1900–1975), vice director of theplan committee and vice Premier of the state council, suggestedadding “thriftily”, which was accepted. So on January 1, 1956,the People’s Daily ran an editorial urging the people tokeep this theme in mind while carrying out the first five-year plan.In 1958, the People’s Daily New Year’s dayeditorialexhorted the populace to continue working with their full energy, tostrive to get upstream. So the General Line was formed. In theory, itwas a good mission statement (to use today’s terminology). But, incarrying it out, the Communist Party went astray and moved contraryto the reality of how processes unfold, and this was true as well inthe so-called Great Leap forward and the People’s Communemovements.

March 4th, 2020, 03:12 PM
The Great Leap ForwardOn the 29th of June, 1957,an article was published with the signature of one Yu Jianhui, inwhich the slogan of “the Great Leap Forward” was first heard. InSeptember, during the Third Plenary Session of the Eighth CentralCommittee of the CPC, the decision was made to carry out the GreatLeap Forward movement in agriculture. On the 13th ofNovember, the editorial of the People’s Daily said, “Somepeople are infected with Right-deviationist conservatism and havecrawled like snails. Since the agricultural collectivization hastaken place, we have all the conditions and the necessities to makethe Great Leap Forward on the productivity front.” On the 2ndof February, 1958, the slogan of an overall Great Leap Forward wasemphasized more broadly.
In spring of 1958, major moves weremade for the building of agricultural irrigation systems and for thecollection of natural fertilizer on a large scale in the countryside.For irrigation construction, the labor force used reached 20 or 30million workers in October, and 80 million in December. In January of1958, it reached 100 million. Some provinces that produced mostlyindustrial goods guaranteed they would produce enough grain, meat andvegetables for the people in those provinces in that year. Formerly,these had been brought in from other provinces. This was consideredthe prelude to the Great Leap Forward. In the countryside the GreatLeap Forward was linked with the people’s commune movement.

March 6th, 2020, 02:56 PM
The Great Leap ForwardOn the 29th of June, 1957,an article was published with the signature of one Yu Jianhui, inwhich the slogan of “the Great Leap Forward” was first heard. InSeptember, during the Third Plenary Session of the Eighth CentralCommittee of the CPC, the decision was made to carry out the GreatLeap Forward movement in agriculture. On the 13th ofNovember, the editorial of the People’s Daily said, “Somepeople are infected with Right-deviationist conservatism and havecrawled like snails. Since the agricultural collectivization hastaken place, we have all the conditions and the necessities to makethe Great Leap Forward on the productivity front.” On the 2ndof February, 1958, the slogan of an overall Great Leap Forward wasemphasized more broadly.
In spring of 1958, major moves weremade for the building of agricultural irrigation systems and for thecollection of natural fertilizer on a large scale in the countryside.For irrigation construction, the labor force used reached 20 or 30million workers in October, and 80 million in December. In January of1958, it reached 100 million. Some provinces that produced mostlyindustrial goods guaranteed they would produce enough grain, meat andvegetables for the people in those provinces in that year. Formerly,these had been brought in from other provinces. This was consideredthe prelude to the Great Leap Forward. In the countryside the GreatLeap Forward was linked with the people’s commune movement.

March 9th, 2020, 02:12 PM
The People’s CommuneMao wanted to enlarge the cooperativecommune into the so-called People’s Commune. On July 1, 1958, thefirst People’s Commune was established, merging 27 cooperatives,with 9,360 families involved, in Henan Province. Its official namewas Chayashan Satellite People’s Commune. The commune was really abasic local government. It controlled almost everything in thedistrict of the commune, from agricultural production to people’sdaily life. It had public canteens—no more eating at home, as afamily—kindergartens, clinics, shops, and its own armed forces(called militia) instead of police.
As peasants no longer had their ownland and worked for the commune, for very low pay, their enthusiasmfor work was essentially quenched. The Party admitted later that itwas a mistake, a wrong policy. In order to increase productivity, in1958, the professor and rocket scientist Qian Xuesen created a theoryof “High Productivity,” on the basis of calculation only, withoutany practical investigation. He was not an agronomist nor a plantphysiologist, but he wanted to fulfill Mao’s desire and invented asuitable theory. It was called “high productivity satellite.”When Mao learned of the theory, he gave instructions that all thecommunes should implement the theory. But the land could not yield asmuch as had been calculated theoretically. Therefore, falsestatistics were reported to the Party. From June to November, highproduction was reported thirty-nine times. The highest yield of wheatwas 7,320 catties (about 24 tons) per acre, that of corn 117 tons peracre, and similarly exaggerated statistics for rice, sweet potato,etc. Possibly, Mao believed some of this; but people generally gotthe impression that everything said in the news was misleading.Simply lies.
As it was reported that the peasantshad produced so much grain, Mao and other Party leaders worried aboutwhat to do with it all. Mao said the peasants could eat all theywanted, for free, and if the people could not consume so much, theywould be able to give the surplus to foreign people.

March 11th, 2020, 02:22 PM
They also wanted people in cities toorganize people’s communes. In every block, the resident committeehad to have a canteen so that the residents could go there for meals,like in the countryside. But most of the city residents did not eatin the canteens. They still cooked at home. So the city people’scommune was a quick failure. Then Mao criticized himself, saying thathe had listened to Qian as if he had no brains of his own. Even TianJiaying, his secretary, asked him how, coming from a peasant familyhimself, he could have believed that it was possible to produce suchvast quantities of food per acre. It seems that Mao had no grasp ofscience or mathematics. Qian Xuesen actually did have plenty ofbrains. He was a US-educated rocket scientist who helped establishthe Jet Propulsion Laboratory before being deported in 1955 as aCommunist. He went on to build China’s own space program, fromintercontinental ballistic missiles and satellites to putting a manin space in 2003.
Mao was in a hurry to bring to life“communist society” before his death. Mao forced the nation toimplement his ideas even when they were ill-founded, and as a result,the whole nation sank into economical disaster. Things became scarce,especially food. People in cities were quickly put on rations and hadto use their limited coupons to buy all the necessities such as rice,flour, meat, eggs, cloth, cooking oil, sugar, cigarettes, matches,yarn or thread, products based on bean curd, and even bathroomtissue. There were also ration coupons to buy cakes, biscuits, oranything made from rice or flour. If anyone went to a restaurant andate rice or noodles, he had to give rice coupons besides payingmoney. The cashiers’ work was made a little more complicated, asthey had to calculate the money as well as the coupons.
Ration coupons were distributedaccording to the number of persons in a family, and were given to thefamily every three months. At the beginning of every quarter,housewives waited in expectation of the distribution of coupons tobuy everything they needed. Every family had two small booklets, oneto buy rice or flour in grain stores (with a certain limit) if theywanted to cook rice or use flour in any kind of recipe at home, andthe other used to buy coal to fuel the cooking ovens. The “ThreeRed Banners” ended in failure.

March 13th, 2020, 02:25 PM
Chapter14. Soviet Experts Give Technical AssistanceSoviet Counselors and Experts Help ChinaThe Communist Party was aware thatChina was very backward and had few technicians and scientists whocould take the lead in economical development when they took over thecountry. Therefore, they asked the Soviet Union for help. In 1949,the Soviet Union sent Anastas Ivanovich Mikoyan, member of theBolshevik politburo, on a secret visit to Xibopo where theheadquarters of the Liberation Army had moved in May 1948. Stalinwanted to know, first, what attitude the Communist Party of Chinawould hold towards the Soviet Union. At the same time he talked aboutpossible technical aid to China after the Communist Party of Chinaexpressed their willingness to accept Soviet leadership. At a meetingon February 1, Zhou Enlai requested the Soviet Union to send expertsand equipment for weapons manufacture, and advisors to train troopsand help to set up military academies.” Mikoyan could not give anyanswer but reported to Stalin, and asked the Communist Party of Chinasend a delegation to the Soviet Union for further discussion. In June1949, Liu Shaoqi headed a secret delegation to Moscow. In August, 220Soviet financial advisors and engineers came to China with him. Atthat time in northern China, 1,300,000 out of 1,500,000 cadres wereilliterate. So it was very important to have Soviet experts come in.
Besides sending Chinese cadres to theSoviet Union for training and practical experience, the CommunistParty of China invited many Soviet experts to manage almost everydepartment of the central government, from security, military, andintelligence, to gymnastics and hygiene. There were over 400 Sovietadvisors in the central government, one third of all the advisors andexperts in China. According to Soviet statistics, during 1951–1953,there were 1210 Soviet experts working in China. A report from theCommunist Party of China revealed that Soviet experts helped to build51 factories by April of 1953, and from 1953 to 1959, 91 factorieswere built. The Soviet experts assumed the duties of selecting sitesfor the factories, the design, and the supply of equipment. Theyinstructed Chinese workers how to install the equipment and how tooperate it and manufacture new products. In one report, Li Fuchunsaid, “Without the assistance of the Soviet Union, we would nothave achieved such speed and scale in our construction in the firstfive-year plan. We would certainly have faced unimaginabledifficulties.”

March 16th, 2020, 02:02 PM
The Soviets With Their Advisors and Experts But in the Korean War, the Soviet Unionsold China out-of-date and unusable weaponry. During 1950–1951, onefourth of the airplanes that were delivered to China were notflight-ready but needed repairs. So towards the end of the firstfive-year plan, the Communist Party adjusted its policy on the use ofSoviet advisors and experts. At a meeting in Chengdu City, in Marchof 1958, Mao criticized the blind worship of Soviet experts anddemanded that his people push back against dogmatism and slave-likethinking. This change in Mao’s attitude towards the Soviet Unionwas after the death of Stalin in 1953. Stalin was openly acknowledgedas the leader of the Communist International movements. Although Maothought highly of himself, he did not dare to challenge Stalin forthe international leadership position. Since Stalin was gone, Mao hadno great esteem for the new Soviet leader. He thought that he himselfshould replace Stalin as the leader of world Communism.
In August 1958, Khrushchev, the newhead of the Soviet Union, visited Beijing and held talks with Mao.One might conclude from this visit that Mao thought he held a moreimportant position in the communist world so that Khrushchev shouldcome to Beijing to see him. If Stalin were still alive, it certainlywould have been Mao who went to Moscow for any talks. Stalin wouldnever have come to Beijing. Anyway, Mao and Khrushchev had differentopinions about the need for Soviet advisors and experts. Mao couldnot tolerate having Soviet advisors intervene so deeply in China’saffairs and wanted to reduce their number, but he still needed thetechnical experts. So the number of the advisors and expertsdecreased year by year: 952 in 1957, 915 in 1958, 699 in 1959, and410 in 1960.
The tension between the Communist Partyof China and the Soviet Communist Party became open during theBucharest conference in June 1960. Khrushchev and Peng Zhen, head ofthe Chinese delegation, had a quarrel. The Soviet Union accused Chinaof violating their agreement to present a unified front, notdisplaying the difference in views between the two parties and theChinese opposition to the common route supported by the communistworld. Only Albania stood with China. After the conference, theSoviet Union withdrew all its advisors and experts from China,leaving many tasks unfinished. The notion of an unbreakablefriendship between the Soviet Union and China was over.

March 18th, 2020, 01:29 PM
Chapter15. The Anti-Rightist MovementLet a Hundred Flowers Bloom In April 1956, Mao gave a speechintroducing the “Double-Hundred Policy,” the meaning of which was“To let a hundred flowers bloom, let a hundred (different) opinionsbe expressed.” Then the Minister for Propaganda, Lu Dingyi, made aspeech explaining to all the intellectuals that they should go aheadand think independently. They would have freedom to debate andcriticize, creative freedom, freedom of expression, and the right totheir own opinions. It was so sweet to hear that many believed it;but only fools gave out their opinions boldly.
On May 1, 1957, the People’s Dailypublished “Instructions about the Rectification Movement,” whichhad been passed at the Central Committee of the Communist Party onApril 27. The Party had decided to start a rectification movementwithin the Party to foster anti-bureaucratism, anti-sectarianism, andanti-subjectivism. The Party called upon people outside the Party,upon people the country over, to express their opinions, to criticizethe Party and government, and to help the Party to rectify anyshortcomings. The request sounded earnest. This was the sole movementthat was aimed at improving the Party itself.
Many people in the country, especiallythe intellectuals, educated people (which included many of thecapitalists, or propertied class), all those and other fools, didcriticize the Party for their so many obvious wrongdoings. Even thenewspapers followed suit. At that time, people thought that the Partywas really being open-minded. It was a snare that many naive peoplefell for.

March 20th, 2020, 02:10 PM
The ReactionThen the Anti-Rightist movement began.“Rightist” opinions generally included the common complaint ofpeasants that their life was worse than it was before and that thelife of workers in the cities was better than that of peasants; andthat the policy requiring peasants to sell a high quota of theirharvest to the government forced peasants to starve. Other peopledemanded to cancel the political lessons in schools and universities;to have the freedom to move to other cities or from the countrysideto the city; to have the freedom of speech and publication; tocriticize wrong-doings in the previous movements; to criticizeChinese interference in the Korean War (meaning the money used in thewar should be used instead to improve the life of their own people orfor the construction of China); to criticize the Soviet Union fortheir soldiers who raped Chinese women in 1946 when they occupied thenortheast after driving out the Japanese; to criticize one-partyrule; to demand equal opportunity in the elections of governmentleaders (there were some so-called democratic parties in China); andmany others.

March 23rd, 2020, 01:59 PM
Mao’s Anti-Rightist Movement

However, on June 8, the People’sDaily ran an editorial, “Why Is this?” on the first page. Itmentioned the term “Rightists.” On June 12, Mao wrote an article,“Things Are Changing,” and circulated it within the Party. On the14th , the People’s Daily published anothereditorial, “The Bourgeois Direction Taken by Wenhui Daily.”This editorial was rumored to have been written by Mao. It blamed theWenhui Daily and the Brightness Daily, two newspapersmanaged by Party members, for their criticisms of the Party. Thusbegan the anti-rightist movement.
Mao was said to have commented that therectification movement was just a trick to “lure snakes out of thehole.” Who were the snakes? Mao seemed to mean the rightists. Maoestimated that about five percent of the population in China were“rightists.” This was really the kind of subjectivism that wasdecried (taking one’s own view, and using it as the standard ofmeasure), as Mao invented a fixed number of rightists withoutcounting, even when the movement just began. The number should havebeen calculated only when the results came in. On the 15thof October, the Party issued another document, “Standards by whichto Decide on Rightists.” There were six rules for determining whowere rightists:
1. Anti-socialist system: people whoopposed the basic economic policies of the Party and government;negating the achievements of the socialist revolution andconstruction; insisting on a capitalist viewpoint.

Opposing the proletarian dictatorship and democratic centralism, such as resisting the fight against imperialism; disagreeing with the foreign policy of the government; disagreeing with the five movements; opposing the execution of reactionaries; opposing the reform of capitalists and capitalist intellectuals; demanding to replace the laws and cultural education of socialism with those of capitalism.

March 25th, 2020, 02:15 PM
3. Opposing the leadership of theCommunist Party in political life, and in the economy and culture;attacking the leading organizations and leaders of the CommunistParty and the government for the purpose of opposing socialism andthe Party, slandering the revolutionary activities of the Party.
4. Disrupting the social harmony forthe purpose of opposing socialism and the Party, such as instigatingpeople against the Party and the government; instigating frictionbetween industrial workers and peasants; instigating discord amongminorities; slandering the socialist camp; fomenting discord amongpeoples of different socialist countries.
5, Actively organizing and joiningcliques against socialism and the Party, such as plotting tooverthrow the leadership of the Party anywhere; instigating riotsagainst the Party and government.
6. Aiding, advising, passinginformation to those who committed the above crimes.
There were 552,877 rightists found inChina, out of the entire population of 642,380,000 in 1957. Importantrightists included Zhang Bojun, head of the Brightness Dailynewspaper, Chu Anping, chief editor of that newspaper, LuoLongji, head of the Wenhui Daily newspaper, and Pu Xixiu,chief editor of that newspaper. One of the rightists among thecapitalists was Wang Kangnian, who insisted that if the governmentbought people’s land and property, they should pay fixed interestsfor twenty years, not seven years, as the rate was five percent. Andthis calculation was in line with earlier public declarations.
Actually, all the points raised by the“rightists” were proven correct as history played out. As for thefixed interests, at the end of the seven years, the Party decided tocontinue paying for another three years. Ten years altogether. Thenthe Cultural Revolution began and no one mentioned it any more. Endof story.
What became of the rightists? Some losttheir jobs and were forced to clean bathrooms. Their salaries wereduly reduced to the level of a cleaner’s. Some were sent to laborreform camps. Hard labor, plus a great famine that took place later,killed many of them by hunger or disease.

March 27th, 2020, 02:20 PM
All the rightists were given a“rightist cap,” as it was called in the newspaper. It wasactually an invisible cap, only recorded in their personal files. Butthe files followed them everywhere they went, so it was like having acap always on one’s head. After 1985, some rightists were restoredto full citizenship, but they were still called “uncappedrightists,” which meant that though their caps were removed, theywere still deemed different from other people.
During the Cultural Revolution thosepeople, capped or uncapped, were criticized and even beaten. In 1977,many false convictions were overturned, including rightist cases,almost twenty years after the Anti-Rightist Movement. By May of 1980,most of the rightist cases were rehabilitated, and they were nolonger called “uncapped rightists.” About 97% of the rightistcases were judged to have been wrong. But 1978, after twenty years,only a little more than 100,000 of the 552,877 so-called rightistssurvived. Many victims had died.
On in November 2005, Shi Ruping, aretired professor from Shandong University, together with some otherprofessors and their families, signed an open letter to the NationalPeople’s Congress and the State Council demanding that the Partymake self-criticism and apologies to the intellectuals who had fallenvictim to this political persecution, and give them reasonable andsatisfactory compensations. In three months, they garnered 1,500supporters.
In 2007, on the 50thanniversary of the Anti-Rightist Movement, 61 survivors in Beijingsigned an open letter demanding that the Party should openly declarethe rehabilitation of the whole Anti-Rightist Movement, not just theindividuals. But the Party declined to take any such steps.
Through this movement, Mao and theParty intended to quench all opposing voices and even to stifledissent in people’s minds. Anyone who dared to say anythingdifferent from what the Party wanted them to say would getpunishment. Mao was said to enjoy reading history books and learningstrategies used by ancient military leaders and government officials:stratagems for seizing power, how to defeat political enemies, how tofeint and lay military traps, how to appeal to people’s beliefs, orego, diplomatic ploys and salesman’s techniques. If he couldn’tcalculate a harvest, he certainly knew how to calculate to win.

March 30th, 2020, 02:32 PM
Chapter16. Mao’s Goal to Overtake England in 15 YearsBarely had the Anti-Rightist Movementbeen victoriously completed, in November 1957, when Mao put forwardanother idea: that China must overtake Great Britain in 15 years.Well, he was referring specifically to iron and steel output andcertain other major products. Mao headed a delegation to the Moscowto attend the celebration of the 40th anniversary of theSoviet Union’s October Revolution. Then he attended conference withrepresentatives of 64 communist parties and worker’s parties fromall over the world. Mao announced that since the Soviet Union couldovertake the US in 15 years, China could overtake Great Britain in 15years, too.
At that time England’s annual steelproduction was 20 million tons. In 15 years, it might reach 30million tons. So his aim was to reach 40 million tons in steelproduction in 15 years. From theestimation in an official document on the speed of the steelproductivity in China, the result would be that the steel productioncould reach 12 million tons in 1959, 30 million tons in 1962,70 million tons in 1967, and 120 million tons in 1972. This soundslike the same kind of estimates that drove the agricultural policy,but the party leaders thought that their aim could be achieved in 3or 5 years, no need for 15 years. To find new sources of iron ore,local party secretaries led people in their areas into the mountains,even elementary school pupils and the elderly, people in their 70sand 80s, joined in the action. Peasants left their work in the fieldsand abandoned the harvests to participate in the search for oredeposits. In Henan province, 50% of the grain was left unharvestedand rotted in the fields.

April 1st, 2020, 02:09 PM
By then, the total goal for iron andsteel production had been set at 10.7 million tons. An official Partydecision to that effect was taken on the 17th of August,1958. To achieve that goal, they wanted the whole nation to engage inthe making of iron and steel. They ordered people to build old-styledopen-pit ovens, like in the kitchens of primitive old houses. In allfactories other than steel plants, a couple of ovens were set up tomake steel on the side. As to where to get the raw materials, theycommanded people to take down all the steel doors, iron bars onwindows, and steel fences, and to sell all their household goods madeof iron and steel, such as tools and kitchen utensils. If peoplecould have cut their food with wooden knives, they would have orderedthem to give up their steel knives. This of course reduced productionof other necessities and disrupted the supply chain for other goods.As a result of all these efforts, it was declared in December 1958that the total output of iron and steel was 11,080,000 tons, taskvictoriously completed. But more than 3 million tons of the steel and4,160,000 tons of the iron were no good, all garbage. A completewaste of money and materials and labor force. The loss was estimatedat about 20 billion yuan in Chinese currency.
Once they had melted the raw material,how did they make the “steel bricks? Here is a description.Whatever scraps of iron or steel were on hand would be thrown in theoven until they melted a little, just enough to stick together. Thenthe piece was taken out and put on an iron anvil. One man tightlyheld the half-softened piece on the anvil using long-handled tongs,and two other men hit it in turn with big hammers, while the personholding the piece turned it around, over and over, until it began totake on the shape of a brick. The two men hit the piece by turns, asis often done in hand-forging, as the piece cools quickly and one mancan strike while the other is raising his hammer again. As soon asthe shape was fixed, the job was deemed finished. This “steelbrick” was put aside and they would go to work on the next one.Three men’s efforts were tied up working at each oven. That was howthe steel bricks were made.

April 3rd, 2020, 02:22 PM
Chapter17. The Meeting On Mt. Lu and Peng’s LetterBackground InformationIn 1958 when Khrushchev visitedBeijing, he derided China’s Great Leap Forward as a mania of thepetty bourgeoisie. During the period of May–June in 1959, whenKhrushchev officially visited Albania, he met Peng Dehuai, who letKhrushchev read a memorandum recording some severe criticisms of theGreat Leap Forward and the people’s commune. On July 17, Khrushchevmade a speech in Poland criticizing the Great Leap Forward and thepeople’s commune. The next day, the newspapers in the Soviet Unionand Poland repeated the same criticisms. That set the internationalbackground.
Data from the National StatisticsBureau showed that China’s total output in 1958 was valued at 130.7billion yuan, 21.3% more than in 1957; the total industrial value was108.3 billion yuan, 54.8% more than in 1957; and the totalagricultural value was 56.6 billion yuan, 2.4% more than in 1957. Thetotal quantity of grain in 1958 was 200 million tons, 2.54% more thanin 1957. Therefore, Mao thought that the policies of the Great LeapForward and the people’s commune were correct. So he refused toaccept any criticism, though he admitted that there had been someshortcomings in carrying out the policy, like forcing people to dothings against their will, exaggerating, commanding blindly, andallowing cadres to arrogate special rights over people.

The Meeting On Mt. LuIn July, 1959, the Party held aconference on Mt. Lu, on which Mao owned that there were somedemerits in the Great Leap Forward and the people’s communemovements, but the Party should yet accelerate the completion of allthe tasks of the Great Leap Forward. At first the conference wasgoing peacefully. The representatives toured the mountain in the dayand held a dance or had a walk in the evening, besides attendingmeetings. The purpose of this conference was at first just to letother leaders know these demerits and help to correct them. Theconference lasted for nearly a month and all the representatives werehappy as it drew to an end. Just then an apple of discord dropped onthe table. Peng Dehuai handed in his “Ten Thousand Words Letter”to Mao.

April 10th, 2020, 04:02 PM
Peng’s Ten-Thousand Word LetterPeng Dehuai was the vice chairman ofthe central military committee of the CPC, the minister of NationalDefense, and a vice Premier of the state council. Although theadministration was not known for inviting input from anyone, hefinally decided that he had quite a lot to say. What did Peng say inhis “Ten-Thousand Word Letter”? He just pointed out all themistakes made so far, with an in-depth analysis. In 1959, he said theParty should slow down the speed of development and not keep on withthe Great Leap Forward, which had thrown the economy off balance andcreated new difficulties. He also sharply pointed out that theexaggerated statistics and the passing of false information to partyleaders were just the surface of the problem, the deeper cause beingthe lack of openness to advice and other opinions (an aspect ofdemocracy) and personality worship, which hit home to Mao’sleadership. On July 17, coincidently on the same day as Khrushchevdelivered his criticism in Poland, Zhou Xiaozhou, the first partysecretary of Hunan province, gave a talk that supported Peng. On July20, Zhang Wentian, a vice minister in the foreign affairs ministry,supported Peng, too.
Mao refused to listen to Peng, and Penghad an argument with Mao. Mao criticized Peng severely, and calledPeng and his supporters an “Anti-Party Clique.” They were removedfrom their official positions and put in prison. But the people ofChina respected them for their courage in speaking out. During theanti-rightist movement over 10,000 party members were criticized andwere ill treated. All those cases were redressed in 1962, exceptPeng. It is thought that Peng’s main offense was his failure toprotect Mao’s eldest son adequately during the Korean War.

April 13th, 2020, 02:30 PM
A Great Leap Backward into FamineLargely as a result of the foregoingpolicies, a serious famine hit China from 1959 to 1961. Some reportssuggest that at least 30 million people died from hunger. The highestimation was more than 60 million. As the Communist Party kept suchstatistics a national secret, no one can be sure. If calculated at37,558,000 (from official statistics recently revealed), the numberis 7.65 million greater than the total number of deaths fromstarvation in all the history of China, almost equivalent to thecasualties in the Second World War, which was between 30–40million.
The Great Leap Forward and the steelmaking spree damaged the agricultural sector deeply. In 1960, thegrain output fell to 158,000 tons, 26% less than in 1957 before theGreat Leap Forward. In Sichuan province, renowned for its plentifulgrain production, the output decreased year by year from 1959 to1961. In 1961, it was even less than in 1949. In that province alone,10 million people starved to death. Some cadres wrote a letter to theCentral Committee of the CPC to tell the truth, but they were decidedto be an anti-party clique.
Many in the countryside ate grass andtree bark. The Party denied that there was a famine, but called it anatural catastrophe. It really did not matter what they called it.Later, however, Liu Shaoqi, the chairman of the People’s Republicof China, confessed that the calamity was “seven tenths human errorand three tenths a natural catastrophe.”
Even during the famine years, the Partyexported grain in order to earn foreign currency. And in 1959, whenpeople were starving in the streets, 4,157,500 tons of grain wereexported to the Soviet Union and other socialist nations in EasternEurope in exchange for help to develop the military industry. Giventhe constant menace from the West, as the Cold War raged on, onecould say that there was some strategic basis for this deadlytrade-off. But on top of that, in April 1960, they gave 10,000 tonsof rice to Guinea, and 15,000 tons of wheat to Albania. Was that justa public relations ploy to deny the true state of affairs?

April 15th, 2020, 02:30 PM
Chapter 18 What is great cultural revolution?

I.Background of so-called cultural revolution

Duringthe so-called natural calamity, as three hundred millions of peoplewere starved to death, the national economy got worse and worse.Therefore, Mao was forced to recede to the background on thepolitical power stage, and Liu Shaoqi stepped into the foreground,helped by Deng, the secretary general of the central committee of thecommunist Party. Of course, such a very ambitious person as Mao wouldnever, of his own accord, give up the political power he had enjoyedso far and now stand backstage watching others perform on thepolitical stage right under his nose. No, he would never allow it.This was the reason of the occurrence of the cultural revolution hewas scheming in his great mind.
InJanuary, 1962, at a meeting of 7,000 people, Mao criticized himselffor the mistakes he had committed, having made a mess of the nationaleconomy. Liu said then that it was three-tenth natural disaster andseven-tenth human error. But in August of the same year, on themeeting at Beidai River, Mao insisted in his theory of class fight,which was the main danger of the present society as he defined it.Mao thought that there was still the possibility of revisionismtaking the upper hand, which meant the revival of capitalismaccording to his theory. In the later development of the events, onecould see that Mao laid a time bomb in theory to turn the table forhis benefits. This was his basic theory to wage the culturalrevolution in future. Liu and Deng could never see the red lights—theapproaching danger. Both were no equal rivals to Mao.
Thecultural revolution was certainly unprecedented in the history ofChina, also in the history of the world. If Mao had his IQ tested, itshould be very high. If his scheme for the movement went a bit amiss,the result would be different. He might never retrieve his power, orthe whole country might be in civil war. His scheme was accurate inhis arrangement, though he never cared how many people would die inthe cultural revolution. He was a person cruel at heart. When histhird wife, Yang Kaihui, had been arrested by Chiang Kai-shek'sgovernment and killed later, he didn't do anything to rescue her, butmarried another woman. He sent his son to the Korean War, who diedthere.

April 17th, 2020, 02:31 PM
InFebruary, 1963, the central committee of CPC decided on anotherpolitical movement, proposed by Mao, imaginably. This was, indeed,Mao's strategy to retrieve his lost power. No one could see throughhim at the time. Liu, the chairman of the nation then, was of coursethe leader of the movement. As usual, Liu sent out work teams to thecountryside for the movement. Liu thought that the target of thismovement was still the common people as the previous movements did.The work teams made a mess there as they really had no idea whom theyshould target.
InDecember, 1964, at a meeting of the central committee of CPC, Maosaid that it was wrong to aim at the common people. The target (thistime) should be the cadres. Of course, Mao meant more than that. Noone could understand at the time what he really pointed at. So Liumade self-criticism. A trap Mao set for him to fall in. Then inJanuary, 1965, the central committee agreed with Mao that the targetof this movement should be those in power within the Party, who werepersisting in going the capitalist road. At that time, no one couldguess who were those targeted in power and who were those insistingin going the capitalist road. But Mao had a certain goal in his mind.Another theoretical trap. It was based on this theory that Mao wasthe right person going the socialist road, and any other persons whoheld different opinions from Mao should be those going on thecapitalist road. The worst thing was that all other leaders of CPCagreed to this theory, making Mao always standing on the summit ofcorrectness. Mao could never be wrong theoretically. It was calledthe fight between the two roads: the socialist road and thecapitalist road. As Mao declared himself and was also accepted as therepresentative of going the socialist road, Liu was, of course,deemed the representative of going the capitalist road. Going oncapitalist road was wrong, according to Mao's theory, which wasaccepted by others. Liu already lost there. His tragic end was sealedeven before the beginning of the cultural revolution since otherswere all got confused by Mao's theory and did not know how tocontradict him.

April 20th, 2020, 02:23 PM
However,Mao still let Liu lead this movement, as a Chinese saying goes, “Ifyou want to get, you must give first.” Mao had read a lot ofChinese history books and was versed in all the stratagems in powerredemption. Liu, as usual, sent out work teams again. Statisticsshowed that in the region of Changde Town, in HuNan province, 331persons were criticized, among whom 21 were beaten, 65 bound hand andfoot, 3 hung up, and 42 forced to kneel on the ground. In a suburb ofBeijing, 40 people committed suicide. Only this time, the target wasthe lowest cadres in the countryside, not common people any more asMao had planned to use common people as his chessmen. Pawns arepowerful when getting in a certain position. The red guards were hischessmen too.
Meantime,Mao traveled all over the country. He talked secretly with someimportant generals and wanted to get their support. He alwaysbelieved in gun. If he could get those holding the gun to supporthim, he could go on with his plan. Otherwise, he would stay backstagefor the rest of his life. From the Chinese history, a conclusion istrue: the wise can always gain the upper hand of the fool. Mao, thewise. Liu, the fool. Among all the generals, two of them were themost important ones, Lin Biao, minister of defense ministry then, andXu Shiyou, commander of the army covering the area of Nanking andShanghai. With their support, Mao was sure of his final victory.However, the procedures of the process must be taken very carefully.He could not have a step amiss.

April 22nd, 2020, 02:02 PM
II.The cultural revolution did begin in the cultural field

1)Mao's wife, Jiang Qing, made public appearance
Atthat time, most of those in power in local governments weresupporters of Liu and Deng. How to seize power from them was aproblem. If most of the local government leaders supported Mao, hehad no need to start the cultural revolution. Since the situation wasotherwise, Mao had to get his ball rolling. However, Mao plottedwisely and nicely. Mao liked to control consensus first so that hecould say anything using public opinion against his politicalenemies. So he commenced his plot in that field.
Maowanted his wife, Jiang Qing, to help him. Mao married Jiang Qingwhile he still had his legal wife, He Zizhen, sister of Marshal HeLong. At that time Mao's legal wife was in the Soviet Union for thetreatment of presumed mental disease. Mao and Jiang held a banquet ina big cave in YanAn. It was the twenty-first of December, 1938. Jiangwas twenty-four years old then, twenty-one years younger than Mao.The original name of Jiang Qing had been called Li Yunhe, and herstage name was Lanping. She changed her name to Jiang Qing when shewent to YanAn. She had been married before to Tanner. A story went atthat time about three couples who had their simple wedding ceremonyheld under the moonlight before the Liuhe Pagoda, in Hangzhou. Thethree couples were Jiang Qing and Tanner, Ye Luqian and Zhao Dan, DuXiaojuan and Gu Eryi. All were movie stars. The witness to theirmarriage was Shen Junru, a man of letters. After their wedding, JiangQing always quarreled with Tanner. Their bad relationship developedand once Tanner wanted to kill himself by drink poison. It happenedonly sixty days after their marriage. In 1937, Jiang Qing livedtogether with Zhang Ming, the director of the movie. Then she put anotice on the newspapers to declare that she had separated withTanner. After the outbreak of the Sino-Japanese War, Jiang Qing wentto YanAn. Later Tanner went to Paris, France and married Anna in1952. He died in 1988 there. Later some of her former fellow moviestars explained that why Jiang (meaning River) Qing (meaning clear)wanted to change her name to the present one was because her dirtysex history with so many men could only be washed clear in riverwater.

April 24th, 2020, 01:57 PM
JiangQing had been also an actress of Beijing opera before she had gone toYanAn and married Mao. She originally lived in Shandong Province.There she was enrolled in Shandong Beijing Opera Institute. Laterwhen she took part in some activities against Japan, she caught theattention of the local government and had to escape secretly toShanghai. She joined the Left-Wing Drama Union, acting in some playsfor revolution. It was said that when she acted in dramas she wasokay, but when she was in movies, she was no good. When she was thewife of Mao, she was ashamed of her history as a star and did notwant people aware of it, particularly talking of it. In the culturalrevolution, most of the stars who had worked with Jiang Qing were putinto prison as Jiang Qing feared that they would spread her formerhistory as a third class movie star, which, in her opinion, wouldmake her lose face. Luckily for Tanner, he lived in France at thattime. Anyone who mentioned or even hinted at it would be put inprison, too. That was why many people, besides famous actors andactresses who had worked with her before, were persecuted during themovement and many of them died in prison.
AsJiang Qing had learned to sing Beijing opera, she began in the areaof Beijing opera reform, which happened between 1964 and 1966, aftershe published an article “Talk on Revolution of Beijing Opera.”It gave her a bridge over which she could take part in the politicalmovements later. When she had married Mao, CPC had made a decisionthat she had been forbidden to be involved in politics. The operareform only involved culture. That's why, maybe, the revolutioncalled cultural revolution, an actual political revolution indisguise. So none in CPC had any objection. Generally Beijing operawas about old stories. The reform made it into modern stories. Theones known in China were “Red Lantern”, etc. Ballet was reformed,too. The famous ones were the “Red Detachment of Women” and the“White-haired Girl”.
Onthe 10thday of November, 1965, Mao let his wife, Jiang Qing, instruct YaoWenyuan in Shanghai to write an article criticizing the newhistorical play “Dismissal of Hairui from Office”. The articlewas published in WenhuiDaily on the 30thday of November, 1965. It was because nothing could appear innewspapers in Beijing at the time. All officials there were Liu'smen. The article said that the play wanted to redress the case ofPeng Dehuai, because Hairui was the defense minister in Ming Dynastyequivalent to Peng before his dismissal. This play was written by WuHan, who was a vice mayor of Beijing at the time. He became the firstofficial Mao wanted to get rid of, which would be a breakthrough intoLiu's circle.

April 27th, 2020, 02:10 PM
JiangQing had been also an actress of Beijing opera before she had gone toYanAn and married Mao. She originally lived in Shandong Province.There she was enrolled in Shandong Beijing Opera Institute. Laterwhen she took part in some activities against Japan, she caught theattention of the local government and had to escape secretly toShanghai. She joined the Left-Wing Drama Union, acting in some playsfor revolution. It was said that when she acted in dramas she wasokay, but when she was in movies, she was no good. When she was thewife of Mao, she was ashamed of her history as a star and did notwant people aware of it, particularly talking of it. In the culturalrevolution, most of the stars who had worked with Jiang Qing were putinto prison as Jiang Qing feared that they would spread her formerhistory as a third class movie star, which, in her opinion, wouldmake her lose face. Luckily for Tanner, he lived in France at thattime. Anyone who mentioned or even hinted at it would be put inprison, too. That was why many people, besides famous actors andactresses who had worked with her before, were persecuted during themovement and many of them died in prison.
AsJiang Qing had learned to sing Beijing opera, she began in the areaof Beijing opera reform, which happened between 1964 and 1966, aftershe published an article “Talk on Revolution of Beijing Opera.”It gave her a bridge over which she could take part in the politicalmovements later. When she had married Mao, CPC had made a decisionthat she had been forbidden to be involved in politics. The operareform only involved culture. That's why, maybe, the revolutioncalled cultural revolution, an actual political revolution indisguise. So none in CPC had any objection. Generally Beijing operawas about old stories. The reform made it into modern stories. Theones known in China were “Red Lantern”, etc. Ballet was reformed,too. The famous ones were the “Red Detachment of Women” and the“White-haired Girl”.
Onthe 10thday of November, 1965, Mao let his wife, Jiang Qing, instruct YaoWenyuan in Shanghai to write an article criticizing the newhistorical play “Dismissal of Hairui from Office”. The articlewas published in WenhuiDaily on the 30thday of November, 1965. It was because nothing could appear innewspapers in Beijing at the time. All officials there were Liu'smen. The article said that the play wanted to redress the case ofPeng Dehuai, because Hairui was the defense minister in Ming Dynastyequivalent to Peng before his dismissal. This play was written by WuHan, who was a vice mayor of Beijing at the time. He became the firstofficial Mao wanted to get rid of, which would be a breakthrough intoLiu's circle.

April 27th, 2020, 02:11 PM
2)The so-called February coup d'etat

Maowanted Yao's article to be published in all the newspapers inBeijing. But Peng Zhen, the mayor of Beijing then, thought that suchan article was not suitable to come out in Beijing's newspapers, andso refused to do it. Besides, the writer of the play, Wu Han, was avice mayor of Beijing. To support Wu Han, Peng Zhen organized a“five-person cultural revolution group”, approved by Liu, Dengand Zhou Enlai, the premier of the State Council, intending to limitthe criticism within the culture, not into politics. And Peng Zhenwanted to protect Wu Han, too. He did not realize the plan of Mao.But Mao would not allow it. So he wanted to get rid of Peng as well.As a Chinese saying goes, if a man of power wants to accuse anyone ofany crime, he can easily find a reason whatsoever for the person, nomatter if the reason sounds right or ridiculous.
Yao'sarticle connected the play with the dismissal of Peng Dehuai, whichsmelled of political attack. Mayor Peng thought the criticism of aplay was in the field of culture, and should not connect it with apolitical event. On the 13thday of February, Mayor Peng summoned a meeting of the five-persongroup, and criticized Yao for his connection of his article with apolitical event, intending to limit the criticism within the scope ofculture. All the attenders supported him except Kang Sheng, asecretary of the central secretariat of CPC, who insisted in therightness of the article.

April 29th, 2020, 01:58 PM
Anyway,the five-person group drafted a report called “February Outline”,saying that any discussion in the field of culture must be based onfacts, and respect facts, which meant the connection of the articlewith the dismissal of Peng Dehuai did not respect truth. On the 8thday of February, Mayor Peng, Kang Sheng and Lu Dingyi, the head ofthe propaganda department of CPC, went to see Mao and gave him the“February Outline.” Mao pointed out that the gist of the play wasthe “dismissal” and so had the connection with the dismissal ofPeng Dehuai. Mao wanted to use this as a reason to rid of Wu Han, andfurther of Peng Zhen.
Fromthe 17thday to the 20thday of March, at a meeting of the political bureau of CPC, Mao made aspeech: Who controlling the newspapers, magazines and publishingpresses is very important; those capitalist authorities in culturemust be criticized; the magazine “Frontline” controlled by Wu Hanand his supporters is anti-Party and anti-socialism; a culturalrevolution must be waged in the areas of literature, history,philosophy, law, and economical theory; how much of Marxism-Leninismis in those areas? So the February Outline of the five-person groupwas also criticized. Mayor Peng and his supporters were all removedfrom office and were defined as an anti-Party clique.
Itlooked that Mayor Peng and his supporters only had different opinionfrom Mao. How could they plot a coup d'etat? On the 27thday of July, 1966, Kang Sheng said on a public meeting in BeijingNormal University that Peng Zhen planned to have coup d'etat becausehe had a battalion of soldiers in every university. The crowdsbelieved him as he was a party leader. But that was not the truth.The fact was that in February, 1966, the central military committeedecided to strengthen the local military forces and maneuvered aregiment into Beijing for training purpose. The regiment of soldierswas planned to lodge in some empty rooms of some universities. Butafterwards, the soldiers found elsewhere to lodge and didn't sleep inany universities. However, the fact was distorted to become a crimeof Peng Zhen and his supporters.

May 1st, 2020, 01:56 PM
III.Where did cultural revolution go next?

1)Lin Biao set up personal worship of Mao
Onthe 16th of May (5.16), 1966, on the meeting of the political bureauof the Party, a document, approved by Mao, was passed, known as “5.16Notice”, which was officially deemed the actual beginning of theso-called Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, the official name.At the same time the “Central Cultural Revolution Group” wasorganized to replace the “five-person cultural revolution group”.On the 8thday of May, Lin Biao, the minister of the defense ministry at thetime, said that Chairman Mao was a genius, every word he said wastruth, nothing but truth, and a sentence from him was worth tenthousand sentences from others. This began the “Personal Worship”the nation over. Anyone said anything disrespectful to Mao, let aloneagainst Mao, would be defined as a reactionary and put in prison. Forthat reason many innocent people became prisoners during the culturalrevolution. Ridiculous stories were circulated. A person killed a catand was jailed because the Chinese word for cat had the samepronunciation as Mao. The person killing a cat was deemed to have theintention to kill Mao. Someone accidentally threw a stone, which hitthe picture of Mao hanging on the wall, and he was deemed areactionary. A person walked in a park and felt tired. He saw abench, which was dirty from the rain of last night. He put thenewspaper he had just bought on the bench and sat on it. He wasreported and arrested because there was a picture of Mao on thenewspaper. It was disrespect of Mao to sit on his picture, even bymistake. The personal worship of Mao developed to such a degree inthe cultural revolution.
Whyshould Lin Biao set up Mao as the object of the so-called “PersonalWorship”? It must be another tactics of Mao. The fact was so clearthat those supporting Mao were much fewer than those supporting Liuand Deng. Mao, through Lin Biao, set up himself as the object of“Personal Worship” like a god being worshiped so that no onedared to oppose him. He could be always at an advantageous point.Then the slogan of “Four Greats” about Mao appeared: Great Guide,Great Leader, Great Commander, Great Helmsman. Then Lin Biao, orsomeone else in his name, invented a style of dance, called LoyaltyDance. Generally the dancers held a card board with the word loyaltywritten on it.

May 4th, 2020, 02:26 PM
2)The red guards movement

Onthe 25thday of May, Nie, a woman Party leader in Beijing University, togetherwith other six men, put up a so-called Big Word Paper, criticizingthe Party committee of Beijing University and the municipal Partycommittee of Beijing City. At that time Mao was in Hangzhou. When hewas reported about it, he praised it, calling it the firstMarxist-Leninist Big Word Paper in the country. On the same day, aneditorial appeared on the PeopleDaily, calling uponordinary people to join in the movement, to down all authorities.
Onthe 29thday, the first group of Red Guards was organized in the subsidiarymiddle school of Qinghua University. The chaos developed fast.Students in many middle schools and universities rose to oppose theleadership of the Party there. Quite a few university principals werecriticized. Seeing this, Liu sent out work teams in an attempt tocontrol the situation. The work teams made 10,211 students therightists, and 2,591 teachers the reactionaries.
Onthe 18thday of July, Mao returned to Beijing. On the 24th,Mao held a meeting, criticizing Liu and Deng for sending out workteams. Liu confessed that he did not know how to lead the culturalrevolution movement. Deng said that it was like an old revolutionaryfacing a new problem. That was where Mao set the snare to let themfall in. Naturally, Mao took over the leadership as Liu and Deng didnot know what to do. Even if Liu and Deng had not sent out work teamsand did something else, Mao could, at any rate, find faults with themeasily. It always happened in the struggle for political power in theChinese history. All the same, the result would be for Liu and Dengto be out of power. The goal of the cultural revolution. Mao'sscheme. Now Mao was back in power. It looked as if Liu and Deng werenot driven out of power, but as if they were willing to give up thepower to Mao as they did not know how to wage the culturalrevolution. A real wise move of Mao, so easily to take over thepower.
Maosupported the Red Guards. On the 5thof August, Mao wrote a Big Word Paper, titled as “Gun DownHeadquarters----my big word paper”. Mao meant that there was a“capitalist headquarters” within CPC, implying to Liu and Deng,who were already out of power. Then Lin Biao was made the vicechairman of CPC, a reward to him for his supporting Mao to get thepower back from Liu and Deng.

May 6th, 2020, 01:56 PM
Atthe end of May, Red Guards developed on a large scale. On the 13thday of June, the Central Committee of CPC and the State Councilissued a notification that the entrance examination for theuniversity was postponed for half a year. On the 18thday, the editorial of the PeopleDaily said that thecultural revolution must be thoroughly carried out and the educationsystem must be thoroughly reformed. The entrance examination systemmust be stopped. Therefore, for more than ten years, no new studentswere enrolled in universities, and for many years, no classes forstudents in schools. Thus appeared a gap of education and knowledgebetween the old generation and the young generation. The younggeneration did not have enough education and enough knowledge. TheChinese culture in a general sense degenerated. Then what were thestudents doing? They were all taking part in the cultural revolution.Students in universities and middle schools formed red guards oftheir own. Primary school students stayed at home, being too young.

May 8th, 2020, 01:48 PM
Thered guards began to travel all over the country to instigate riot.They did not need to buy tickets either on trains or buses. That wasthe Party's decision. All they needed was an armband with the wordsRed Guards on it. It was easy to make and get. So other people, whowere not students, seized this chance to travel for free all over thenation for sightseeing.
Thewhole country got into chaos. That's what Mao wanted to retrievepower from so many Liu's local government supporters. So Mao wantedthe red guards to “destroy four old things”, which were oldthought, old culture, old tradition, and old custom. But it was noteasy to define these. So everywhere the red guards went, they burnedthe old books published hundreds of years ago, the old paintings evenby famous ancient painters, and broke curios and relics. Theydestroyed old wooden shop signs and replaced them with paper oneswritten in new names. They even proposed to change the name ofShanghai into “July-First City”, which Mao disapproved.
Whythe red guards wanted to change Shanghai into July-First City wasbecause the Party declared that the 1stday of July, 1921, was the birthday of the Chinese Communist Party inShanghai. But data on Internet revealed that it was established inAugust, 1920, under the instruction of the Soviet Communist Party. InApril, that year, the Communist International sent Grigori Voitinskyto China. In May, he found Chen Duxiu, forth-two then, to contactsome revolutionary young men in other cities for the establishment ofChinese Communist Party, which was founded in August, 1920. Why theChinese Communist Party wanted to change their birthday to the 1stday of July, 1921, was that it might have two reasons. One was thatthey wanted to cover the fact that the Communist International had afinger in it. The other was that CPC did have a meeting in Shanghaiand Mao attended it so that they could say that Mao was one of thefounders to make Mao look better. But the meeting was on the 23rdday, not on the 1stday. Anyway, the Chinese Communist Party did not even give a correctday for their own birthday. How can we believe the narrations in theParty's history written by themselves? (For details of theestablishment and development of CPC, please read my other booktitled Two Republics in China.)

May 11th, 2020, 02:43 PM
Thered guards went to private houses and ransacked and destroyed or tookaway all the valuable personal belongings. They even beat people todeath. Statistics showed that in one month from the 18thday of August, 1966, in Beijing only, houses of 114,000 families wereransacked, and 85,198 individuals were driven to where they came fromin the countryside or other towns. From the 23rdday of August to the 8thday of September, in Shanghai, 84,222 families were openly robbed.And in Tianjin City, 12,000 families suffered the same disaster.Another statistics showed that during August and September, inBeijing only, the red guards got 103,000 taels of gold, equivalent to5.7 tons, 345,200 taels of silver, 55,000,000 yuan Chinese papercurrency, and 613,600 curios. In Shanghai, between the 23rdday of August and the 8thday of September, besides large quantity of gold, silver and gems,etc., they got 3,340,000 US dollars and other foreign currenciesworth 3,300,000 Chinese currency, 2,400,000 yuan of silver coins and3,700,000,000 yuan of Chinese currency. A Party document confessedthat even before that, the red guards already got 1,180,000 taels ofgold, equivalent to 65 tons. That was really the aim of “destroyfour old things.” That's what Mao and CPC really wanted, in such aname, to rob people of their valuables. A broad daylight robbery! Therobbed could not resist, nor even report to the police. The robberywas lawful, supported by CPC and Mao. That was also unprecedented inthe robbery field of the world. What was the use of laws in such acountry? Peng Zhen once said that the Party (supported by gun, ofcourse) was above the law. Now all the valuables in possession ofcommon people were taken. After that, they had nothing worth to betaken away by the Party. They were safe now, as poor as a lazysquirrel with nothing in store for winter. The pillaging action evenaffected some old workers who had something worth a little moneysaved through their hard work in the old time, before CPC came toreign.

May 13th, 2020, 02:04 PM
Andmany antiques were destroyed, worth billions. From the 9thday of November to the 7thday of December, 1966, during less than a month, more than 6,000articles of curio, more than 2,700 volumes of ancient edition, morethan 900 rolls of paintings and calligraphy by famous ancient people,and more than 1,000 stone tablets, were destroyed. Who should beresponsible for all the loss? The red guards or Mao and CPC?
Asto death rate during the red terrorism, the official statisticsshowed that only in Beijing, the capital city, 1,700 people werebeaten to death. A massacre took place in Daxing Town outside Beijingand during three days, 325 persons were killed by cruel means,including some buried alive, like the massacre in Nanking by theJapanese army. Those who made suicide reached 200,000. In the wholeperiod of the cultural revolution, the estimate of the death rate inthe whole country was between 2 million and 7 million, one percent ofthe whole population in China at that time. Who should be responsiblefor it? The red guards or Mao and CPC?
InShanghai, the red guards of Shanghai Museum went to all thecollectors on their list to take all the curios to the museum, theysaid, for the sake of protecting them, or the red guards from Beijingmight destroy them. Some collectors even called the museum, asking itto send their red guards to their homes and take their curios away.Fortune sometimes means misfortune.
Otherthings happened in Shanghai during the red guards movement. At first,their action was only limited in the streets, destroying old shopsigns. When they saw some women wearing high-heeled or pointed shoes,they would force them to take off and they would cut through themwith scissors they seemed always carrying with them. They called itcapitalist life style, included in the four old things. Once some redguards saw a girl wearing trousers in jeans. They thought it was thecapitalist life style and forced the girl to take it off, and thegirl had to run home in underwear. They laughed after her.

May 15th, 2020, 02:47 PM
Thenwhen they heard what their fellow red guards did in Beijing, theystarted to attack private houses, too. Mostly they went to bighouses, generally belonging to the capitalists. Some stayed in onebig house for months, eating their canned food and chocolate instore. Some embezzled gold and silver articles and diamond rings.Others took away the interesting novels for their own enjoyment. Thestupid ones they were deemed. Some of the capitalists were forced tokneel on the ground and beaten or abused. Lots of red guards went toCanton and tried to break past the border sentinels to rush intoHongkong. They declared that they wanted to make revolution there,but were stopped by the Chinese army. The red guards even blamed KimIl-Sung, leader of North Korea, as going the capitalist road andwanted to go to Korea to arrest him. So when Kim Il-Sung learned it,he was so enraged that he ordered the graves of the Chinese People'sVolunteers broken, including the tomb of Mao's son, which wasrepaired after the cultural revolution.

May 18th, 2020, 02:04 PM
In1967, in Canton, there raised a wave to kill the released prisonersfrom labor reform camps, who were thought as bad people and deservedto die. From the 27thday of August to the 1stday of September, in six days, 325 of those people and their familymembers were killed. The oldest was 80 years of age and the youngestwas only 38 days. What a nation for that!
Allthe professors in universities and old teachers in middle schoolswere criticized or even beaten. Some professors were forced to crawlaround on the college playground. Some were made stand for long hoursin a bowing posture with two arms stretching straight behind, lookinglike a jet airplane. Some were ordered to bow before the picture ofMao for a long time, too. In Shanghai Conservatory of Music, theprofessors were forced to slap each other's faces in public. Neversay that Chinese people are not wise enough for invention. Since oldtime, they have invented a lot of new torture equipment and styles. Astanding cage was one of them. Any offender would be put inside withhis head on the top of it, the neck in a small hole so that he couldnot move his head down into the cage. He must keep in a standingposition for how long he was sentenced to be. It was a trivialtorment. For a prisoner, if he rejected to confess his crime what thegovernment official wanted him to confess, two thick wooden stickswould be put on his forelegs, one above and one under, with ropes onboth ends. When the ropes were tightened, the pressure on theforelegs through the wooden sticks inflicted pain to the prisoner.The tighter the ropes were, the acuter the pain grew, till theprisoner fainted. For women, small sticks were used between herfingers, with the same effect on her. Another invention was to use aniron piece, made hot in the fire, then put on the chest of theprisoner. His skin on that part would be burned. No one can imaginethe pain this torment caused without experience. Brutal inventions ofwise Chinese people!

May 20th, 2020, 01:07 PM
IV.Power-seizing stage of great cultural revolution

Then,the target of the cultural revolution changed to the authorities ofthe local governments, under Mao's instruction. Mao thought that mostof them were supporters of Liu and Deng. Therefore, so-called rebelsrose and attacked the local government leaders. They seized powerfrom the leaders and organized so-called Revolutionary Committees toreplace the local governments.
Nowthe cultural revolution was on the power-seizing stage, which wasreally what Mao aimed at. It began with a movement targeting thepetty cadres, really a false move of Mao to set up a snare for Liu;then it went to a stage to openly criticize a play to get rid of someimportant supporters of Liu in the capital Beijing; then it developedto the red guards stage to cause chaos in the country; then in thechaos, it got to the power seizing stage. It was the critical stage.If successful, smoothly, the last stage would be easy to tide over.The last stage was to put all the supporters of Mao in the localgovernments after getting rid of all Liu's supporters. The culturalrevolution would thus end as planned by Mao and as we can see,looking back. On this critical stage, if Chiang Kai-shek had orderedhis army to attack the mainland, no one could tell what would be thefuture of China. But the stupid Chiang Kai-shek let the opportunitygo like sands through his fingers.

May 22nd, 2020, 02:10 PM
Manyrebellious groups were organized and fought each other to vie fortaking over the power. Generally, at first, they got into a debate.At that time, people all over the country were learning The LittleRed Book. Every time people wanted to say something, anything, theymust quote something from the Little Red Book first. Even when anyonewas to write some self-criticism paper, he must also begin with aquotation from it. Sound ridiculous? That's the fact at the time. Sowhen a debate began between two groups, the debater in each groupmust quote something from the Little Red Book to prove that what hewas saying was in accordance with Mao's instruction. Then the debaterfrom the other group followed suit. But no one could persuade theother. It was called “Quotation Battle” since both sides usedMao's quotations to prove they were the right side. Debates oftencontinued in a fight. But it seemed that quotations from the LittleRed Book contradicted each other, or how could the opposite groupsboth cite from it to support their different opinions?
Therebels among workers in Shanghai called their organization asShanghai Worker Revolutionary Rebellious Headquarters. Thecommander-in-chief of this headquarters was Pan Guoping, a youngworker from a factory. The famous Wang Hongwen was, at the beginning,the vice commander-in-chief, who was a Party member and a cadre ofthe lowest rank. On the 3rd of January, 1967, Zhang Chunqiao and YaoWenyuan, two members of the Gang of Four, came back to Shanghai fromBeijing and supported Wang Hongwen to seize power from Shanghaimunicipal authorities. Pan, being too young, was out of power, andwas only made a member of the revolutionary committee. This event wascalled “January Storm”, which caused the power-seizing action todevelop to the whole nation. That was what Mao desired.

May 25th, 2020, 02:10 PM
V.Quarrel in Huairen Hall in Beijing in February

HuairenHall is in Beijing, a gathering place for meetings of the leaders ofthe central committee of CPC. The event began like this: during the“January Storm” in Shanghai, Chen Pixuan, the first secretary ofShanghai municipal party, was afraid of the chaos to paralyze themunicipal administration and called Tao Zhu, a member of the centralcultural revolutionary group on the 3rdday of January, 1967. Previously on the 25thday of December, 1966, to protect those old revolutionary cadres, TaoZhu had had a severe quarrel with Jiang Qing, Kang Sheng, and ZhangChunqiao, who were those tools Mao used to fight Liu and Deng, andtheir local supporters. After the power seizing, Zhang Chunqiaobecame the head of Shanghai.
WhenTao Zhu received the call from Chen in Shanghai, he went to see Maoand reported it. Mao looked like supporting Tao when Tao was in hispresence. But Tao was soon removed from office. Then, premier ZhouEnlai, said to be instructed by Mao, drafted a list of old cadres forprotection, including all the first secretaries of provinces. Theywere escorted to Beijing so that no one could harm them. But ChenPixuan, the first secretary of Shanghai, was detained by ZhangChunqiao, which was the fuse of the dispute in Huairen Hall.

May 27th, 2020, 01:05 PM
Inthe afternoon on the 16thday of February, 1967, premier Zhou summoned a meeting in HuairenHall. When Tan Zhenlin met Zhang Chunqiao at the gate, Tan askedZhang why Chen Pixuan was not coming. Zhang said that Chen wasdetained by the revolutionary crowds in Shanghai. At the meeting, thequestion of Chen's absence was mentioned again and other old cadreswere also infuriated that the central cultural revolutionary groupwanted to push aside all the old cadres and take over power intotheir hands. They used the so-called revolutionary crowds who hadactually been organized by them as an excuse to fight old cadres. YeJianying, a leader of the liberation army, criticized Jiang Qing andZhang Chunqiao, etc., for their intention to let the revolutionarycrowds to attack the army and take over the command of the army fromthe old cadres. Ye broke his little finger when he slapped his handon the table in ire. If at the beginning of the cultural revolution,the old cadres did not yet realize what Mao and his supporterswanted, now they came to be clear that they wanted to push aside theold cadres, or even torture them to death so that they could ruleChina by themselves.
Onthe 18thday of February, Mao summoned the central political bureau, andtaking off his two-faced mask, jumped forth to criticize old cadres,to the delight of Jiang Qing, Wang Hongwen, Zhang Chunqiao, and YaoWenyuan, the so-called “Gang of Four.” This event was literallycalled “Current against the (revolutionary) flow in February” bythe gang of four. Then the central political bureau stopped itsadministration and the central cultural revolutionary group replacedit, becoming the administrative center of the whole nation. That waswhat Mao wanted and long planned, but none of the gang of four hadthe abilities to run such a vast country like China, and so atlength, Mao had to let Zhou Enlai took charge of the state affairs.
In1971, after the event of Lin Biao crashing in an military airplane inMongolia on the 13thday of September, the so-called “Current against the flow inFebruary” event was redressed. Mao said that the event was to aimat Lin Biao, which meant that as now Lin “betrayed” the Party andescaped to the Soviet Union, the event against Lin Biao was correctand so must be redressed.

May 29th, 2020, 02:20 PM
VI.How did armed fight start the country over?

Onthe 6thday of May, 1967, the leftists pro the communist party in Hongkong,began a riot against Hongkong government. The riot started withstrike and demonstration, and developed to assassinations, bombingand gun fight. Luckily, it ended in October. 52 people died,including 10 policemen. 1,167 bombs exploded.
Almosteverywhere in the country, rebels had benefit conflicts amongthemselves and they formed different groups and fought one another.Some, supported by the army, got guns. So gun fight began. Once, eventanks appeared in the streets. The most serious fights were those:
Fromthe 26thday of February to the 5thday of March, 1967, in XiNing Town of Qinghai province, T55 tanksappeared in the streets and 822 persons died and 1,355 personswounded. From the 2ndday to the 25thday of August, 1967, in Yichun Town of Heilongjiang province, 37government buildings were destroyed and two military camps weregunned down in cannonade. 1,944 persons died and 1,806 personswounded. From August to November, the rebels in Huaihua Town of HuNanprovince occupied some labor-reform farms and factories and resistedthe attack of the army. 37,700 persons died and wounded, including430 military men. The death was 13,300. From June, 1967, to March,1968, in Yibin Town of Sichuan province, more than 170,000 peoplejoined in the fight, including two army regiments. 43,800 personsdied and wounded, the death was 21,100. From October, 1967, to theend of May, 1969, in Inner Mongolia, 56,200 persons were killed, andover 377,000 persons imprisoned, and over 3,550,000 involved,one-fourth of the population of the Inner Mongolia. From April toJuly, 1968, in Nanning Town of Guuangxi province, 22 battles tookplace. Over 101,000 persons died, and 74,000 people wounded. FromDecember, 1968, to February, 1969, in eight ammunition factories inBaoji area of Shaanxi province, out of 70,000 staff, over 45,400workers were judged as reactionaries and 297 among them wereexecuted, which caused rebellion. Tanks, armored cars, cannons, andfire-throwers were used. Over 13,300 persons died, including somegovernment leaders. Later, Mao and the Party strictly forbade thisand the fight gradually subsided in August, 1968, and no more fightafter 1969.