View Full Version : 100 Famous Women in China

November 26th, 2016, 03:26 PM
1.Leizu (discoverer of silk)

Leizu(?--?) was the wife of Xuanyuan Huangdi (Huangdi literally meaningYellow Emperor, living round 2550 BC. Chinese people, i.e., Hantribe, deem themselves the posterity of Huangdi.) A legend had itthat Huangdi had a war with another tribe, whose leader was Chiyou,who, it was said, had the ability to raise heavy fog so that the armyof Huangdi could not find the way where to go. And it was also saidthat Huangdi invented a guide cart, on which there was a flat platewith a magnet in the shape of a big spoon. The spoon could turn roundand the handle of the spoon always pointed south. It was the earliesttype of compass.
WhenHuangdi defeated Chiyou, he returned in triumph and had a feast ofcelebration. All of a sudden the goddess of silkworm came to offerthe silk to Huangdi for congratulations. Huangdi gave it to his wife,who loved the glistening thin thread very much. She began to breedsilkworm and wove the thread into silk cloth and made a gown for herhusband. She also taught people to breed silkworm. She was thuscalled Lady Silkworm, and in later history was deemed the Goddess ofSilkworm. She died on the way in company of Huangdi when he traveledover the country.
Butthere was another legend about the original goddess of silkworm. Agirl and her father lived together. The father went to fight forHuangdi. There was a horse in the house. One day the girl thought ofher father badly, and she said to the horse, “Oh, horse, if you canbring back my father, I will marry you.” the horse ran awayimmediately and after some time the father came home on thehorseback. The girl was glad, but she forgot her promise to marry thehorse entirely. However, the horse remembered it and got sick. Thefather asked his daughter about the sick horse. The girl was remindedof her promise and told it to her father, who, of course, would notlet her daughter marry a horse. Therefore he killed the horse andflayed the hide of the horse. Then he lay the hide on the ground inthe sun to make it dry. The daughter came close to the hide and said,“You, horse, how can I, a human, marry you, a horse?” Then shestamped her foot on the hide. Suddenly the hide flew up and wrappedaround the girl. The girl was frightened out of her senses and ranoff from home to the nearby woods with mulberry trees. Then shebegan to eat mulberry leaves and spewed out silk threads.

November 27th, 2016, 03:14 PM
2. Jiangyuan (motherof planting)

Jiangyuan(?--?) was born in the present Wugong town of Shaanxi province andwas the wife of Gao, the great grandson of Huangdi. One winter day,she was walking in the countryside and saw a giant footprint by theWei river. She trod in it and when she was back home, gradually shefelt that she was pregnant. She conceived the baby for twelve monthsand then gave birth. The baby looked ugly with a very big head. Themother thought that it was a monster and so deserted it for threetimes. But every time the baby was saved. At last the mother took itback and brought it up. So the baby was named Qi (meaning to desert).Later he was called Huoji. The mother gave him good education. He wasthe earliest ancestor of Zhou dynasty (1121—476 BC). Fromearly boyhood he was interested in plants and when he grew up, hetaught people how to grow grains, etc. that was the beginning ofagriculture in China. People remembered his mother and historiansgave her the title of mother saintess.

November 29th, 2016, 03:39 PM
3. Su Daji (cruelbeauty)
Su Daji (?--?) wasthe wife of King Zhou (?--1046 BC), who was the last king of Shangdynasty (1765—1122 BC), and proud of his great strength. She camefrom Su clan. Her father was Su Hu, the chieftain of the clan. Shewas a pretty girl and could dance. In 1147 BC, King Zhou conquered Suclan. Su Hu had to give his daughter to King Zhou as his trophy. Itwas the tradition in ancient China that the conqueror always demandedvaluables and pretty girls from the defeater. Since Daji was verybeautiful, the king made her his queen after he got some pretense tokill his original queen. This queen had two sons, who were exiled.The king did these to please his new queen, if not secretly requiredby her. As the new queen could dance, the king ordered the palacemusician Shijuan to compose some decadent music. Daji danced to theobscene music to please the king. The king was so doting on her thathe would grant all her wishes, no matter how absurd and cruel herdesire was. There were some facts recorded in the history books.
The king had agarden built having a pond filled with wine and a forest with driedmeat fillets hanging from the boughs of the trees. He often held abanquet there, with as many as three thousand officials gatheringthere. They played and chased each other naked among the trees. Theking and the queen liked to row on the wine. Anyone could drink thewine from the pond.
Daji ordered a hugedeep pit dug and put in hundreds of snakes. She would have heroffenders thrown into it to feed the snakes. She also invented sometorture equipment. The most cruel one was a bronze pillar with insidevacant. Then firewood and coal filled it and burned. When the pillarwas hot, a criminal was brought and made to embrace it till he wasburned to death with shrill bitter cries.
Once in winter whenshe saw an old man walking on ice with bare feet. He seemed not tofeel cold. She thought that he might have something special in thebone of his shin. Therefore she ordered to have the man brought toher presence and to have his foreleg cut down to see if anythingspecial inside his bone.
Another time, whenshe and the king sat on the terrace to look at the street. At thetime, a women with child walked by. She said that the woman wouldhave a girl while the king said that she would have a boy. So theybet who would guess right. Then the woman was brought in and herbelly was cut open to see it was a boy or a girl. Two lives lost fortheir absurd bet. Besides these, all the courtiers who criticizedtheir misbehavior were executed. Finally they lost the support ofcourtiers and people and was at last subdued by Zhou dynasty. Theking burned himself and Daji hanged herself.

November 30th, 2016, 03:40 PM
4.Qi Wenjiang (an able and adulterous woman)
QiWenjiang (733—673 BC) was the second daughter of Duke Xi (?--698BC) of Qi dukedom bordering on the East Sea. She had a sister QiXuanjiang. Both girls were beautiful, well-known to all states inChina at the time. It was in the first warring period (770—221 BC)in the history of China. All the dukedoms, marquisates, and earldomsetc. became independent though the king of Zhou dynasty was still inreign in name only. His power could only reach within the territoryof his kingdom.
Duke Ling (540—493BC) of Wei dukedom wanted to have the elder sister Xuanjiang to bethe wife of his son. Her father agreed and sent her to Wei dukedom.But when Duke Ling set eyes on the girl, her beauty stunned him, andhe took the girl as his own wife, to the disappointment of his son.There was even a folk song to sing the praise of her beauty. Sincethat day, Duke Ling stuck to his young wife day and night. If hecould not see her even for a moment, he would look like his soul hadleft his body.
Then Duke Xideclared that he would find a husband for his second daughter. Thenews spread and all the sons of the rulers of other states came tothe capital of Qi dukedom to seek for the hand of the girl. Ithappened because of two reasons. Firstly, the girl was a beauty knownin all states. Secondly, Qi Dukedom was a big state. If a small statehad the relationship with a big state, the small state would havemore safety against other neighboring small states. In that period,there were much more small states than big states. They often wantedto merge others to become big. Among all the suitors, the girlselected the son of Zheng State. But when the son went back to hisown state, he regretted of the marriage and broke the agreement,because he was afraid that the daughter of a big state wouldcertainly bully the son of a small state. He would not be bullied byhis wife. When the girl learned the decision of the boy she hadchosen, she turned irritating and then woeful. She became languishand sick, because the breech of the marriage from the boy's side wasan insult to the girl in the public eye, which meant that the girlmight have some defects in her moral or character.
She had a brotherand they played together since childhood. As the brother knew thathis sister was sick, he came to see her, desiring to comfort her. Young girl and young boy, no matter what was their relationship, whenmeeting in certain condition, would easily give themselves up forlove action. At that time, there were no moral rules for such thingslike in present days. A beautiful girl and a handsome boy were surelya destined pair.
Lu dukedom was justnext to Qi dukedom. Duke Huan (731—694 BC) of Lu state justsucceeded to the throne and was in need of a wife. Qi dukedom was alarge state while Lu dukedom was a bit smaller, and not so strong.Duke Huan thought that if he got a wife from a big state, he wouldhave a strong support for his rule. So he married Qi Wenjiang thoughhe knew the abnormal relationship between the girl and her brother.Different people have different ideas to a certain thing. Duke Huandid not care for it as long as he had a beautiful wife and strongsupport. After the wedding, the husband and the wife got along welland they had two sons.
After severalyears, Duke Xi of Qi dukedom died and his son, the brother, turned tobe the new duke, called Duke Xiang (729—686 BC). The rulers ofother states went there for the ceremony. Duke Huan of Lu dukedomwent there, too, but he did not bring his wife together, though thewife begged to go with him. He feared that if the sister and thebrother met again, their fire of love might rekindle. However, if henever took his wife back to her mother state, it would look weird toother states. So after eighteen years, he did go to visit Qi dukedomwith his wife, who was already in her forties. But women in fortiesare still in need of that.
Duke Xiang was gladthat his sister came at length after long years of separation. Herecalled their happy time together. When the duke of Lu state and hiswife settled down in the guest room in the palace, the duke of Qistate asked his sister to see his wife in the rear of the palace. Theduke of Lu state could not say NO to this request. Once in some backroom, the brother and the sister fell into action right away like drywood caught fire. For several days, the duke of Lu state was leftalone and so one day he trespassed into the rear palace and witnessedtheir action. He slapped his wife on the face and dragged her awayfrom the room. He and his wife started immediately back to Ludukedom. He let his wife go ahead and he himself attended thefarewell party given by the duke of Qi state, the brother. He leftthe palace in a coach after bidding adieu, but was killed in thecoach by a knight of Qi dukedom. The knight overtook the wife andreported to her of the death of her husband. The wife clearly knewwhat had happened to her husband, but she said nothing. She let theknight go to back to tell the news to her brother, who hurried hereto meet his sister. The sister stayed on the border of the twodukedoms for a while. And the brother often came to meet her. Finallyshe had to return to Lu dukedom with the news that the duke of Lustate died suddenly on the way back. Although the courtiers of Lustate suspected something, but they had no evidence, and had to keepsilent. Later the knight was executed on some excuses to keep themurder a secret. But on the execution spot, the knight told thesecret to all the people present at the top of his voice.
When Lu dukedom wasinformed of the sudden death of their duke, the elder son of thediseased duke became the ruler. He was Duke Zhuang. As he was stillyoung and so his mother, Qi Wenjiang, helped him to manage the stateaffairs. She was a capable woman and made Lu dukedom strong and oncedefeated Qi dukedom in a battle, though Qi dukedom was her parentalstate. Anyway, Qi dukedom should not fight Lu dukedom as they werebrother and sister.

December 1st, 2016, 04:37 PM
5. Xishi (the firstbeauty of the four beauties)
Xishi (?--?) livedin the first warring period, later than Qi Wenjiang, who lived in theearlier time of that period. Xishi was born in Ningluo village in thesuburb of Zhuji town in Zhejiang province. Her real name was ShiYiguang. As Ningluo village was divided in two parts, the east partand the west part. Since Shi Yiguang lived in the west part, and soshe got the nickname “Xishi” (Xi means west).
Shewas one of the four beauties, the earliest one, in the history ofancient China. The other three were Wang Zhaojun, Diaochan, and YangYuhuan, whose story was told in another book of mine titled “LoveTales of Ancient China.” There were so many beautiful women in the history of China, why werethese four women that grouped as the four beauties, not others? Nonenowadays can tell the reason. We just tell the stories as they were.Xishi often washed gauze clothes in a stream in her village, andthereby she got another nickname “gauze-washing girl.”
There were two states bordering each other: Wukingdom and Yue kingdom, both in the present Zhejiang province. Inthe latter part of the first warring period, the Zhou kingdom alreadyperished. Therefore, all survived states after merging calledthemselves kingdoms. In 494 BC, Wu kingdom defeated Yue kingdom andcaptured the king of Yue kingdom, Gouqian by name. Guoqian (520—465BC) showed himself to be a very tame captive and vowed that if hecould be allowed to go back to his own state, he would always beloyal to Fucha (?--473 BC), king of Wu kingdom. Guoqian also bribedBopi, a favorite courtier of King Wu to throw good words for him.King Wu was a good-for-nothing while King Yue was a capable man. WhyYue kingdom was defeated by Wu kingdom was because a very famousstrategist as well as an able general served Wu kingdom. This famousstrategist Sun Zi (545-470 BC) had written a world renowned militarybook titled Arts of War. He was deemed as martial saint. Somefamous rules in the book are “know your enemy as well as yourselfso that you can always be victorious,” “always give your enemy afalse move so as to mislead them.”
At length, Guoqian was released and went back toYue kingdom. Every year, Guoqian sent a lot of tributes to Wu kingdomto show his faithfulness. But secretly he wanted to have revenge. Oneof his courtiers, Fan Li, suggested a strategy that Guoqian shouldsend the King Wu some dancing girls so that King Wu would alwaysenjoy the dancing and neglect his state affairs, which would provideYue kingdom a chance to conquer Wu kingdom.
Fan Li (536—448BC) began to look for beautiful girls within the state and he foundXishi one day when she was washing her gauze by the stream. As soonas he set eyes on her, he felt that she was the right girl he waslooking for. So he took the girl to the palace to be taught singingand dancing. After some special training, she was sent to King Wu,who liked the girl very much and did indulge in singing and dancingof the beauty. She could dance clog-dancing and she had plenty oftiny bells sewed on her skirt so that when she danced the bells gaveout tingling to the rhythm of her dancing. The king made her hisqueen and had a new palace built for her, inside which there was aspecial corridor called “clog-sounding corridor.” It was builtlike this—hundreds of big vats were put side by side and woodenplanks were laid on top of them. When the girl danced on the planks,wearing clogs, the empty vats echoed with a hollow sound to meet withthe rhythm of the dancing. The king did neglect his state affairs,and seeing this, Sun Zi left Wu kingdom and lived somewhere as ahermit. Wu kingdom was finally defeated by Yue kingdom. King Wu madesuicide.
There were twolegends about the end of Xishi. The first one was that when the kingof Wu kingdom died, she was drowned in a river. The second one wasthat Fan Li took her with him, fearful that if King Yue saw her, hemight be charmed by her beauty and also neglect his state affairs.Fan Li became a merchant and lived with Xishi happily till the end oftheir lives.

December 2nd, 2016, 03:30 PM
6.Zhong Wuyan (an ugly and wise woman)
ZhongWuyan (?--?) (wuyan literally meaning no beauty) was ugly, but wiseand could fight. How ugly was she? There was a description: a bigbelly, a big head, her forehead and eyes looking like sucked in, andher skin very dark and course. She was suspected that her mother orfather came from abroad, not the offspring of Han tribe. Most famouswomen in Chinese history were beautiful. Only this one was ugly. Asshe was so ugly, no man would marry her. She was still single whenshe reached the age of forty.
Atthat time, King Xuan (?--301 BC) of Qi state was on the throne. Hewas not a capable man with a quick temper. He liked flattering. Therewas corruption all over the state and other states were watching forsome opportunity to invade Qi state. The famous Mencius had come togive him advice, but he would not listen. Qi state at the time had aclever premier Yan Ying (?--500 BC), who was short in stature. Qistate had three haughty knights at the same time. They even sometimesrefused to obey the king. So Yan Ying was afraid that they mightendanger the state. One day there came a chance. There grew a peachtree in the palace. The peach tree produced some large fruits thatday. Yan Ying suggested to the king to give two of the peaches tothe three knights. One knight ate one and another knight ate theother. The third one had none. Yan Ying said to him that it was adisgrace to him that he could have none to eat while the other twoate theirs. The third one was ashamed of himself, and drawing outhis sword, he killed himself. The other two knights said that thethree of them were like brothers. They should not eat the peacheswithout thinking of their brother. They felt ashamed of themselvesfor the neglect. Therefore, they killed themselves on the spot. Thisevent in the history was called “Killing three knights with twopeaches.”
Oneday the king went hunting with Yan and met Wuyan in the forest. Wuyanwas an ambitious woman and had certain opinions about the state. Sheseized the opportunity to come forth to talk to the king. Sheanalyzed the dangerous situation the state was now in and made goodsuggestions to him. Therefore, at the advice of Yan, the king tookher to the palace and made her his queen. When Yan state, which wasto the north of Qi state, sent a messenger there to test the wisdomof the king. The messenger brought two jade rings connected together.The king was asked to separate them. Just when the king did not knowwhat to do with it, Wuyan came out. She brought a small hammer andused it to knock one ring into two pieces. The rings were thusseparated. However, Yan state yet sent the army in an intention toconquer Qi state. Wuyan led the army of Qi state to meet the army ofYan state and defeated it. She helped the king to make Qi statestrong.

December 3rd, 2016, 03:14 PM
7.Mother of Mencius (392—317 BC) (a considerate mother)
Mencius (372—289 BC) was naughty when a boy. Hisfather died when he was only three. Her mother brought him up andeducated him. In his teenage, he liked to imitate whatever he saw. Atfirst they lived in the countryside, close to a graveyard. Whenpeople came to bury corpses, crying. He would dig a small pit in theground and put in a piece of wood, and cried. When his mother saw it,she thought that this was not a good place to live. They moved intothe nearby town, close to a market. There were a slaughter house toslay pigs and also a black smithery with noises of striking iron. Allsuch distracted her son from studies. Besides, the son imitated howto sell things like merchants in the market. Then they moved to theeast side of the town, close to a school. Therefore, the son imitatedhow the students read and write in the classroom. The mother likedthe place and settled down forever. So Mencius became a famousscholar. This story was called “three moves of the mother ofMencius.” The story shows that neighborhood is very important ingrow-up of children.
Another story told us how the mother of Menciuseducated her son. Once her son played truant at school. The motherwas weaving a cloth at the loom when the son came home. The mothercut the cloth on the loom into two. The son curiously asked why. Themother said that her son played truant while learning was just likeshe severed the cloth in the process of weaving.
We can still visit the grave of the mother ofMencius at Mt. MaAn (meaning saddle) in Anhui province.

December 4th, 2016, 03:01 PM
8.Zhao Ji (mother of the first emperor)
ZhaoJi (?--228 BC) was the mother of the first emperor of Qin dynasty.(Hence we call him Emperor Qin in this story.) At that time KingZhaoxiang (325—251 BC) was on the throne. He appointed his sonAnyangjun as the crown prince. Anyangjun had more than twenty sons.One of them was Yiren. When Qin kingdom and Zhao kingdom had a war,Qin kingdom was beaten. As a rule, Qin kingdom must send a royalfamily member as hostage to Zhao kingdom. Yiren was chosen and wentto live in the capital of Zhao kingdom.
Therewas in Zhao kingdom a jewelry merchant, by name of Luu Buwei (292—235BC), who was very clever and knew how to calculate his profits. Hisfamous quotation was, “If I invest in fields, I can get profit tentimes . If I invest in jewelry, I can get profit a hundred times. IfI invest in supporting an emperor, I can be rich and powerful all mylife.” He pinned his hope on the hostage Yiren. He bribed theguardsman to let him get in touch with Yiren. Then he befriended thehostage and satisfied him for any demands he had. Then he gotacquainted with the sister of Ladyship Huayang, who was the wife ofthe crown prince, the father of the hostage. As ladyship Huayang hadno children of her own, she was persuaded to adopt Yiren as her son.Every wife or concubine of the royal family wanted her son to be thecrown prince. So ladyship Huayang persuaded Anyangjun to make Yirenhis crown prince when he became the king after the death of hisfather, the present king.
Thenhe selected a pretty clever dancing girl and offered her to Yiren.She became his formal wife. Afterwards, she gave birth to a boy, whowas later the first emperor of Qin dynasty. Yiren was soon summonedback to Qin state. Not long before, King Zhaojiang died and the crownprince Anyangjun became the king, King Xiaowen. And his son Yiren wasnaturally made the crown prince.
AsKing Xiaowen led a life of dissipation all day long, his healthworsened quickly and died soon. Accordingly, Yiren succeeded to thethrone. He was King Zhuangxiang (281—247 BC). He made his son thecrown prince and Luu Buwei the premier for all he had done for him.Lately, Buwei turned to be more powerful. Yiren got on alert, fearfulthat Buwei might kill him and make himself the king. It was notimpossible. Buwei also felt that the king might harm him. So headvised Zhao Ji, the wife of the king, to do something about it. ZhaoJi reached the position as queen through Buwei. She was grateful tohim, and besides, he was her favorite man while her husband Yiren wasonly their tool to get rich and powerful.
ZhaoJi induced the king to drinking and merry-making, which caused hishealth to deteriorate fast and the king died soon. Then the crownprince was put on the throne at the age of thirteen, too young tohandle state affairs. Therefore, Zhao Ji was now the queen dowagerand Buwei handled all things. Although the boy was young, he wasshrewd and ambitious. He knew that Buwei was a bad man for power. AndBuwei knew that the young king was not an ordinary boy. There was arumor that the king was the son of Zhao Ji and Buwei.
BeforeBuwei gave up Zhao Ji to Yiren, they had already made love to eachother. Now that Yiren died, how could Zhao Ji quenched her thirst forlove? She and Buwei met secretly. But they were afraid that theirrelationship might be discovered by the young king. Then Buwei founda man called Miudu, whose specialty was to have a giant penis. Buweisent him into the palace disguised as a eunuch to satisfy Zhao Ji sothat he himself could be away from danger. Presently, the queendowager was pregnant. She feared that her son, the king, might findout. Therefore, she told her son that she wanted to travel. The sondid not doubt anything yet and consented. So she went to live in atemporary residence with Miudu. They had two children.
Whenthe new king came of age, he took all power back in his own hands.When he was on the throne for nine years, in 238 BC, someone informedhim that Miudu was a fake eunuch and had two children with the queendowager, who promised Miudu that if the king died, she would make oneof their sons the king. At that time, the king was twenty-two. AsMiudu was told that the king learned their secret, Miudu immediatelydecided to attack the palace with his followers. The guards of thepalace fought them. The latter was put to rout and Miudu was capturedand executed. The two children were killed too. Luu Buwei was exiledand drank poison to end his life. As for the queen dowager, hismother, she was driven out of the palace to live somewhere else. Theson vowed that he would never see the mother for the rest of hislife. Four years after the death of Buwei, Zhao Ji died of grievance.

December 5th, 2016, 03:19 PM
9.Empress Luu (the first empress who had political power)
EmpressLuu (241—180 BC) was the wife of Liu Bang (256—195 BC), the firstemperor of Han dynasty (206 BC—220 AD). Liu Bang was at first onlya petty officer in Pei town, where the father of Empress Luu was awealthy resident. Once when it was the birthday of the father, as hewas a close friend of the mayor, Liu Bang had to go for thecelebration. He did not bring any gift, but he lied that he had givena precious gift. When the father found it out, he was angry andwanted to expel Liu Bang. However, when he looked at Liu Bang, hechanged his mind because he could read face. The face of Liu Bangshowed that he would be a noble man in the future. Therefore, hemarried his daughter to him. It was towards the end of Qin dynasty.
Therewere many revolts at that time. Liu Bang was the leader of one amongthem. When Liu Bang was riotous, his wife was arrested and put injail by the local yamen. She experienced all the hardship of theprison. At last Liu Bang managed to get her out. From the day she wasreleased, she lived among the army with her husband. Generally therewas no woman allowed in the army, especially a woman who could notfight.
Anotherrebellious group was led by Xiang Yu (232—202 BC). They both aimedat Qin dynasty. They wanted to replace Qin dynasty. Xiang was thefirst to enter the capital of Qin. He overthrew Qin dynasty andburned their palace. The fire lasted for months. Now as the olddynasty no longer existed, the two groups fought each other to decidewho would create a new dynasty. In 205 BC, the two groups had a warand Liu Bang was defeated and his wife was captured by Xiang Yu. ThenLiu Bang gathered his troops and met Xiang Yu's army again. Xiang Yuhad his wife brought out to the front of his array. He said to LiuBang that if Liu did not surrender, he would cook his wife like apig. Liu Bang answered smilingly, “If you cook her, please give apiece of her flesh to me.” Xiang Yu felt that his ruse of threatwas useless, and they fought once more. As no one could subdue theother, they had a truce, and the wife was released and returned toLiu Bang after two years as a captive.
Notlong afterwards, Liu Bang and Xiang Yu had battles again. Finally,Liu Bang used the tactics of Han Xin (231—196 BC), a famous generalin history, to lay ten ambushes and conquered Xiang Yu, who had onlya handful of followers left. He was advised that he could go back towhere he came from. There he could gather more supporters and fightLiu Bang once more. But he always thought of himself a hero. A heroshould never fail. Now he failed and was ashamed of himself. Herefused to go back and killed himself at Wu River. His homeland wasjust across the river. He was a real hero while Liu Bang was a rascalin his character and doings. People of that time thus thought of eachof them.
Nowas no rivals any more, Liu Bang founded a new dynasty known as Handynasty. His wife was duly the empress. She had born two children forLiu Bang. The son, Liu Ying, was made crown prince later, then becameEmperor Hui (210—188 BC) after the death of his father. Thedaughter was Princess Luyuan. Liu Bang had also a pretty concubinecalled Ladyship Qi, who bore a son, Prince Ruyi. Since Ladyship Qiwas the favorite of the emperor, she tried to persuade the emperor tomake her son the crown prince, but courtiers all opposed. So her planfailed. But Empress Luu began to hate her.
ChenXi (?--195 BC) was a general of Liu Bang. In 197 BC, when Liu becamethe emperor, he was given the title of Marquis Xinyang. He wasoriginally under Han Xin. That year when Liu Bang suspected him forrebellion and summoned him to the capital, intending to kill him, hehad to rebel. So Liu Bang led a large army to fight him. Empress Luustayed in the capital to control the situation. When she was toldthat Han Xin would support Chen Xi to rebel, she made some excuse tosend for Han Xin to the capital. When Han Xin arrived, she killedhim. Some historians commented that if Han Xin rebelled too, he mightdefeat Liu Bang and became the emperor of another dynasty as he was agreat strategist, but he was not a politician. He did not havepolitical insight. Former historians said that it was a pity thatsuch a great strategist was killed by a woman. The woman was anexcellent politician. At last Chen Xi was defeated and killed in thefight.
WhenLiu Bang died, the crown prince was still under age, and so EmpressLuu became the empress dowager and administrated the empire. She thenused pretenses to eliminate some powerful Liu family members one byone, and gave some important positions to her Luu family members. Theyoung emperor disagreed to what his mother did, but he could donothing about it. Then Empress Luu poisoned Prince Ruyi and had hismother Ladyship Qi's four limbs cut off, her eyes blinded and herears deafened. Her body was put in a pig pen. She was called humanpig. Such a cruel thing did happen, recorded in the history. Theyoung emperor grieved to the heart. So he gave himself up fordrinking and merry-making and died young. Empress Luu maintained herpower till her death. Then her Luu family members were all eliminatedby Liu family members.

December 6th, 2016, 03:44 PM
10. Beauty Yu (awoman died for her lover)
Beauty Yu (?--202BC) was the concubine of Xiang Yu (see above). She was beautiful andcould dance with swords. When Xiang Yu became the leader of rebels inthe area of Suzhou city, where lived Beauty Yu's family, Beauty Yuadmired him. Xiang Yu had great strength and was looked upon as ahero. A beauty always felt for a hero. So she married him. Buthistorians called her concubine, not wife. She followed himeverywhere in battles and danced the sword dance for him at night inhis tent.
After severalbattles with Liu Bang, escaped from ten ambushes, Xiang Yu wassurrounded at Wu river. He could broke through and crossed the river,but he wound not do it (see above). Beauty Yu danced her last dancefor him in the tent while she sang. After she finished, she cutherself at the throat with the sword in her hand. She died like aheroine. She sacrificed her dear life for her lover, the hero in hereyes. Then Xiang Yu ended his life with his own hand, too. Her storytouched people at large to the heart. The name of Beauty Yu washanded down and turned into a well-known Beijing opera. An Anonymouspoet in Qing dynasty wrote a poem about it in the words like what shewould say:
My hero breathedhis last breath in the south of Yangtze River;
It was not rightfor my humble person to enter Han palace*.
My loyal bloodwould turn into the grass by the river;
And the blossomswould be redder than azalea flowers.
*It means that shewould not surrender and be taken to Han palace—the palace of LiuBang.

December 7th, 2016, 03:26 PM
11. Empress Dou (anempress dowager through four generations)
Empress Dou (205—135BC) was the wife of Emperor Wen of Han dynasty. She was born in acommon poor family. Her father was drowned falling into a river. Hermother died early, too, leaving behind three orphans. In her teenage,she became a palace maid. She thought that she would be a maid allher life, but she was satisfied because she lived better than before.At the time, Liu Bang was the emperor. When Liu Bang died, EmpressLuu gave each of the remaining Liu princes five maids. As her homewas close to Zhao fief, she bribed the eunuch who was in charge ofthe distribution. But the eunuch forgot and sent her to Dai fief. SoEmpress Dou was given to Prince Dai, who liked the pretty girl andmarried her. She bore two sons and a daughter for him. After thedeath of Empress Luu, Prince Dai was supported by all courtiers to bethe new emperor, Emperor Wen (202—157 BC), and his wife was madethe empress, Empress Dou, and his elder son was made the crownprince, later Emperor Jin (156—87 BC). Empress Dou never dreamedwhen she was a maid that she could be empress. But some years aftershe was the empress, misfortune befell her. She was blind.
Then she was nolonger the favorite woman of the emperor. His new favorite woman wasconcubine Shen. But Empress Dou kept her mind peaceful and nevershowed any sign of jealousy. She was always lenient. That was why shecould live through four generations without anyone to vie for herposition.
When her husbanddied, her elder son, Emperor Jin, succeeded the throne. She wasempress dowager. But as a matter of fact, Empress Dou liked hersecond son, Prince Liang, better. She wanted Prince Liang to be thesuccessor of his brother. Emperor Jin was a filial son and could notrefuse the request of his mother, but all the courtiers opposed itbecause it was the rule in the feudal system that the son succeededthe father. No one should break the rule. Anyway, as she was atalented woman, she helped her son to handle the national affairs.Then, after the death of her son, her grandson became the emperor,Emperor Wu. Now she was grand empress dowager, and the first grandempress dowager in the history of China.
The grandson was anindependent young man and would not let her grandmother to interferewith his administration. She had to retire to the back palace toenjoy the rest of her life. In the reign of Emperor Wu, the Handynasty expanded its territory. The emperor adopted the works ofConfucius as the reading stuff in schools. Confucius was thus madewell-known since then.

December 8th, 2016, 04:45 PM
12. Wang Zhi (from acommon woman to the empress)
Wang Zhi (?--125 BC)was the second wife of Emperor Jing (188—141 BC) of Han dynasty.She was born in a common family and married an ordinary man calledJin Wangsun, and bore a daughter for him by name of Jin Su.Presently, Wang Zhi deserted her husband and daughter, and enteredthe palace of the crown prince disguised as a virgin. Emperor Jingmade her his concubine. His first wife was Empress Bo, who had nochildren of her own. Another concubine Li Ji had three sons and theeldest son was made the crown prince. Then Wang Zhi bore for theemperor three daughters and a son. At four years old, the son got thetitle of Prince Jiaodong.
As Empress Bo didnot give any birth, the emperor wanted to depose her from theposition of empress and make Li Ji the empress. Emperor Jing had asister Liu Piao, who had a daughter named Chen Ah Jiao. Liu Piaowanted to marry her daughter to the crown prince. The concubine LiJi did not like Ah Jiao, and so did not grant the wish of the mother.Therefore, the sister hated Li Ji. When Wang Zhi learned therelationship between Liu Piao and Li Ji, she said that she waswilling to let Ah Jiao marry here son, the future crown prince, whoturned out later to be Emperor Wu. Therefore, the sister married herdaughter to her son, Emperor Wu.
Then the sistertold Emperor Jing that if he made Li Ji the empress, when her son,the present crown prince, succeeded the throne, and as Li Ji was acruel woman, she would certainly make Wang Zhi, his favoriteconcubine, be the second human pig. The only solution, she added, wasto decrown the present crown prince, the eldest son of Li Ji so thatshe could never be empress dowager and could never do any harm toWang Zhi. At first emperor Jing did not believe her. Once he wantedconcubine Li Ji to promise that when he died, she should treat otherconcubines well, but Li Ji did not make the promise. Therefore,Emperor Jing decided not to make Li Ji the empress, and moreover,decrowned the crown prince and made him Prince Lingjiang. Li Ji gotseriously sick and died soon.
In 149 BC, EmperorJing made Wang Zhi the empress and her son the crown prince. In 141BC, Emperor Jing died and the crown prince became the emperor,Emperor Wu (07/14/156—03/29/87). And Wang Zhi was then empressdowager.
When Emperor Wulearned that his mother had a daughter Jin Su with her ex-husband, hesent someone to look for her. As Jin Su knew that someone was afterher, she was afraid and escaped and hid herself somewhere. At lastshe was found and brought to the presence of the emperor, who let hergo to see the empress dowager, her mother. Empress Dowager was happyfor the reunion with her first daughter. In 126 BC, Wang Zhi died andwas buried with Emperor Jing.
Emperor Wu was agreat emperor of Han dynasty. He conquered the minority in the northand expanded the territory of Han dynasty to the west.

December 9th, 2016, 08:07 PM
13. Chen Ahjiao (aquick-tempered empress)
Chen Ahjiao (?--?)was the wife of Emperor Wu, and was made the empress. When both werechildren, the mother of the girl, who was the sister of Emperor Jing,held the young Emperor Wu on her lap. There were an array of palacemaids waiting on them. The mother asked the boy, “When you grow up, do you want to get married?” the boy said, “Sure.” then themother pointed to the maids and asked the young Emperor Wu, “Who doyou like?” The little boy said that none of them he liked. Then themother, pointing to her daughter Ahjiao and asked, “Do you like her?” The little boy answered that if he could get her, he wouldbuild a house of gold to let her live in. This story is known to allChinese people.
When they both grewup, Emperor Wu did marry Ahjiao and made her his empress. Emperor Wuwanted to have some kind of reform, but was opposed by some powerfulcourtiers. Even the grand empress dowager Dou had different opinions.But Ahjiao supported him and her parents supported their son-in-law,which made the emperor tide over the crisis.
Ahjiao was a girlwith a quick temper, and besides, she did not have any children forthe emperor for ten years. Gradually the emperor got tired of her.The emperor always had many girls round him. The most favorite oneamong them was Wei Zifu (?--90 BC). Out of jealousy, Ahjiao went tosee the emperor and chided him for neglecting her. The emperor blamedher not to have any children for him. That was why he should haveanother girl for the posterity's sake. He must have at least a son tosucceed the throne. Ahjiao could have nothing more to say and had toretire to her own room. She sent for a doctor after another in hopesof being pregnant, but in vain.
Ahjiao wanted toget rid of Wei Zifu, but Wei was with the emperor everyday, and shehad no chance to have her wish fulfilled. Then she found a witch andasked her to exercise her magic power to win back the favor of theemperor, but no result for several months. The emperor heard of thisand was infuriated. He ordered the witch to be executed and confinedAhjiao in Changmen Hall after she was deposed from her position ofempress. She died in melancholy. Wei Zifu was made the empress.

December 10th, 2016, 04:56 PM
14. Wei Zifu (from asinger to the empress)
Wei Zifu (?--90 BC)was the second wife of Emperor Wu. Wei Zifu was originally asing-song girl in the residence of Princess Pingyang and her husbandMarquis Pingyang. Once Emperor Wu visited the princess and saw thegirl. He liked her on the spot and took her back to the palace.
When Wei Zifu wastaken into the palace, the empress then was Ahjiao, who hated thebeautiful new-comer and made her a maid only. And she could not seethe emperor, who seemed forgot her entirely. Once the emperor let allthe maids gather in his presence and wanted to dismiss some old ones.Wei Zifu was then among them, and she asked the emperor to let herleave the palace. The emperor saw her and refreshed his liking ofher. He gave her the title of Ladyship Wei, next to the empress. In128 BC, she bore a son for the emperor, named Liu Che, and thus wasmade the empress, since the ex-empress had already been deposed andconfined in Changmen Hall. In 122 BC, the son was declared the crownprince.
When grown up, thecrown prince showed himself a lenient and clever man. His father, theemperor, liked him very much. But as now the empress grew old, theemperor ignored her. He always preferred new young pretty girls. Hehad later Ladyship Li, Ladyship Xing, Ladyship Yin and Ladyship Zhao.Ladyship Xing and Ladyship Yin were more jealous of each other andwherever Ladyship Xing was present, Ladyship Yin would not come, andvice verse.
There were somewicked courtiers. The most wicked one was Jiang Chong. He oftenslandered the crown prince before the emperor. He knew clearly thatwhen the crown prince became the emperor, the new emperor wouldcertainly punish him for his evil doings. But the emperor would notlisten to him. At the time, some witches exercised black magic ofcursing the emperor for his death. It was found out and all thewitches were executed. Then the emperor let Jiang Chong investigatewho was behind all this. Jiang Chong seized the opportunity to framethe crown prince. He sent someone secretly to bury a wooden doll withthe birthday of the emperor engraved on it. This was used at the timefor curse of death of someone whose birthday was engraved on thewooden doll.
The crown princewas a clever man and knew that Jiang Chong would do something to harmhim. He would act first. He went with his bodyguards to see theemperor intending to reveal the scheme of Jiang Chong, just whenJiang Chong led some soldiers to his residence intending to dig upthe doll and take it to the emperor so that it would be a proof thatthe crown prince was cursing the emperor for death. They met in thestreet and fought each other. At last Jiang Chong was killed.
The emperor sent amessenger to see what was happening. The messenger came back andreported untruthfully to the emperor that the crown prince wasrebelling. So the emperor sent army to subdue the rebellion and thecrown prince was defeated, because he really did not want to rebeland had few fighters with him. The crown prince had to escape andhide himself somewhere. Afterwards he was detected and hangedhimself. When his mother, the empress, heard of it, she hangedherself, too. She held her position of empress for thirty-eightyears, a very long period of time. Finally the truth was known to theemperor, and he killed all those who joined in the pursuit of thecrown prince.
By the way, EmpressWei Zifu had a stepbrother, Wei Qing by name. He was a famous generalin defense of the northern frontier of Han territory. He was promotedto the position was because of his stepsister, the empress. If he wasan ordinary man, he would not have the chance to be promoted to thegeneralship.

Harper J. Cole
December 10th, 2016, 10:30 PM
Hi there, I'm enjoying this series of mini-biographies, from a country for which I'm not too familiar with the history.

I'm noticing quite a few missing spaces between words. Are you copying directly from Microsoft Word? That can create problems like that. To avoid it, click on "Go Advanced" while making a post, and then click on this button ...


... then you can copy your text into the window provided. I'd also recommend leaving a blank line between paragraphs for maximum readability.

Keep them coming! :thumbl:


December 11th, 2016, 03:31 PM
[yes, I directly copy from my word file and post it here. Old dog can't learn new tricks. i'm going to be 80. sorry.]

15. Zhao Feiyan (agood dancer of an empress)
Zhao Feiyan ( 45—1BC) was the wife of Emperor Cheng (51—7 BC). She was so beautifuland a legendary woman in the Han dynasty. When she was born, herparents put her in the fields, supposed to let her die. But threedays afterwards, when the parents went to check on her, she was stillalive. So her parents took her home and brought her up. In hergirlhood, she was sent to the residence of Princess YangA to learndancing. She was so skillful a dancer and had a special style like aflying swallow. So she was later known as Zhao Faiyan (meaning flyingswallow). She was said to be so light and lean physically that shecould dance on the hand of a big man. Literary men often compared herwith the Imperial concubine Yang, who was on the chubby side. Thecomparison showed a lean beauty with a fat beauty.
Emperor Cheng likedmerry-making and once visited Princess YangA. When he saw Feiyandancing, he immediately fell in love with her and took her to thepalace and made her a concubine. Not long after, he deposed theempress and made Feiyan the empress. She did not bear any childrenfor him. But the emperor did not live long. After his death, the sonsof other concubines vied to be the new emperor. Prince Dingtao becamethe emperor, Emperor Ai (25—1 BC), because his mother bribed ZhaoFeiyan. In return Feiyan was made the empress dowager. Only severalyears later, Emperor Ai died. The next emperor was Emperor Ping (9BC—5 AD). He was the nephew of Emperor Cheng and a cousin ofEmperor Ai. When he became the emperor, he was only nine years old. Acourtier Wang Mang seized the power. He deposed the empress dowagerFeiyan and confined her somewhere. She at last made suicide.

December 12th, 2016, 03:39 PM
16. Ladyship Ban ( apoetess)
Ladyship Ban (?--?)was a concubine of Emperor Cheng (51—7 BC). She was not onlybeautiful, but also versed in poetry, with a good temper. She woulddo everything properly, to the palace etiquette. Once the emperorwanted to go out and let Ladyship Ban sit beside him on the coach,but Ban refused, saying, “Your Majesty, your humble concubine readbooks from olden time that a wise emperor let his good courtier sitbeside him. A stupid emperor let his favorite beauty sit beside him.If your humble concubine sits beside Your Majesty, does it mean thatYour Majesty is a stupid emperor?” The emperor thought that she wasright and let her go.
When the empressdowager learned it, she really appreciated Ban. She said, “Therewas Fan Ji in Chu State (in the first warring period). She refused toeat meat because the king liked to hunt. People respected her. Nowthere is Ban in our palace. She can be compared with Fan Ji inmoral.”
Zhao Feiyan, thegreat dancer, was not the empress yet at the time. She was jealous ofthe empress and Ban. She always slandered them both, saying that theywere cursing the emperor to death. Since the emperor now preferredher to other women, he often believed what she said. So he deposedthe empress and made Zhao Feiyan the empress. The emperor also sentfor Ban to blame her for cursing him. Ban pleaded herself, saying,“Your Majesty, your humble concubine heard that life and death,wealth and nobleness are all fated by Heaven. If there are deities,they know everything. They won't grant the wish of anyone who curseshis master. If there are no deities, what is the use to curse? So Iwon't do anything like curse,” The emperor thought that she wasright and did not punish her. On the contrary, he gave her a hundredcatties of gold as a reward.
Ban knew that shewas in danger, and offered to live with the empress dowager and waiton her. She died there. She had written a poem “Gauze Fan”. Thefan at that time was composed of a round frame of wood or bamboo,with a piece of gauze fixed on it. The poem goes like this:
Newly cut the gauzefrom Qi area,
It is as white asfrost and snow.
It is cut to make aHappy-Union* fan,
As round as thebright moon.
It is stored inyour sleeve,
It gives breezeswhen waved.
I often fear thatthe autumn comes;
The cool wind takesaway the heat.
The fan will bedeserted in a box,
The love for itwill end midway.
In this poem thepoetess meant that she was like a fan. When it was not needed, it wasjust thrown in a box and forgotten.

*It is the name ofthe fan. The couple share the fan and feel in happy union.

December 13th, 2016, 04:13 PM
17. ShangguanXiaomei (the youngest empress)
Shangguan (doublesurname) Xiaomei (89—37 BC) was the wife of Emperor Zhao (94—74BC), and the daughter of Shangguan An (126—80 BC) and the maternalgranddaughter of Great General Huo Guang (130—68 BC), who was themost powerful man at that time. Her paternal grandfather wasShangguan Ji, Left General, (140—80 BC). Left general and rightgeneral were the titles of generals, just under the great general.
In the second moonof 87 BC, Emperor Wu died. His son succeeded to the throne, and wasEmperor Zhao, who was then only eight years of age. Therefore, allcourtiers decided that Princess Eyi should move and live in thepalace to take care of the boy emperor. Princess Eyi (117—80 BC)was the daughter of emperor Wu and big sister of the present emperor.The father and the grandfather of Xiaomei both went to the palace tobefriend Princess Eyi. When the emperor was twelve, he reached theage to have a wife. The father of Xiaomei wished his daughter to bethe empress. She was then only six. As she was so young, her maternalgrandfather, Great general Huo Guang, did not consent.
Princess Eyi had alover called Ding Wairen (?--80 BC). When the husband of Princess Eyidied, she found him, who was an acquaintance of her son. Then thefather of Xiaomei went to see Ding and asked him to persuade PrincessEyi to let his daughter be the empress, promising that Ding would begiven an official title when his daughter became the empress. So Dingwent to see Princess Eyi and made the request. Princess Eyi agreedand in 83 BC, Xiaomei was made the empress, the youngest empress inthe history of China.
To keep the promiseto Ding, the father and the grandfather of Xiaomei both went to seegreat general Huo Guang to ask him give Ding a title. But Huo Guangrejected. So the father and the grandfather, and also Princess Eyihad a grudge against Huo Guang. They plotted to kill him, but HuoGuang learned their scheme and sent troopers in his control andkilled the father and the grandfather and Ding. Princess Eyi madesuicide.
EmpressXiaomei was then only eight years old. She knew nothing about thecoupd'état and so she was safe. Besides, she was the granddaughter ofHuo Guang. When she was grown up, she did not bear any children forthe emperor. When Emperor Zhao died in 74 BC, as he did not have ason, Huo Guang and courtiers decided that Prince Changyi, a grandsonof Emperor Wu, should be the new emperor, and Xiaomei be the youngestempress dowager. But Prince Changyi was a lewd man and disappointedHuo Guang and courtiers. After twenty-seven days, he was deposed.Then after serious discussion, they made Liu Xun, the great grandsonof Emperor Wu, be the emperor, Emperor Xuan (91—48 BC). Accordingto Chinese generation sequence, Xiaomei, the present empress dowager,should be the great grandmother of the new emperor. So she was nowthe grand empress dowager. She was at the time only fifteen yearsold, the youngest grand empress dowager in the history.
The wife of greatgeneral Huo Guang poisoned the wife of Emperor Xuan, the legalempress, with the intention to marry her daughter to the emperor andto be the empress. In the third moon of 68 BC, the great general Huo Guang died. Both the grand empress dowager and the emperor attendedthe funeral, a great honor to the diseased. But in the fourth moon of67 BC, the Huo family members rebelled and were conquered. As thegrand empress dowager, though she was the granddaughter of Huo Guang,did not even know the rebellion, her position as grand empressdowager was not affected till she died at the age of fifty-two. Shewas buried with her husband, Emperor Zhao. It was the tradition inthe feudal China.

December 14th, 2016, 03:27 PM
18.Wang Zhaojun (the second beauty of the four beauties)
WangZhaojun (52—19 BC) was one of the four beauties, the second beautyin the sequence of the year. She was a great beauty at the time, butwith a bitter destiny. She was clever, and could read and paint. Shecould also play lute and chess. In the spring of 36 BC, when she wasseventeen, Emperor Yuan (75—33 BC) gave the edict to selectbeautiful girls and sent to the palace. He would choose the mostbeautiful ones among them to be his concubines, and the rest of themwould be the maids. As there were so many girls, the emperor was busyand could not see every girl himself. Therefore, he ordered thepalace painter Mao Yanshou to draw a portrait of each of them andpresented them to the emperor. It meant that the emperor would choosefrom portraits.
Almost every girlbribed the painter and asked him to draw her a bit prettier than shereally was. But Wang Zhaojun did not bribe him as she was soconfident of her beauty. So the painter drew her with a bit ofcontortion. As a result, she was not selected. She did not have anychance to see the emperor for three years.
Han dynasty sinceestablishment was in continual war with a northern minority calledXiongnu tribe. The chieftain of the tribe, Uhaanyehe by name (58—31BC), at that time was weary of war and wanted peace for his people.Therefore, Chieftain Uhaanyehe came to the capital ChangAn city tosee the emperor. He requested to have some girl in the palace to behis wife so that the relationship between him and the emperor wouldbe close as relatives, and then there would thus have long peace forthe two peoples. The emperor liked the idea. When the emperor wasconsidering who would be chosen as the wife of the chieftain, WangZhaojun came forth, offering herself to be the one.
At the feast heldfor the departure of the chieftain and his chosen wife, Wang Zhaojunshould surely be present, fully attired. When the emperor saw such abeauty, he did regret letting her go. But he could not go back on hiswords in the presence of the chieftain while the chieftain was sohappy to have such a beauty for his wife. After the feast, thechieftain and Wang Zhaojun left the capital for the north to thehomeland of the Xiongnu tribe. Then the emperor found out the truthwhy he missed her. It was because the painter drew her with acontortion. So he had the painter beheaded.
The people ofXiongnu tribe welcomed Wang Zhaojun warmly and looked upon her as theguarantee of peace. But life for Zhaojun in the strange land washard. First, she was not used to such food she had never eatenbefore. Then the life style was also different to her as her formerlife style. In 31 BC, Chieftain Uhaanyehe died. He had a son whosucceeded to the position of chieftain. The son was the stepson ofWang Zhaojun. According to the tradition of Xiongnu tribe, the soncould marry his stepmother. So Wang Zhaojun became the wife of herstepson. She bore two daughters for him. In 20 BC, the stepson died.Wang Zhaojun became the widow. One year later, she died at the age ofthirty-three. She was buried in the southern suburb of the presentHohhot city, at the foot of a green mountain and by the Yellow River.Her tomb was called Green Tomb by people in later dynasties.

December 15th, 2016, 03:28 PM
19.Ban Zhao (a blue stocking, a female scholar)
Ban Zhao(49—120AD)wasthe first female historian and a literary woman. She inherited herfamily talent. Her father, Ban Biao (3—54 AD) was a famous learnedscholar at the time. He had been the mayor of Xu town before heretired. Her eldest brother Ban Gu (32—92 AD) was a historian. BanZhao also helped her eldest brother in the writing of a history book,titled “Bookof Han.”As a matter of fact, this history book was begun to be written by herfather. When her father died, her eldest brother Ban Gu continued thework while her second brother Ban Chao (32—102 AD) joined the armyand became a famous general, fighting at the frontier.
WhenBan Gu died, she continued the work, too, till it was finished. Itwas a great work after the “Recordsof History”by Sima Qian (145—87 BC). When Emperor He (79—105 AD) read herbook, he greatly appreciated it and sent for her into the palace. Theemperor wanted her to be the tutor of the empress and his concubines.The empress dowager Deng also liked her. At the age of fourteen, shehad married to Cao Shishu (?--?), who died early and she became awidow, and never married again.
Ather old age, she was still writing. Another famous book of hers wasthe “FemaleCommandments.”she wrote this book with the intention to tell the female members ofher family what females should do and what they should not. At firstit was only read within the family. Then people outside the familycopied it and circulated it till the book became circulated.
The gist of thebook was that women must obey men. Especially wife must obey husband.Thus it began the non-equality between men and women for thousands ofyears till the beginning of the republic. The topics in her book werethree obediences and four moral rules. The three obediences werethose that before marriage, women must obey parents; after marriage,women must obey their husbands; and after the death of husbands, theymust obey their sons, i.e., when they became widows and if they haddifferent opinions from their sons, they must listen to their sons.But there were exceptions for this. As many sons were taught to befilial, any of them would listen to their mothers. And a woman couldnot remarry after the death of her husband while a man could marry asmany times as he liked. It would be looked upon as a shame if a womanremarried, though many a woman did remarry in the history because ofsome reason or others, like she was too poor to keep her childrenalive or the mother of her late husband drove her away, etc.
Four moral ruleswere that a woman must be demure, quiet, avoiding misbehavior; awoman must not gossip and must say everything fit to the situationand listeners; a woman must keep proper appearance, wearing cleansuitable dress; a Woman must be able to weave, sew and cook forfamily members and guests.

December 16th, 2016, 03:46 PM
20. Cai Wenji (afemale musician and poetess)
Cai Wenji (176--249AD) was the daughter of the famous literary man and calligrapher, CaiYi (133-1932 AD). He also knew mathematics, astronomy, and music.Growing up in such a family environment, Cai Wenji was talented andversed in music. She was a musician as well as a poetess. She couldplay zither and had the ability to tell which string on the zitherwas broken by the sound when other people were playing and a stringsuddenly broke.
She was married toMr. Wei, but he died after only one year. As she did not bear anychildren for him, she was sent back to her father's home. Then whenXiongnu tribe in the north invaded the area where she lived, she wascaptured and was forced to marry the chieftain at the age oftwenty-three. She gave birth to two sons for him, and stayed therefor twelve years. She learned to play the reed pipe, a musicalinstrument of the tribe, and also learned their language.
When the warlordCao Cao (155—220 AD) was in power, he thought of Cai Wenji, thedaughter of Cai Yi, who had been his tutor when he was young. So CaoCao sent a messenger to give the chieftain a thousand taels of goldand a pair of white jade to redeem Cai Wenji, who was then back toher family alone, leaving her two son with the father. Then she wasmarried to Dong Si and bore a son and a daughter for him. Her fatheralready died. She wrote down four hundred articles of her father'swriting from memory. It was because in the warring chaos, most of herfather's writings were lost. She handed down to us only a longautobiographic poem and song words to the music of the reed pipe,called “Eighteen Beats of Reed Pipe.” (A beat means a stanza inher poetic song words.) These were her own composition.

December 17th, 2016, 03:02 PM
21. Xun Guanniang (akungfu girl)
Xun Guanniang(303—360 AD) was the first girl in the history of China, who hadkungfu and could fight on horseback. She was born a hundred yearsearlier than Hua Mulan (412—502 AD). She was the great greatgranddaughter of Xun Yu (163—212 AD), who was a famous adviser ofthe warlord Cao Cao.
It was in thesecond warring period (265—589 AD), and in the third moon of 317AD, when Xun Guanniang was only thirteen. Her father, Xun Song(263—329 AD) was a general guarding Wan town. Du Zeng, amagistrate, wanted to betray the emperor and took Wan town as hisbase. He commanded his two thousand soldiers and came to surround thetown. There were only one thousand men for the defense. The attacklasted for several days and Du Zeng could not take the town yet. Butcasualties on both sides increased. Besides, the provisions were lessand less in the town since it was surrounded by the enemy. Thesituation was so serious that someone must volunteer to break enemy'ssurrounding line to get reinforcement from other cities. For a coupleof days, no one volunteered. General Xun Song wanted to go himself.But as he was the commander, people could not defend the town withouthis leadership. At that critical moment, the girl of thirteen stoodforth for the difficult task. Others were doubtful whether a girl ofsuch age could succeed. She analyzed that the enemy's soldiers wereall exhausted. They looked okay in the daytime, but in the night theymust fall in sound sleep. She added that if she could have a fewbravest fighters with her, they could steal through enemy's lineunder the cover of night. No one could disagree, or they would alldie, if not in combat, but of starvation.
Thus they brokethrough the line with little fighting. When they reached the nearestcity, the magistrate there agreed to help. So when the reinforcementcame to attack the enemies from the back, the defenders in the townwent out to attack from front. Du Zeng was defeated and the town wassafe. The girl was praised by all the townsfolk that she could finishsuch a difficult job at so young age.

December 18th, 2016, 03:49 PM
22.Liu Lanzhi (a woman of tragic death)
LiuLanzhi (?--?) was the wife of a petty official, Jiao Chongqing(?--?), living in Lujiang town of present Anhui province, towards theend of East Han dynasty (25—220 AD). She was a nice girl from awell-to-do family. She could weave at thirteen, could make dress atfourteen, could play harp at fifteen, and could read classics atsixteen. She married her husband at seventeen.
Jiaofamily consisted of the old widow, his mother, her mother-in-law, andhis young sister. At first the couple lived a harmonious life. Buthis mother was very picky and fastidious. She did not like herdaughter-in-law for no reason at all. Perhaps, like other old widows,she depended on her son as her life company after the death of herhusband. Now the daughter-in-law came and it seemed as if she tookaway her life company and left her alone. Therefore, she hated thewife of her son and tried to drive her away.
Sheoften complained to her son that his wife was not nice to her anddisobeyed her. In fact, the daughter-in-law was very nice and filialto her. She listened to her mother-in-law for whatever she said.Anyway, the mother decided to get rid of his wife. In old China,there were seven rules for a wife to be driven back to where she camefrom, i.e., the house of her parents. The seven rules were that shedisobeyed her mother- or father-in-law; that she did not bear a son(a daughter did not count); that she was lewd; that she jealous ifher husband had concubines; that she had severe diseases; that sheliked to gossip; and that she stole from her husband's house for thefamily of her parents. She did not bear any children for her son yet.
JiaoChongqing was a filial son and under the pressure of his mother, whooften threatened her son with suicide if he did not send his wifeaway. He had one day to harden up his heart and bid farewell to hiswife. He promised her to get her back some day when he persuaded hismother to accept her. But Liu Lanzhi had no confidence about it. Shewent back to the home of her parents, to whom it was a disgrace thattheir daughter was sent back. So they had to marry their daughter toanother man. The daughter could not disobey her parents and agreed tomarry again. But in her mind, she determined to end her life to therule that a woman should never remarry. The night before her weddingday to another man, she went out and threw herself in a pond near herhome. When Jiao Chongqing heard of the death of his ex-wife, hehanged himself on the branch of a tree in the courtyard of his home.They were buried together at the foot of Huagai Mountain. Localpeople grew pine trees and cypresses around their grave. An anonymouspoet wrote a long poem about their sad story.
Alegend developed that there were a pair of mandarin ducks flyingabout the trees, crying bitterly. Young couples in the subsequentdynasties came to visit their tomb in hopes that the deceased couplewould bless them to have a happy result for their love.

December 19th, 2016, 04:39 PM
23.Diao Chan (the third beauty of the four beauties)
DiaoChan (?--?) was the third beauties of the four beauties in thehistory of China. (As for the fourth beauty Imperial Concubine Yang,please read my book Love Tales of Ancient China.) Her surnamewas Ren and her given name was also unknown. Her own parents wereunknown, too. Being beautiful and clever, she was selected at the ageof fifteen to enter the palace and appointed to be a handler ofheadwear for the empress and concubines. Her job title was Diaochan.Hence, historians called her Diaochan.
Thenthere was a riot in the palace, and Diaochan escaped from the palace.She was then adopted by Wang Yong (137—192 AD) as his daughter.Wang Yong was an official of high rank towards the end of East Handynasty. At that time, Dong Zhuo was in power as head of courtiers.He was a corrupt man. Wang Yong and other courtiers wanted to killhim. Once Cao Cao, a petty officer then, went to assassinate him, butfailed and escaped. The event was that Cao Cao had a good dagger andknew that Dong Zhuo liked good weapons. Therefore, carrying thedagger, he went to see Dong Zhuo, who was then napping. When Cao Caowas about to draw out the dagger to stab Dong, suddenly Dong openedhis eyes and asked Cao what he was doing. Cao said that he got a gooddagger and came to offer it to Dong. As Dong took it, Cao badefarewell and fled out of the capital secretly.
SoWang Yong had no chance to kill Dong. When he adopted the girl, awonderful idea struck him. Dong was a lewd man and liked beautifulgirls. Therefore, Wang Yong made up a scheme called “BeautyEntrapment.” Dong Zhuo had an adopted son by name of Luu Bu (?--199AD), who was known as the bravest and more skillful knight at thetime. Luu was young and still single.
Thetrick was carried out like this. First Wang Yong invited Luu fordinner at home. When dinner went on midway, Wang let Diaochan comeout to toast Luu. At the first sight of the girl, Luu fell in lovewith her right off as she was such a beauty. Wang thereby promised tomarry the girl, declared as his daughter, to Luu. Luu was glad andgrateful.
Nextday, Wang Yong invited Dong Zhuo for dinner at his home. When Dongcame, Wang let Diaochan come out to toast Dong. The girl was declaredto be a singsong girl to entertain guests. As she was so beautiful,Dong liked her at once. When dinner was over, Dong took the girl withhim even without asking for the permission of Wang. If the girl wasdeclared as Wang's daughter, Dong could not take her away so freely.But a singsong girl had no status in society, Dong could do anythingwith her as he liked. Because Dong was so powerful, Wang could notsay NO to him. If the girl was declared to be his daughter, Wangcould say NO. That was the point of the trick. So far so good for theruse.
Afew days later, Luu Bu came to ask when the wedding could take place.Wang was silent. Luu inquired again, and again no answer. At last,Luu forced Wang for an immediate reply. Want sighed and said withtears in his eyes, “A few days ago, I invited your (adoptive)father for dinner. When he saw my daughter, he just took her awaywithout even asking my permission.” Hearing this, Luu began to hateDong for robbing him of his wife. But he did not go to see Dong todemand an explanation. He was a bit afraid of his adoptive father.
Oneday, Luu came to Dong's residence and met Dong in the Fengyi Arbor inthe garden. Chinese people liked to give names to their arbors andpavilions so that when they mentioned the names they knew where theywould meet. When they were talking in the arbor, Diaochanintentionally came bringing cups of tea. She looked at Luu with tearyeyes as if saying that she really loved Luu, but was unwillinglytaken by Dong. Luu met with Diaochan's eyes, but he could say nothingbefore Dong. Dong detected the love eye contact between the girl andLuu. He flared up and wanted to kill Luu, but Luu ran away. When Dongtold it to one of his advisers, he said that Dong should not offendsuch a brave general for a girl and that Dong should give the girl toLuu so Luu would be thankful to him and even willing to die for him.Dong considered it over and over and made his final decision tofollow the advice. When he talked to the girl, she started to crybitterly, saying that she did not like Luu, and that if she wasforced to leave Dong, she would rather kill herself. Finally Dong lether stay with him. The trick went on smoothly.
Atlast all courtiers encouraged and instigated Luu to kill Dong. Theysaid that as a young hero, Luu should not let his wife be occupied byanother man and that he must take her back. The only way to take thegirl back was to kill Dong. Luu thus made up his mind and killedDong. Then he took Diaochan to his residence and married her.
Nolong afterwards, some Dong's followers revolted and Luu escaped withDiaochan to a small town called Xiapi. Wang Yong was killed by thefollowers. After the death of Dong Zhuo, Cao Cao rose in power andconquered the followers. Then he attacked Luu Bu, who was killed. Asfor the end of Diaochan, there were two legends. One was that shehanged herself to follow her husband Luu Bu to Hades. The other wasthat Cao Cao captured her after the death of Luu, and no one knewwhat became of her later.

December 20th, 2016, 03:22 PM
24. Xie Daoyun (afamous poetess)
Xie Daoyun (350—405AD) was a famous poetess in the history. With the above two, BanZhao, Cai Wenji and she were known as the three talented women in theearly history of China. She was the niece of Xie An (320—385 AD), afamous politician and general, and the daughter-in-law of Wang Xizhi(303—361 AD), a renowned calligrapher. The most known event of herwas that one day in winter when it was snowing heavily, the flakeswere hovering down. Xie An, one of his nephews and the girl weregathering to look at the flying snow flakes. Xie An asked who coulduse something in comparison to describe the flying snow flakes. Thenephew said, “Casting salts into the air is the right comparison.”But the girl said, “It's better to compare it to the catkins flyingin the wind.” Catkins were better comparison than salts to the snowflakes. So poets in subsequent dynasties said that she had catkintalent.
It was a traditionthat on the third day of her marriage, a girl could return to thehome of her parents and the parents would inquire her what she feltabout the marriage. So did her parents to her, she was dissatisfiedwith he husband. When her parents said that he was a good man withoutany defects in his character. She answered that he was okay, but agood-for-nothing while his cousins and his brother were all talentedand had their own careers. Once the brother (also a famouscalligrapher as the father) of her husband was cornered in a debateby a quest. She came out to his rescue. She put the guest in a cornerby her eloquence and reasoning.
Then some rebelscame and killed her husband. When she heard of it, she ran out with asword, but was captured after she killed several rebels. The leaderof the rebels respected her bravery and faithfulness to her husband,and let her go. She lived the rest of her life as a widow. Themagistrate learned her fame and came to visit her. She had a screenput between herself and the guest. They had a pleasant conversation.After it, the magistrate expressed his admiration of her talent.

December 21st, 2016, 03:24 PM
25.Liu Chuyu (having thirty love mates)
LiuChuyu (446—465 AD) was princess Shanyin. Her husband (446—482 AD)was the son of an official of high rank. Once the princess said tothe emperor, his brother, “We come from the same father. Althoughwe have the difference of sex, why you can have many women while Ican have only one man? It's not fair to me.” Therefore, theemperor, Liu Ziye (449—465 AD), got thirty handsome men for her.Courtier Zhu Yuan (435—482 AD) was very handsome. But he was anupright person.
However,the princess wanted to take a look at him first, secretly, to see ifshe liked him. The emperor sent for the courtier in his royal study,and the princess peeped at him from behind a screen. After she seteyes on him, she liked him very much. She asked the emperor to lethim accompany her for ten days. So the emperor ordered Zhu Yuan tostay in a special pavilion for ten days. In the night of the firstday, the princess went to see him and wanted to sleep with him. Butas soon as the princess approached him, Zhu Yuan stood up to salutethe princess. For the whole night, he stood there with little moveabout. The princess said, “You look a man, but you don't act like aman.” He replied, “As a man, I can't do such a thing.” Whateverthe princess did to force him, he would never give in. On the lastday of the ten days, the princess had to let him go.
LiuYu (439—472 AD) was the uncle of the emperor. He always thoughtthat the throne should belong to him. Then on the twenty-ninth day ofthe eleventh moon in 465 AD, he sent someone to kill the emperor andmade himself the emperor, Emperor Ming. Next day, he gave an edict inthe name of the empress dowager to order the princess to commitsuicide for the reason that she was a lewd woman. The princess mustobey the order of her mother. Therefore, she hanged herself.

December 22nd, 2016, 04:46 PM
26. Pan YuEr (awoman who could whip the emperor)
Pan YuEr (?--?) wasnot only beautiful with white skin and fine figure, but the mostfamous feature of her beauty was her lovely little feet. She was bornin a vendor's family. Her father, almost illiterate, gave her thename called Nizi (literally meaning “Little Girl”). Such a namewas deemed vulgar. But her beauty attracted everyone who caught sightof her. They lived from hand to mouth, and so, when she grew intoteenage, she often went to help her father sell things. She wasfamiliar with market and trading. Once her mother had a chance toenter the palace as a wet nurse to feed the crown prince.
It was not until498 AD when the crown prince succeeded the throne and became theemperor. As he often heard the mother, his wet nurse, talk about thegirl, he had always yearned for her. Now he sent for her to thepalace and made her the imperial concubine. Her beauty stunned him ashe first set eyes on her. Her white skin glittered like pure jade. Sohe changed her name to YuEr (literally meaning “Jade Girl”). Hehad a new hall built for her. The floor was covered with engravedlotus patterns so that every step of her landed her on a lotuspattern. It was called that her steps produced lotus flowers.
Her feet were sosmall and lovely. He was a foot fetishist. He liked to caress herwhite feet and kiss her toes one by one and licked them in turns.Sometimes he bit her big toe and when she felt a big painful, shebeat his back with a stick. And he liked it. He was a masochist. Inthe long Chinese history, Pan YuEr was the sole concubine who couldbeat the emperor like whipping a slave. Instead of a concubinewaiting on the emperor, this emperor liked to wait on her. He madetea for her and massaged her back and legs.
Once she said tothe emperor that she had liked the life in a market place. Therefore, he built a market for her, and let maids and eunuchs play the rolesof traders and customers. Sometimes, the emperor would let sometraders pretend to offend some rules and be brought to the presenceof Pan YuEr, who would decide how to punish them. She enjoyed thisvery much. Once YuEr pretended to be the owner of a wine shop andstood behind the counter to sell wine, and the emperor played thepart of the customer. And sometimes the emperor acted like a butcherstanding behind a booth to sell pork, and the concubine came as abuyer.
This life style ofthe imperial couple enraged courtiers. Some of them criticized theemperor. The emperor killed them. He even killed his kinsfolk tillone day his brother, afraid of being killed, too, could no longerendure it. He marched his troops to surround the capital and killedthe emperor. He gave the girl to one of his generals as a reward forhis merits. The general held a banquet to celebrate it. When all theguests wanted to see the beauty that they had heard of so much and solong, the general led them to his bedroom, where the girl should stayto wait for his arrival for the night. But as the door was openedthey saw the girl hanging herself from the beam, and still lookingbeautiful.

December 23rd, 2016, 03:07 PM
27. Xu Zhaopei (thewoman having makeup on half of her face)
Xu Zhaopei (?--549AD) was the wife of Emperor Yuan of Liang dynasty (502—557 AD),which was a short dynasty during the second warring period. In thetwelfth moon of 517 AD, she went to where the emperor lived. On herway there, there were strong winds that blew down houses, then snowstorm came. When she arrived there, there were pealing thunders thatshattered a pillar. All these were considered as bad omen.
After marriage, shebore a son and a daughter for him. As the emperor had one eye blind,Xu did not like him and was often rude to him. The emperor dislikedher, too. Once when he went to her room, she only put the makeup onhalf of her face to imply that the emperor had only one eye good. Sothe emperor was enraged and seldom to see her ever since.
She then hadadultery with some other people. The first one was a monk and sheoften went to his temple. The second one was Ji, a favorite courtierof the emperor. They had the action in the temple, too. After theaction, they lay on bed and composed poems to each other.
Xu was a jealouswoman. Whenever the emperor liked someone, she would find a way tomurder her. Although the emperor disliked her, he liked her son andmade him the crown prince. But the son died in a battle. The emperorforced her, the mother, to commit suicide. Finally she threw herselfinto a well and drowned inside it. Then the emperor revealed her lewdaction to let people know it so that he forced her to make suicidewas not without reason.

December 24th, 2016, 03:54 PM
28. Lou Zhaojun (shemarried a common man, but became emperor finally)
Lou Zhaojun (501—562AD) had a legendary life. Her father was a courtier of high rank.When she grew up, many official families came to see her father toask for her hand, but she denied all the suitors. She wanted to finda man fit to be her husband.
One day, she saw aman, a general, called Gao Huan (496—547 AD), doing some work atthe battlements. She knew how to read the face. His face showed thathe would be a leader of a state some day. Therefore, she married him.Although a general, he had no money. She gave him money and let himuse it to make friends with all the known heroes of the time.Besides, she offered stratagems so that he could win merits inbattles. He was promoted to be the premier.
When Gao Huan gotpowerful enough, she helped him to establish a new state, named NorthQi. Gao became the emperor and she was the empress. She had born sixsons and two daughters for him. Three of her sons were emperors indifferent times. Her daughters both became empresses of other states.She was frugal by nature. As the empress she would weave and sewherself. She treated her own children and the children of otherconcubines equally. Once she made sacrifice for her husband.
To strengthen hispower for the situation, he should marry the princess of Ruru State.When he asked his empress if this was right for him to do, EmpressLou gave her ascent without hesitation. When Princess Ruru came, shelet her be the empress and herself be the concubine. For that, shewas praised by people in the small empire. The emperor had one wifeand ten concubines. He had fifteen sons and three daughters in all.
Once when she waspregnant and got into hard labor, someone wanted to send urgentmassage to the emperor, but she would not agree. At last she gavebirth to twin babies, a son and a daughter. When the emperor returnedand learned the condition, he was greatly moved.
Once he wasdefeated. A general came to offer to lead an army for the revenge.The emperor was glad and about to consent, but empress Lou said no.She explained that if the general had an army under command, whetherhe won or lost in the fight, he would never come back to obey him anymore. He would be independent with an army in his control. So theemperor did not let the general go. The general later did betrayanother emperor in another state.
When the emperor,Gao Huan, died, his eldest son Gao Cheng became the emperor. LouZhaojun, as empress dowager, controlled the power. When Gao Chengdied, her son Gao Yang took the throne. Not long later, Gao Yangdied, too. His son, Gao Yin, succeeded the throne. Gao Yin was thegrandson of Lou. As Gao Yin was not a good emperor, the empressdowager deposed him and made him Prince JiNan. Then her another sonGao Yan was made the emperor. Not long afterwards, Gao Yan also died.She made her another son Gao Zhan the emperor, and made two othersons the princes. She died at the age of sixty-two.

December 26th, 2016, 04:27 PM
29. Mu Huanghua (anempress became the bawd)
Mu Huanghua (?--?)was the third empress of the emperor Gao Wei, the last emperor ofNorth Qi dynasty. Her mother was a maid in the family of somecourtier. Then she was raped by the coutier and bore the girl. Whenthe girl grew up, she went to the palace. At first she was the maidof the first empress of the emperor. Once the emperor saw her andliked her. She became his concubine. In 572 AD, she was made theempress when the original empress died. In 577 AD, another stateinvaded North Qi and took the capital. The emperor and Mu had toescape. But the emperor was captured, and Mu ran away to ChangAncity, where to make her living, she opened a brothel and became thebawd. Her brothel was at the time well-known on both sides of theYangtze River. This was a weird experience to her from an empress toa bawd.

December 27th, 2016, 04:30 PM
30.Hua Mulan (the first of the four heroines)
HuaMulan (412—502 AD) was one of four heroines in Chinese history,fighting in the battlefield. The other three were Fan Lihua (Tangdynasty), Mu Guiying (North Song dynasty), and Liang Hongyu (SouthSong dynasty). Her story goes back to the second warring period. Shehad an elder sister and younger brother. But both of them could notfight. When Mulan was still young, a minority in the north invadedher country. Then an order was issued that every family must have oneman to join the army for defense against the invasion. Mulan's fatherwas too old. Her brother was too young. When a little girl she likedto learn how to fight as her father knew the fighting skills. She wasjust grown up, and so she offered to go instead of her father, butin disguise of a young man, using her brother's name,.
Atthat time, the government of the country did not supply a fighterwith necessary equipment such as weapon, horse, armor and helmet,etc. Therefore, she had to go to the market to buy all these forherself. She was attired as a man should wear. Then she rode to theregistration at the recruit's site. She was sent to the frontier withother recruits. She fought bravely in the battlefields and won a lotof merits. No one knew that she was a woman. After twelve years, shereturned victoriously. Then she was known to her fellow fighters thatshe was a woman, which was at the time deemed cheating. The emperorreceived her and for her great merits, she was pardoned for thecheating of a good kind. The emperor wanted to let her be an officialof high rank in the government, but she excused herself, saying thather father was old, and she must go home to take care of him. So theemperor let her go.
Herlegend was written down in a long poem called “Songof Mulan.”In Tang dynasty, a temple was built in memory of her, and a statue ofher was carved and put in the temple.

December 28th, 2016, 03:41 PM
31.Yang Lihua (sharing the title of empress with other four women)
YangLihua (561—609 AD) was the wife of Emperor Xuan (559—580 AD) ofNorth Zhou dynasty (557—581 AD), a short dynasty in the northernChina in the second warring period. Her father was Yang Jian (541—604AD). Later he began a new dynasty, Sui dynasty, and became emperorWen. Sui dynasty ended the second warring period and united China.Her mother was Empress Dugu.
In573 AD, when she was only thirteen, she married Emperor Xuan andbecame one of the four empresses. It was the only emperor in thehistory, who made all his four women empresses. Then he liked thewife of his nephew, who had to rebel and was killed. The emperor tookthe nephew's wife as his fifth empress. As the emperor led a lewdlife, all the courtiers opposed him. Yang Jian at the time was apowerful courtier and supported by others, he deposed the emperor,who died soon after. Then Yang Jian became the emperor of Sui dynasty(581—618 AD). Yang Lihua, his daughter, could not still have thetitle of empress, and so her father made her Princess Lepin, till herdeath at the age of forty-nine.

December 29th, 2016, 03:13 PM
32.Zhang Lihua (empress with special long hair)
ZhangLihua (560—589 AD) was the favorite concubine of Chen Shubao(553—604 AD). When Chen Shubao was still the crown prince of Chendynasty (557—589 AD), located to the south of Yangtzer Rivertowards the end of the second warring period, Zhang Lihua was thenonly ten and entered the palace as the maid to a concubine of thecrown prince. When she grew up, she was so beautiful and clever. Themost conspicuous thing about her was her long black hair, more thantwo meters long. She was proud of her long hair. Every morning shespent a lot of time to comb her hair and did her hair up into astylist knot. When the crown prince saw her one day, her beauty wasso attractive to him that he took her as his concubine. He liked herlong hair very much, which was unique. The crown prince was a famouspoet.
In582 AD, the crown prince succeeded the throne and Zhang became hisfavorite concubine. This emperor was talented in music andliterature. His poems were so well-known and many handed down to us.One of his famous poems runs as follows:
Upon west tower alone, wordless,
The moon looks like a hook.
Withthe solitary Chinese parasol,
The deep backyard locking the coolautumn in.

Scissor'd, but not sever'd,
Put in order, yetin disorder,
Is the parting sorrow;
There's an unusualsensation at heart.
As Zhang Lihua coulddance gracefully, the emperor composed a famous piece of music, andZhang Lihua danced to it. The imperial couple led a lewd anddissipated life. At that time, all the separate independent states tothe north of the Yangtze River were conquered by Sui dynasty. Onlythe Chen dynasty to the south of the Yangtze River still survived. In589 AD, Sui army came to the capital. When the imperial couple wasreported that Sui army entered the city, they tied themselvestogether and jumped into a well. But as the well was an old onewithout water in it, they did not die. Then Sui soldiers got themout. Zhang Lihua was killed because the commander thought that as shewas so beautiful, if the Sui emperor saw her, he would take her to behis concubine, which might cause Sui dynasty to collapse like thisChen dynasty. The Chen emperor was captured and taken to beimprisoned and died a few years later.

December 30th, 2016, 05:29 PM
33.Empress Dugu (empress who'd not let emperor have other women)
EmpressDugu (543—602 AD) was the wife of Yang Jian (541—604 AD), EmperorWen of Sui dynasty (581—618 AD). She bore a daughter, Yang Lihua(see above), and sons, Yang Yong (568—604 AD) and Yang Guang(569—618 AD).
Dugumarried the emperor at fourteen. She was a very jealous woman. Whenshe married him, they had an agreement that he would never touch anyother women. She abolished the system that an emperor could have manyconcubines. She would not allow her husband to have any concubines.Once he had an action with a girl in the palace, the girl was laterkilled by Dugu. Luckily for her, she had born children for him. Shealso forbade her sons to have more than one woman. She forbade thepalace maids to put on makeup and to gain access to the emperorwithout her permission. She even interfered with the courtiers intheir marital affairs. Once a courtier's wife died, and he marriedanother woman. Dugu let the emperor demote him, because her idea inmarriage was that if a man could not be faithful to his wife andneeded another woman, how could he be loyal to the sovereign? So shewanted to maintain one husband and one wife system. Besides, if awoman was not allowed to remarry as a tradition, a man should not beallowed to remarry, too.
Anyway,she was just in dealing with state affairs. She often offered heropinions to the emperor and he always thought that her opinions wereright. Once one of her cousins committed some severe crime, andaccording to the law, he must be executed. However, the emperor,considering his relationship with the empress, intended to pardon himfrom his death sentence. When Dugu learned it, she said that the lawmust be just, and could not be disregarded owing to specialconditions. The cousin thereby was executed.
Oncean official presented to her a box of costly pearls. She said to him,“This is not what I need. You can use them as rewards to soldierswho are fighting at the frontier.” She never gave her relativespositions of high ranks. At first, as Yang Yong was the eldest son,he was made the crown prince. Nevertheless, he sought obscenity andmerry-making, which the emperor and empress disliked. Besides, thecrown prince had four concubines and ignored his wife. All that wasagainst the wishes of the empress. Therefore, he was deposed and hisbrother Yang Guang was made the crown prince. The empress died beforethe emperor in the eighth moon of 602 AD, at the age of fifty.

December 31st, 2016, 03:39 PM
34. Xiao Meiniang(an empress married many times)
Xiao Meiniang (582AD--? ) was the wife of Emperor Yang (Yang Guang) of Sui dynasty. Hewas the second and last emperor of Sui dynasty. She was a princess ofEmperor Ming (542—585 AD) of West Liang dynasty (555—587 AD). Asshe was born in the second moon, superstitious tradition said that agirl born in the second moon could not bear sons. So she was given tothe uncle, and when the uncle died, she was adopted by her maternaluncle, who was poor, and she must do all the housework.
When Yang Guang wasstill crown prince, his father wanted to choose a wife for him. Thesuperstitious tradition had it that the birthday and birth time ofboth the girl and the boy should be given to a fortune-teller, whowould tell if that of the girl and that of the boy were fit to eachother. If they were not fit, and the girl and boy married, misfortunewould befall them. All the girls in the area were not fit to be thewife of the crown prince by the calculation of the fortune-teller.Finally a fit girl was found. She was Xiao Meiniang. Therefore, shebecame the wife of the crown prince. When the crown prince succeededthe throne, she was made the empress. She bore two sons and adaughter for him.
The emperor was alewd and corrupt man. But he had a great job done. It was the GreatCanal, beginning from Luoyang city to Hangzhou city. It made thetransportation of goods from south to north easier than before. Itwas finished by connecting some natural rivers through a lot ofdigging. But some historians said that the purpose of the emperorwanted to make the Great Canal was that he wanted to travelcomfortably on the ship to Yangzhou city, where the most beautifulpeonies grew. And it was also said that women in Yangzhou city wereall beautiful. When he stayed there to enjoy his extravagant days, hewas murdered by a general he trusted. Then there rose many warlordsall over the nation.
There were twolegends about her end. One was that after the death of the emperorshe left the palace and wandered with her grandson like vagabondstill her death without remarrying. The other was that she was takenby the general who had murdered the emperor. When the general died, awarlord got her. Then she was captured by the chieftain of a minorityin the north. Finally the famous Emperor Taizong (599—649 AD) ofTang dynasty (618—907 AD) conquered the minority and took her backto the capital. It was said that she became the wife of the Tangemperor.

January 2nd, 2017, 03:16 PM
35. Hongfu(literally meaning red duster)
Hongfu (?--?) wasthe nickname and her real name was Zhang Chuchen. But better known asHongfu in the history. Her father was a general and killed in abattle. Her mother was taken by Yang Su (544-606 AD) a general, andlater the first courtier of Sui dynasty, as a wet nurse. She broughther daughter with her. So Hongfu grew up in the residence of Yang Su,and in her girlhood, she became a waiting girl to Yang Su. She oftenstood a little behind him when he sat on the chair to receive guests.On such occasions, She often held a red duster in hand, hence hernickname.
There was a youngman by name of Li Jing (571—649 AD). He was a man of talent andambition, a strategist as well. Therefore, he came to the capital toseek for fame and a bright future. As he could not directly go to seethe emperor, he went to see Yang Su first and became one of Yang'shangers-on, which meant people having food and board in Yang'sresidence working like advisers. At first, Yang did not think much ofLi Jing as he had so many hangers-on in his residence. Once Yang hada talk with him and came to know that this man was talented. But hedid not recommend him to the emperor, which was what Li desired.Therefore, Li was disappointed.
When Yang had thetalk with Li, Hongfu was present and had also such opinion of him.She admired him to much that one night she went to see him in hisroom, just as Li was sad and uncertain of his future. When he heardthe knock at his door he opened it and saw the girl who had stoodbehind Yang in his conversation with Yang. When Hongfu was invited inand sat down, she revealed her purpose to come. She offered herselfto be his life mate. Li was so happy and accepted. Then they elopedunder the cover of night.
The couple weredisguised as merchants and went to ChangAn city where another Lifamily lived as magistrate, and afterwards, this Li family united thewhole country and established Tang dynasty (618—907 AD). Li Jingwent to visit Li Shiming, the famous Emperor Taizong later, to offerhis service. Li Shiming thought highly of him. When Sui dynastycollapsed with the murder of the Sui emperor, there arose manywarlords. Although there were constant wars among the warlords,historians did not define this period of time as a warring period,because it lasted very short, only for seven years and the wholenation was united by Tang dynasty. As Li Shiming wanted to unite thenation,he accepted all the known heroes that came to serve him. Inthe wars conquering other warlords, Li Jing and Hongfu, who couldfight, achieved a lot of merits. When the Tang dynasty united thecountry, Li Jing was rewarded with the title of Duke Weiguo. AndHongfu was his ladyship.

January 3rd, 2017, 04:02 PM
36. Princess Pinyang(a female commander)
Princess Pinyang(580—623 AD) was the sister of Emperor Taizong by the name of LiXiuning. She was the only woman in the history who organized andcommanded an army. Other women before her, if they could fight, justfought as a female general, not commanding an army.
In the fifth moonof 617 AD, Li family decided to subdue all the warlords and unitedthe country. At the time Princess Pinyang was in ChangAn city whilethe Li family lived in Taiyuan city. She was married to a general andlived in ChangAn city with her husband. When she got the informationthat her family would take up arms against all the warlords, shestarted to recruit enough men to form an army. Her husband went toTaiyuan city first to join in the combats. There were some smallgroups of rebels. She sent someone to persuade them one by one tojoin her army, which enlarged greatly. She even defeated severalattacks from the army of Sui dynasty.
After the death ofEmperor Yang of Sui dynasty, there were warlords occupying separate independent areas. It was the duties of Emperor Taizong now to wipeout all the warlords. And the princess only stayed in the pass calledWoman Pass, which was the throat to enter where there was the base ofLi family. She must guard it. Her task was very important. If anywarlord entered the Pass, the safety of her family would bethreatened. Anyway, she defended the Pass well against any attackstill the unity of the nation. The name of the Pass was in memory ofher. When she died, the army under her command held a militaryfuneral for her. It was the only funeral that was held by an army fora female in the history.

January 4th, 2017, 03:58 PM
37. Empress Changsun( a virtuous woman, never jealous)
Empress Changsun(03/15/601—07/28/636 AD) was the wife of the famous Emperor Taizong (599—649 AD) of Tang dynasty (618—907 AD). Her father was ageneral in Sui dynasty and died when she was only eight years old.She was brought up by her maternal uncle. She married Emperor Taizongat the age of thirteen when Emperor Taizong was then only Prince Qin.She was the ladyship of the prince Qin. The crown prince was theeldest brother of Prince Qin, and he had a younger brother. The threeof them vied for the throne, of course, like in many dynasties. Thecrown prince was no good as a ruler, and the younger brother was afighter, not fit to be a ruler. To be a ruler needed many qualities.Only Prince Qin had such qualities. Therefore, all the generals ofTang dynasty supported him. It was not just because they thoughtPrince Qin was a talented man, suitable to be the emperor, but alsobecause they had fought together with him so long in the process ofsubduing all the warlords.
On the second dayof the seventh moon in 626 AD, there was a coup d'état. Helped bythe generals, Prince Qin killed his two brothers and became EmperorTaizong. His father was on the throne at the time, but he could notcontrol the situation as all the generals did not listen to him, andonly obey his second son. Therefore, after the coup d'état, thefather gave up the throne to the son and became the retired emperor. Ladyship Zhangsun was due to be the empress. She bore for theemperor three sons and four daughters. Later her youngest son becamethe crown prince and then the emperor, Emperor Gaozong, the husbandof Empress Wu the Great. That's another book I wrote.
She was a virtuouswoman, never jealous. She treated other concubines and maids andeunuchs nicely. So the palace was peaceful, no competitions betweenconcubines for the special favor of the emperor. She often educatedthe children, no matter those of her own or those of otherconcubines, equally that they must be frugal, not extravagant. Shealways gave the emperor good advice, and whenever the emperor madeany mistakes, she would persuade him to correct them. She evendissuaded the emperor to give her own brother a powerful position,lest the brother turned arrogant because he had power and then madeunpardonable mistakes.
When she wasseriously sick, the emperor wanted to have a ceremony in a temple topray for her quick recovery, but she disagreed to it. She was not asuperstitious person. She did not believe in prayer to make sicknessbetter. She died at the age of thirty-six. When she was sepulcheredin imperial grave, the emperor did two things for her that no otheremperors did before or after for their spouses. Firstly he had acollage built in front of her grave and let some maids live therelike to wait on her as if she was still alive. Secondly he had a hightower built in the palace so that whenever he thought of his empress,he could mount it to watch her grave. However, for this tower, heaccepted the advice of a courtier later and demolished it.

January 5th, 2017, 04:48 PM
38.Fan Lihua (the second of the four heroines)
FanLihua (?--?) lived in the reign of Emperor Taizong. She was one ofthe four heroines. Her father was originally a general of the Suidynasty. When this dynasty was overthrown, he escaped to a minorityin the west of present China. When Tang dynasty sent army to conquerthat minority, Fan Lihua helped her father to resist Tang army. Butonce when she saw the son of the commander of Tang army, who came outof the camp, to fight, she fell in love with him. Therefore, she andher father surrendered to Tang dynasty and Fan Lihua married the sonof the commander of Tang dynasty. She had great fighting skills andknew strategies. She helped the Tang army to conquer the minority.Later when some tribe in the northwest invaded Tang dynasty, Herfather-in-law was made the commander of Tang army again. She went asa female general and fought together with her husband against theinvaders.
Whenher father-in-law died in the battlefield, she, not her husband,succeeded the position of the commander, as she could fight betterand knew how to use stratagems while her husband could only fight.They returned after victory and owing to her great merits, she wasgiven the title of Marquise of Weining. She bore four sons. The thirdson was a naughty one, and often did something wrong. Once, byaccident, the third son killed a prince. That was a serious crime.Therefore the whole family were executed. Only Fan Lihua and two ofher sons escaped before the execution happened.

January 5th, 2017, 05:14 PM

May I ask what work this is for?

January 6th, 2017, 03:48 PM
39. Wu Meiniang (thesole female sovereign in China)
WuMeiniang was the concubine of Emperor Taizong, and after the death ofemperor Taizong, she was the empress of emperor Gaozong, the son ofemperor Taizong. Such thing happened in the history of China. Afterthe death of emperor Gaozong, she was the empress dowager, and thenthe empress sovereign. (I wrote a separate book for her titled“[I]EmpressWu the Great.”)

January 7th, 2017, 03:30 PM
40. PrincessWencheng (the princess married to Tibet)
Princess Wencheng(623—680 AD) was the daughter of Emperor Taizong. She was prettyand clever, and was familiar with Chinese culture. She believed inBuddhism.
Tibet was thenindependent of China. It became a vassal state to China only in Qingdynasty, but still only in name. It ruled itself independently, evenunder KMD government, till CPC sent its army into Tibet and actuallyruled it. At that time, sometimes it was friendly to Tang governmentand sometimes invaded Tang territory. It depended on who ruled Tibet.At the time, SongtsenGampo was the king of Tibet.
Itwas a leap year in 640 AD. The lunar calendar has a double month inthe leap year. There were two tenth moons in that year and in thebissextile tenth moon, the king of Tibet sent someone to the capitalof Tang dynasty with five thousand taels of silver and hundreds ofgems and other valuables, asking for the hand of one of theprincesses. Emperor Taizong was on the throne at that time and agreedto marry Princess Wencheng to the Tibetan king.
Onthe fifteenth day of the third moon in 641 AD, Emperor Taizongordered Prince Jiangxia, his cousin, to escort Princess Wencheng toTibet for the wedding ceremony. When the princess arrived, the kingwas very happy and had a palace of Tang style built for her. The kingalso liked the clothes and etiquette of Tang style. Whenever he wentto see the princess, he put on gauze clothes of Tang style. Accordingto the history record, the princess brought Tang culture theretogether with silkworm eggs, which affected the life and customs ofTibetan people. They began to breed silkworms and made silk clothes.She also brought a statue of Sakyamuni,and the king built RamocheTemple for it. The princess was the second queen of the Tibetan king.His first queen was a princess from Nepal.
Inthe fifth moon of AD 650, died the king of Tibet, the husband ofPrincess Wencheng and so the brother-in-law of the present EmperorGaozong, son of Emperor Taizong, who already died. Emperor Gaozongwas the brother of Princess Wencheng. The son of King SongtsenGampohad died early and so his grandson was madethe king. As the grandson was a child, the prime minister Ludongzanhad all the power to rule Tibet. He was talented and so Tibet becamestrong.
Inthe second moon of 679 AD, another king of Tibet died, and his son,eight years old, succeeded to the position of king. In the tenthmoon, the sad news of the death of the Tibetan king, SongtsenGampo, her husband, sent by Princess Wencheng,who was still alive, arrived in the capital of Tang Dynasty. Acourtier Song Lingwen was sent to attend the funeral.
During the tenthmoon of 680 AD, Princess Wencheng died in Tibet.

January 7th, 2017, 03:53 PM
It would be non-fiction then.

January 7th, 2017, 04:22 PM
Nevertheless, this is the correct location for collected works and multi-chapters not necessarily meant for critique. This is the appropriate forum for xlwoo's works.

So keep on posting, xlwoo. :D

January 8th, 2017, 03:10 PM
[Thanks to both of you.]

41.Princess Taiping (a lewd and ambitious woman)
PrincessTaiping (670—713 AD) was the daughter of Emperor Gaozong andEmpress Wu the Great. She was pretty and ambitious like her mother.Her real name was Li Lingyue and Taiping was her Taoist name. Oncethe king of Tibet wanted to marry her and sent a messenger to thecapital. The emperor and empress would not let her marry so far, andso let her become a female Taoist, but only in name, because a femaleTaoist could not marry so that she could refuse the king of Tibetwithout offending him. Hence, historians call her Princess Taiping(literally meaning peace). Instead, Princess Wencheng married theking of Tibet (see above).
In681 AD when the princess was sixteen, she married her husband, thenephew of Emperor Gaozong. This was her first marriage, which endedin 688 AD, because the brother of her husband joined in a rebellionand was executed. Her husband, though innocent, was put in jail andstarved there.
Hersecond husband was the nephew of Empress Wu. The couple lived fortwenty-two years and the husband died one year before her. During hersecond marriage, she often had adultery with whomever she liked,sometimes a courtier, and sometimes a monk, who was stout and couldhave longer action than others. Her husband did not dare to sayanything as she was the favorite princess. Empress Wu liked her thisdaughter better than her other children, because she was more likeher mother in appearance and character. To please her mother, shesometimes brought strong men into the palace to entertain her mother.The monk was one of them. When the monk became the favorite ofempress Wu, he turned to be arrogant and did a lot of things againstthe law. The monk was later killed because of his misbehavior.
WhenEmpress Wu grew old, she made her son Li Xuan the crown prince. In705 AD, Premier Zhang Janzhi (625—706 AD) had coupd'état and forced Empress Wu to retire and give the throne to thecrown prince, who was Emperor Zhongzong (11/26/656—07/03/710 AD).His wife was Empress Wei. She had a daughter, Princess Anle (?--710AD), who yearned for power, too, and even asked the emperor to makeher crown princess so that she could be the successor to the throne.At the same time, Princess Taiping became more powerful as she hadsupported the emperor to get his throne.
Empress Wei did notlove the emperor. She was also an ambitious woman, and wanted to bethe empress sovereign like Empress Wu, who was them dead. So sheconspired with her daughter to poison the emperor, her husband. Afterthe death of Emperor Zhongzong, her brother, Princess Taiping andShangguan WanEr (see next) drafted the will of the diseased emperorto make Prince Wen the crown prince. Empress Wei was the regent andsupplanted members of Li family and supported members of her Weifamily. So the two family members fought each other. At last, Lifamily gained the day and killed empress Wei and her family members.In this event, Princess Taiping had a finger and she supported Li Dan(662—716 AD), another son of Empress Wu, also her brother, to bethe emperor, who was Emperor Ruizong.
In the seventh moonof 712 AD, Emperor Ruizong retired and gave the throne to his son,who became Emperor Xuanzong (09/08685—05/03/762 AD), who was thehusband of the famous Imperial Concubine Yang, the fourth beauty ofthe four beauties in the history. Princess Taiping vied with EmperorXuanzong for power, but she failed at length, and was forced to hangherself at home.

January 9th, 2017, 03:08 PM
42.Shangguan WanEr (a poetess and talented woman)
Shangguan(double surname) WanEr (664—710 AD) was a poetess and worked as asecretary for Empress Wu the Great. When her grandfather was killedby Empress Wu, because he opposed her to be the empress, she and hermother were taken to the palace as slaves. She was then still achild. Under the education of her mother, she became a girl oftalent. She developed a good memory. Later when Empress Wu found hertalent, she liberated her from slavery and also her mother. As shecould write well and exercise good calligraphy, Empress Wu made thegirl her secretary and let her draft edicts for her. She endeavoredto please Empress Wu and soon became her favorite. Empress Wu let herhandle some state affairs and by degrees, she got some power.
In705 AD, during the rule of Emperor Zhongzong, the emperor let herdraft all the imperial edicts, which was a very important position.The emperor trusted in her so much that her power grew as well as herambition. It was said that she had adultery with the emperor. Nextyear, she had adultery with Wu Sansi, a nephew of Empress Wu. In theseventh moon of 707 AD, the crown prince led his bodyguards to attackthe residence of Wu Sansi and killed him. The crown prince wanted tokill Shangguan WanEr, too, because she supported Wu family. WanErescaped to the palace and the emperor's mother, Empress Wei,protected her. Then the imperial guards came forth to defeat thecrown prince, who was killed in the combat.
In710 AD, when Princess Taiping became more powerful, WanEr tended tosupport Princess Taiping. When Emperor Zhongzong was poisoned byEmpress Wei, she and Princess Taiping drafted the will of the lateemperor to make Prince Wen as the crown prince and Empress Wei becamethe regent. In the seventh moon, Prince Linzi, son of EmperorRuizong, led the imperial guards to enter the palace and killedEmpress Wei, her daughter Princess Anle, and also Shangguan WanEr,who was thought to be the follower of Empress Wei. When the son laterbecame Emperor Xuanzong, he admired the poetic talent of WanEr andgave order to collect her poems into a book. One of her poem runs asfollows:
Just as leaves fall on the TongtingLake,
I think of you ten thousand milesaway.
The dew is dense and the scentedquilts are cold;
Themoon sets and the brocade screen is empty.

January 10th, 2017, 03:10 PM
43. Yang Yuhuan (thefourth beauty of the four beauties)
YangYuhuan was the imperial concubine of Emperor Xuanzong, the fourthbeauty of the four beauties in the history of China. Her story wasincluded in the book titled “LoveTales of Ancient China.”She was the fat beauty as fatness was the fashion of the beauty inTang dynasty, while the other three beauties were thin and lean, likewhat we like nowadays.

January 11th, 2017, 02:42 PM
44.Xue Tao(a famous poetess and a courtesan)
Xue Tao (768—832AD) was a famous poetess in Tang dynasty. She was born in ChangAncity, the capital. Her father was a petty official and moved toChengdu city. When her father died, she lived in this city eversince.
She could writepoems and knew music at the age of eight. Once her father composed acouplet, “There is an old tree in the courtyard, Its tall trunkrising into clouds.” He wanted his daughter to write anothercouplet so that the four lines could make a poem. She immediatelywrote, “Its boughs welcome birds from north to sough, Its leavessend away winds coming and going.” Her father was glad and proud ofher. But historians said that these two lines were the exactdescription of her own fate as she later became a courtesan thatwelcomed visitors coming and saw visitors going.
After the death ofher father, her family, mother and herself, fell into poverty. Shehad to become a singsong girl in a whorehouse at the age of sixteen.As a singsong girl did not have love-making with any visitors. Sheonly entertained them with her song or music play, or wrote a poem orpainted something for them. As she was beautiful and talented, shewas well-known in the area. Her visitors were all local officials andmen of letters. Her nickname was “Poetic whore.”
The governor ofthat time liked her talent very much and often sent for her to hisresidence to entertain his guests by chanting poems of her owncomposition. Thus she made acquaintance with many famous poets andscholars at the time. She even fell in love with one of them, buttheir love had no result. The governor adored her poetic talent, andtried to get an official title for her from the central government,but of no avail. When this governor died, the next governor came. Heliked her too, and canceled her registration in her prostituterecord. She became a free ordinary woman. Then she always wore aTaoist costume. She seldom had visitors now. She lived a quiet lifein old age. She made a kind of paper called Xue Tao paper, which wasslightly pink. The paper was widely used at the time.

January 12th, 2017, 03:55 PM
45.Yu Xuanji (a famous poetess and a female Taoist)
YuXuanji (844—871 AD) was a famous poetess in the late Tang dynasty.At first her name was Yu Youwei. In 894 AD when she was five, herfamily moved to another town and she started her study at a localschool. In 854 AD when she was ten, the family moved back to herhometown, where she began to get acquainted with a famous poet at thetime. They wrote poems to each other ever since.
In858 AD, she was fourteen. A scholar Li Yi (?--?) wrote a poem on thewall of Chongzhen Temple. It was traditional for ancient poets towrite poems wherever they could, such as on the walls of a temple, ofa wine house, or even on a cliff wall of a scenic spot. When thegirl read it, she liked it and then married Li Yi as a concubinethrough the introduction of her acquainted poet. As Li had a wife, Yucould only be a concubine. His wife was so jealous that Li did notdare to bring the girl home. He just let her stay in Xianyi Temple.
Afew years later, her husband deserted her because he was a man likingnew love partners, except his wife, whom he was afraid of. Yu beganto travel east in the autumn of 861 AD. Next spring, she returned towhere she started her trip, ChangAn city. In 866 AD when she turnedtwenty-two, she became a female Taoist in Yanyi Temple and changedher name to Yu Xuanji, which was better known to us. In that periodof time, many men of letters came to seek her favor, but she favorednone. She treated everyone coming to visit her equally as a friend.She did not remarry anyone. She kept writing poems, fifty-one in allthat we know today. Although she was a Taoist, she was a famouswoman, and had a maid to wait on her. Once she was so angry with hermaid that she beat her accidentally to death. For this crime, she wasexecuted. A famous couplet from one of her poems is so written:
Itis easy to get a precious antique,
Buthard to have a boy of true love.

January 13th, 2017, 04:27 PM
46.Du Qiuniang (a famous poetess)
DuQiiuniang (971--? AD) was a poetess. At the age of fifteen, shebecame a concubine of Li Qi (741—807 AD), who was a relative ofthe imperial family. He was a corrupt official and once when theemperor wanted him to go to the capital, he was afraid that he wouldbe killed. Therefore, he rebelled, but failed and killed. Du Qiuniangwas then taken to the palace. She became a concubine of the emperor,who died in 820 AD. Then the crown prince succeeded the throne andwas Emperor Muzong (795—824 AD). Now Du Qiuniang was a middle-agedwoman. The new emperor let her be the nanny of his son. When she grewtoo old, the emperor let her go back to her hometown, Nanking city,where she was born. She died naturally. Her famous poem is thus:
I advise you not forgold-woven dress to care,
But advise you for precioustime of youth to care.
If flowers are in fullbloom and worth picking, just pick,
Don'twait till no more flowers, then on empty boughs pick.

January 14th, 2017, 03:13 PM
47. Ladyship Pistil(a humorous poetess)
Ladyship Pistil(?--976 AD) was her nickname. She was a favorite concubine of theking of the present Sichuan province. As she liked flowers, such aspeony, the king gave her this nickname, which was known to us. Shewas pretty and clever, and could write poems. The king led a lewddissipated life and his kingdom became weak. At that time, outsideSichuan province, the whole country was under the rule of Songdynasty. Therefore, in 965 AD, Song dynasty sent army to invade thekingdom. The king surrendered, and of course died later. The ladyshipwas captured. It was said that she became the concubine of theemperor of Song dynasty till her death. There was a famous andhumorous poem we know till today, which is:

Theking puts up the flag of surrender on battlements;
Howcan his lady know in the deep palace?
Fortymyriad soldiers take off armors in unison;
No one of them is aman. (meaning no one fighting to death.)

January 15th, 2017, 02:40 PM
48.Mu Guiying (the third of the four heroines)
MuGuiying (982--?) was one of the four heroines. The other three wereHua Mulan, Fan Lihua, and Liang Hongyu. All are included in thisbook. There was a Yang family in Song dynasty. All the family memberswere fighters, including females, two daughters and sevendaughters-in-law. Mu was married to the sixth son. Her fightingskills were the first among all the females. Her father wasoriginally the chieftain of outlaws. They camped on a mountain,called Mu Camp. The government sent Yang family to conquer the MuCamp, and the sixth son of the family came out to challenge. Thedaughter Mu Guiying galloped out to face the challenger, whom shecaptured after a few rounds. She wanted to marry the son and thensurrendered to the government. It was thus settled. The heroinebecame a member of Yang family.
ThenLiao tribe in the north invaded Han dynasty, and Yang family was sentagain to defend the territory. The heroine was the commander and byusing some ruse, defeated the Liao tribe. They never dared to invadeSong dynasty till later the tribe was conquered by Jin tribe. Thatwas her great merit. Then when a revolt took place in Guangxiprovince in the south, she and her husband went there to subdue it.So she was conferred the title of Marquise Huntian. When a minoritystate called Xixia in the west invaded the country, she and all otherfemale fighters went to resist the invasion. At the time, all malesin the family died in different battles or occasions. The survivorswere all widows. In one of the combats with Xixia, Mu was killed inan ambush of the enemy, but the remaining women vanquished the Xixiaarmy.

January 16th, 2017, 03:35 PM
49. Li Qingzhao (avery famous poetess)
Li Qingzhao(1084—1156 AD) was a famous poetess in Song dynasty ((960—1279AD), born in Mingshui town of Shandong province. Her father was anofficial and a famous writer of the time as well. And her maternalgrandfather had been a premier. When she was still a young girl, herwell-written poems were known in the capital in the literary circle.In 1101 AD, she married Zhao Mingcheng (1081—1129 AD), who was alsoan official. In 1107 AD, the couple moved to Qingzhou town. Theyliked to buy books, especially books of old and precious editions.Every time when the husband bought a good edition from the marketafter work, the couple would enjoy reading it together after supper.Their life was simple and pleasant.
At that time, therewas a minority in the north, named Jin tribe, that often invaded intoSong dynasty. In 1127 AD, when the poetess was forty-four, the armyof Jin tribe marched south and attacked the town, they had to escapesouth across the Yangtze River, and next spring they arrived inJiangning city. As they had to desert their belongings when they fledfrom the Jin tribe, now they lived in poverty.
After the death ofher husband, she moved to Shaoxing town in Zhejinag province, andlived alone in the house of a local family. In the third moon of 1131AD, the only things, some old paintings, that left to her, were allstolen overnight. Next year, she went to Hangzhou city to marryanother man, but was divorced a few months later, because she foundthat the man was a corrupt official, who was put in prisonafterwards. Then she lived alone and always kept writing poems tillthe end of her life. But she had only forty-five poems handing downto us. All were well-known to us. I introduced one of them here.

Seeking, seeking; lonely, quiet;gloomy﹐grievous﹐glum.
When it just turns warm, but stillcold, it’s hardest to have a rest full.
Two or three cups of light wine, how tofend the evening wind so strong?
The wild geese pass—I feelheart-broken—since they are my old acquaintance.
All over the ground the yellow flowersin heaps.
Languished as I am, who will now pickthem?
Keeping myself at the window, how can Ifare alone till nightfall?
Phoenix trees, plus drizzles on them,dripping and dripping till evening;
At this moment, what can I do with theword “sorrow”?

(versionin rhyme)

Seeking, seeking; lonely, quiet;doleful, rueful, woeful.
When it just turns warm, but stillcold, it’s hardest to rest full.
Two or three cups of light wine, how tofend the strong wind in the evening?
The wild geese pass, they being my oldacquaintance, heart-broken I’m feeling.
All over the ground, in heaps, theflowers yellow.
Languished as I am, who will pick themnow?
Keeping myself at the window, how can Ifare alone till night falling?
Phoenix trees, plus drizzles on them,dripping and dripping till evening;
Atthis moment, what can I do with the word “sorrow”?

January 18th, 2017, 07:27 PM
50.Liang Hongyu (the fourth of the four heroines)
LiangHongyu (1102—1135 AD) was famous to us as a fighter against the Jintribe invading Song dynasty. Her family fled from north to south toavoid the slaughter and pillage of the Jin tribe. They came to wherethe general Han Shizhong camped his army. Somehow, she became amilitary singsong girl and came to know the general Han. She was aspecial girl, who knew how to use sword. Therefore, the general Hanmarried her.
Shefought together with her husband Han (1089—1151 AD), the commanderof an army. In the third moon of 1129 AD, the Jin tribe army took twotowns and was about to invade the capital. The emperor and courtierswere in panic. A couple of courtiers wanted to betray the emperor,but were afraid of commander Han, who was then at the frontierdefending the Song territory. So they took his wife Liang Hongyu ashostage. When Han marched his army towards the capital, they had torelease Liang. When Liang joined Han, they came to the capital tokill the traitors. The emperor was ecstatic and gave Liang the titleof Ladyship Yangguo. In addition, the emperor gave her monthlysalary, which only male officials and officers could have. As afemale she was the first one to have such a treatment.
ThenLiang and Han marched north to defend the border. The number of theenemy was double, even triple greater than theirs. However, they useda better strategy to defeat the enemy. For more than ten years, theJin tribe did not even dare to advance facing such defenders. Sothere was temporary peace at the frontier till the death of thecouple. The Jin tribe was later conquered by Mongolians, whoafterwards marched south and annihilated Song dynasty and establishedtheir Yuan dynasty(1271—1368 AD), which was overthrown by Ming dynasty. (see nextepisode)

January 19th, 2017, 04:09 PM
51.Empress Ma (a virtuous woman)
EmpressMa (1332—1382 AD) was the wife of Zhu Yuanzhang(10/21/1328—06/24/1398 AD), the first emperor of Ming dynasty(1368—1644 AD). She was nicknamed Big Feet, because at that time,women generally bound their feet small as a fashion, but women in thecountryside still kept their natural size of feet. So did Ma.
WhenMa was a child, her parents died and she was adopted by a closefriend of her father, Guo Zixing (1312—1355 AD). It was thentowards the end of Yuan dynasty. There were many groups of rebelsagainst the Mongolians. Guo was one of them. At that time, ZhuYuanzhang was only a poor vagabond. Once he became a monk for aliving. When the rebellion rose, Zhu joined Guo's group and foughtbravely and achieved great merits. Therefore, Guo married his adopteddaughter, Ma, to him. Once at a time, food was scarce and everyonehad a limited ration. In this period of time, Guo doubted that Zhuwas not faithful to him, and so cut his ration. Ma had to share herswith Zhu furtively.
Afterdeath of Guo in fight, Zhu became the leader of the group. With theelapse of time, he got many followers and finally wiped out othergroups. At last he overthrew the Yuan dynasty and founded his Mingdynasty. He was Emperor Taizu of Ming dynasty. His wife was theempress. She had born five sons and two daughters for him.. Zhu was acruel man and when his empire was steadfast, he began to kill thegenerals, who had helped him to conquer opponents, one after theother. When the empress learned it, she advised him not to do so. Hisreason to kill the generals was because he was afraid that thesepowerful generals might, just might, betray him and endanger hisempire. The empress saved the rest of them. When the empress wasseriously sick, he and his courtiers all wished to hold some ceremonyin temples to pray for her longer life. But she opposed it, sayingthat birth and death were decided by destiny, what was the use ofprayer. Her last will to her husband was to treat people andcourtiers nicely and trust in them for the good of the country. Shedied at the age of fifty-one.

January 20th, 2017, 03:16 PM
52. Tang SaiEr (afemale leader of rebellion)
Tang SaiEr (1399--?AD) was the leader of the up-rising peasants. She was not illiterateand learned fighting skills from her father. At fifteen she gotmarried, but soon her husband died. Then she shaved her hair andbecame a Buddhist nun. The second emperor of Ming dynasty, EmperorChengzu, used a lot of peasant labor to build palace and otherconstructions, etc., so that the peasants were all angry against thegovernment. Tang then founded a religion called White Lotus and a lotof peasants believed it and joined it. Tang named herself BuddhistMother. In 1420 AD, White Lotus took up arms and began to attacktowns. The mayors of the towns either escaped or were killed. Othergroups of up-rising peasants joined them.
When the emperorwas reported of it, he sent a messenger to negotiate with them, onlywanted them to surrender. Of course, Tang refused. The emperor sendarmy and his army was vanquished several times. The process of thebattle was like this. The government army surrounded the mountain, onthe top of which camped the rebels. Tang thought of a stratagem. Shesent someone to the government army, saying that there was scarcityof water and most of the rebels wanted to surrender. Only theirleader Tang refused. She wanted to break through the line in the eastthat night. Therefore, the commander of the government armymaneuvered most of his force to the east in hopes to wipe out therebels. But at night, the rebels came down to assault the west sideof the government army with not many soldiers there. These soldierswere defeated and the rebels went round to attack the back of the most part of the government army and put them to rout.
At last when theemperor sent armies that outnumbered peasant force, which wasdefeated and Tang escaped to no one knew where. No one knew the endof her either. The emperor ordered to arrest all the Buddhist nunsand checked them one by one to see if there mingled Tang, but invain. Anyway, the believers of the White Lotus religion scattered allover the nation. Only they could not gather enough force to riotagain.

January 21st, 2017, 03:31 PM
53.Imperial Concubine Wan (a woman nineteen years older than emperor)
ImperialConcubine Wan (1428—1487 AD) was originally a maid in the palace incharge of apparels of the grandmother of emperor Xianzong of Mingdynasty, and then became his concubine when he took over the throne.When this emperor was still the crown prince, he often went to seehis grandmother and saw the maid, who was nineteen years older thanhe. She joked with him and played with him. They got more and morefamiliar with each other. As time elapsed, they liked each other.When the grandmother died, he took the maid to his living quarters ashis maid.
Whenhe became the emperor, the empress dowager wanted to choose anempress for him. It was surely done, but he did not like the empresswhom the empress dowager selected for him. He liked Wan better andmade her his concubine. No one understood why he preferred a womannineteen years older than he, but not the young empress and otherconcubines of his age or even younger. Of course, though she was mucholder than he, she was still a virgin when the emperor married her.
Asa favorite concubine, she did not respect the empress. Once sheoffended the empress, who ordered her to be beaten by her maids. Wanwent to the emperor and complained bitterly. So the emperor deposedthe empress and confined her in a separate room of the palace. Hewanted to make Wan as the empress, but the empress dowager opposed itbecause she was too old and had been only a maid. Generally anempress must come from the family of a courtier of high rank. Theempress dowager appointed another concubine as the empress. Thisempress was afraid of concubine Wan and often exercised forbearanceand let Wan do whatever she liked. In the feudal China, a husband anda wife should come from the families of almost the equal socialstatus. But a concubine did not matter. Some wealthy families hadconcubines often coming from poor families, or even from whorehouses.Girls from rich families were not willing to be concubines, who wereonly a step-up better than maids. Even the parents would not allowthat.
AlthoughWan was not the empress, she was powerful and acted as an empress.She bore a son for the emperor, who was happy to have an heir.However, the baby died within the month. Then she was jealous ofother concubines who were with child. She would let them drink somedrugs to abort the child. No one in the palace dared to say anythingabout it. So the emperor did not know of it. Nor did the empressdowager.
Oncethe emperor sighed and regretted that he did not have a successoryet. A eunuch secretly told him that he did have a successor,secretly kept somewhere lest the boy be killed or poisoned. As theemperor often had sex with any concubine or even any maid, he couldnot know which one was pregnant. Once he had sex with a petty femalepalace official, who became pregnant soon. There were some femaleofficials in the palace just like male officials in the government,to be in charge of some special departments in the palace. As theemperor never saw this female official again, he did not know thatshe was with child. But Wan learned it and sent someone to watch overher. If this woman bore a daughter, it was okay and she was safe. Ifthis woman bore a son, she and her son would lose both lives. Thenthe woman bore a boy and told a eunuch to throw the baby outside thepalace and leave it to his fate, lest he be murdered by concubineWan. The eunuch thought that as the emperor did not have a successoryet, he should keep this baby alive. Therefore, he took it to thedeposed empress who hid it and fed it without Wan's knowing of it.
Whenthe emperor learned it, he wanted to see his son and so the boy ofsix was brought to his presence. He immediately made this son as thecrown prince. Later the emperor had some other sons with otherconcubines. All the sons were well guarded. Not long afterwards, Wandied.

April 29th, 2017, 02:13 PM
(back from travel and continue to post)

54.Qin Liangyu (a woman with many official titles)
QinLiangyu (1574—1648 AD) was a female general and strategist withgreat fighting skills. She had a lot of titles such as left governor(next to governor), magistrate somewhere in Sichuan province, headgeneral of an army somewhere, Marquise of Zhongzhen (literallymeaning loyalty), and first-rank ladyship, etc., the only female whohad so many official titles in the history.
In1592 AD, she married Ma Qiancheng, a magistrate. She helped herhusband to train an army, called White Cudgel Army. In 1599 AD, shemarched her army and defeated the rebels in west of the country. In1613 AD, When her husband died, she took over the position and becamethe high-rank official. In 1620 AD, she sent her brothers, one elderand one younger, with three thousand White Cudgel armymen, toShenyang city in the northern China, for a defensive combat. At thattime, a minority there often invaded Ming dynasty (1368—1644 AD).
Inthe third moon of 1621 AD, she herself marched her army there anddefeated the minority. In the ninth moon of the same year, she wassent by the emperor to Sichuan province and conquered the rebelsthere. Next year,she took back Chengdu city and Chongqing cityoccupied then by rebels. In 1623 AD, she wiped out all the rebels inthat area in Sichuan province. At that time, the Manchurian turnedstrong and often invaded Ming dynasty. In 1630 AD, they took fourtowns and threatened the safety of the capital. No other generals butfemale general Qin came to the rescue and drove back the invaders.
In1634 AD, another group of rebels entered Sichuan province, she wentthere to drive them away. In 1640 AD, still another group of rebelsentered to Sichuan province. Why they wanted to occupy Sichuanprovince was because the land features were easy to defend and hardto attack, and besides, there produced provisions galore, enough tofeed the army or rebels. So the female general went there again tovanquish this group of rebels. In 1646 AD, the Manchurian armyoccupied Peking, the capital of Ming dynasty and marched south.General Qin was already over seventy and took Sichuan province as herbase to resist the Manchurian army. In 1648 AD, on the twenty-firstof the fifth moon, she died at the age of seventy-five. She hadstarted her fighting career at twenty-six and fought for forty-fouryears. She was a unique female in the history.

April 30th, 2017, 02:31 PM
55.Liu Rushi (one of eight famous contemporary singsong girls)
LiuRushi(1618—1664AD)wasone of the eight well-known singsong girls in the Qinhuai river area,i.e., Nanking city and its vicinity. She was the most beautiful girlamong the eight girls. She was versed in painting and calligraphy. In1628 AD when she was ten years old, she was adopted by a bawd and sobecame a singsong girl later. Before receiving visitors, everysingsong girl got special training in many fields such as writingpoems, playing zither or lute, painting and calligraphy, singing ordancing so as to entertain visitors.
Asa rule, a famous singsong girl never had any action with malevisitors, who were mostly men of letters. They came to see her justto ask a scroll of calligraphy or painting from her own creation, orhave a pleasant conversation with the girl to diverse his sad mood ormake him happy, or listen to the girl sing or watch her dance.Nothing more. They never thought of having love actions with suchfamous talented girls. If they needed that, they could go somewhereelse. Sometimes, of course, she would fall in love with one of thevisitors. So did she, when she met Chen Zilong (1608—1647 AD), whowas a petty official in Nanking city, but a learned man. Chen alreadyhad wife, who was very jealous. Chen did not dare to take the girlhome and they lived together in Songjiang city. Afterwards when thewife came to know it, she went to Songjiang and made a scene.Therefore, Liu went back to where she came from.
In1638 AD, when she was twenty years old, she met Qian Qianyi(1582—1664 AD), who was a high-rank official. He was twenty-eightthat year. In 1640 AD, they met again. Qian took Liu for a tour amongmountains and on streams. They had a happy time of the life. Theychanted poems to each other. Liu liked the man very much, though hewas over fifty then, while she was only twenty-two. They marriedanyway. She bore a daughter for him. In 1644 AD, the Manchurian armyoccupied the capital of Ming dynasty and marched to Nanking city.Many scholars opposed the Manchurian because they were another tribe,not Han tribe. The Manchurian arrested anyone who was against them.In 1647 AD, Qian was arrested too. Next year, Liu went round to seeall her friends or even just acquaintances to ask for help. At lastQian was released from the jail. He was so grateful to his wife.
In1664 AD, on the twenty-fourth day of the fifth moon, Qian died ofsome kind of disease. Liu became a widow. The kinsfolk wanted todivide the legacy of Qian. Liu could not endure it and hanged herselfon the twenty-eighth day of the sixth moon, only thirty-four daysafter the death of her husband.

May 1st, 2017, 01:49 PM
56.Ma Xianglan (oneof eight famous contemporary singsong girls)
Ma Xianglan(1548—1604 AD) was one of the eight well-known singsong girls inthe Qinhuai river area, i.e., Nanking city and its vicinity. Althoughshe was plain, she was especially talented in painting. She couldplain orchid and bamboo very well. A painting of orchid in black inkby her is stored in Tokyo museum in Japan and looked upon as aprecious curio of the country. She could sing and dance. She couldwrite poems, besides painting. She also knew music. Once she wrote anopera. She herself conducted a group of troupers to perform it.
Because of hertalent and pleasant conversation manner, she was well-known and hadlots of visitors. Almost all the visitors would bring her some gifts,and so she saved quite much money. She had a small cottage built atthe riverside, named Orchid Cottage. Sometimes if some young learnedmen came to see her, and when she accidentally knew that they wantedto go to the capital for government tests, but did not have so muchmoney for the traveling and food and board expenses in the capital,she would donate enough money to them out of her own pocket.
When she grew old,she was looking for a man who could be her life mate. But none of hervisitors became her favorite. At the age of twenty-four, she did meetone, Wang Zhideng (1535—1612 AD), a man of talent and learning.Though they were not married, they were best friends for more thanthirty years. Things in the world always go against one's wishes.Once Wang had a chance to go to the capital for an official position.Ma was happy for him. He implied that if he could get promotion, hewould come to marry her. When want left, Ma stopped receiving guests.She waited for the man to come back to marry her. But she wasdisappointed, because Wang was supplanted by his colleagues. When hereturned he felt so ashamed of himself that he did not go to see Ma.On the contrary, he moved to live in Suzhou city. Marriage was out ofthe question.
During these longyears, they kept in touch as best friends. Since Wang lived in Suzhoucity, and she lived in Hangzhou city, she often went to Suzhou cityto visit him. When Wang was seventy years old, she went there tocelebrate his birthday. She took tens of singsong girls for the feastand she herself sang for him in spite that she was also growing old.When she returned, she fell sick and died at the age of fifty-seven.Wang wrote a poem in memory of her.

May 4th, 2017, 01:20 PM
57.Gu Hengbo (one of eight famous contemporary singsong girls)
GuHengbo (1619—1664 AD) was one of the eight well-known singsonggirls in the Qinhuai river area, i.e., Nanking city and its vicinity.Among all the eight singsong girls, her life experience was simple,but she got the highest social status among them. She was alsotalented in writing and painting. She also had a lot of visitors.Once a man called Gong Dingzi (1615—1673 AD) came to visit her. Hefell in love with her at the first sight. In 1641 AD, she marriedhim, who was a famous scholar. When the Manchurian came andestablished their Qing dynasty, he became a high-rank official. Somany scholars of Han tribe called him traitor. But she got the titleof First-Rank Ladyship because of her husband from Qing dynasty. Shedied of disease in their residence in Peking. She was the only one ofthe eight singsong girls that had an official title.

May 5th, 2017, 02:10 PM
58.Bian Yujing (one of eight famous contemporary singsong girls)
BianYujing (1623—1665 AD) was one of the eight well-known singsonggirls in the Qinhuai river area, i.e., Nanking city and its vicinity.She was born in Nanking city and her father was an official, but diedearly. She had good education, and so she knew music and could playzither. She could also write poems and paint, and could practicecalligraphy. After the death of her father, she had to become asingsong girl for a living. Her charm and ability attracted a lot ofvisitors.
Onceat the gathering of literary men, she met a man called Wu Meicun(1609—1671 AD), who was a high-rank official. She was fond of himand hinted that she wanted to marry him. But at the time, abrother-in-law of the emperor wanted to take her as his concubine,and so Wu was afraid of getting into trouble and ran away from her.But Bian remained where she was. No one took her away. Two yearsafterwards, she would marry a man, but when she learned that the manwas a good-for-nothing, and therefore, she married her maid to himinstead of herself. She left the place, dressed like a female Taoist.
In1650 AD, she went to Changshu town, where Liu Rushi lived with herhusband Qian. The couple knew Wu Meicun. When Wu came to see Qian,they told Wu that Bian stayed here now. Qian wanted to let Bian andWu meet again. So he let his wife invited Bian to their house. Biandid come, but she said that she did not feel comfortable right thenand asked Liu to lead her to a guest room upstairs. She came, but shedid not see Wu. Maybe, she was still irritated with Wu for runningaway.
Nextyear, she intentionally went to where Wu lived to see him. She saidthat she came just to say hello to him. She was dressed in a femaleTaoist costume. She played zither that night for Wu and some friends.In 1653 AD, an old good-hearted doctor let her stay with him as afriend. She began to believe in Buddhism and refused to see anyformer friends. She spent three years to copy a Buddhist sutra andgave it to the doctor in return for his good hospitality. She wroteit with her blood, not in ink. She died peacefully at an old age.When Wu learned her death he came to salute her tomb and wrote a poemin memory of her.

May 6th, 2017, 02:02 PM
59.Dong Xiaowan(oneof eight famous contemporary singsong girls)
DongXiaowan (1623—1651 AD) wasone of the eight well-known singsong girls in the Qinhuai river area,i.e., Nanking city and its vicinity. She was born in an embroideryfamily in Suzhou city. Dong family was famous for its embroidery.They had a workshop to make and sell products of embroidery. Thistrade had lasted for more than two hundred years till her time. Herfather was a scholar and so she had good education. When she wasthirteen, her father died of diarrhea. She and her mother would notcontinue to live in this old house, because there were too manythings to remind them of the diseased. Therefore, they had anotherhouse built at a riverside and moved to live there like a recluse.They entrusted the family business to some old employee to manage.
Thenchaos arose with the aggression of the Manchurian. When she andmother went to their workshop with the intention to sell it, theyfound that it was already bankrupt. They were penniless now. And hermother was seriously sick. She needed money to pay doctors and buydrugs. So she had to become a singsong girl in the famous Qinhuairiver area. Owing to her great knowledge and ability, she was soonknown to those merry-making young men, who flocked to her like beesto the flower. She could sing for them and accompany them on tours.She liked tours with any visitors that she could appreciate thebeautiful scenes.
Therewas a famous learned man by name of Mao Pijiang, who, having heard ofher name, came to seek for her several times in her absence as shewent out to accompany visitors on tours. Once he came late in theevening and she was already back from tours. They got acquainted witheach other. As she already knew the name of the young scholar, theyimmediately liked each other. But Mao wanted to go back to his hometown to take government tests. But he failed. After half a year, hecame to seek Dong again.
Afterthe death of her mother, she wanted to marry Mao. Only Mao mustredeem her from the whorehouse first. However, as she was so renownedin the area, the bawd would not let her go, no matter how much moneyMao would pay. Just at that time, Liu and her husband Qian came tosee Mao. As Qian had been an official, through his mediation, thebawd let her go at last. Then they got married. She began to practicecalligraphy and continued to paint. Her painting of “ColorfulButterflies” is now stored in the museum of Wuxi city. Thispainting was painted when she was only fifteen. Their comfortablelife lasted only for more than a year. Then Manchurian army came andtheir valuables were lost when they escaped south.
Afterchaos, they went back to their homeland, and found that their housestill stood. They lost all the valuables and had to live in hardship.Then Mao was taken ill and she had to wait on him hand and foot, dayand night. Several months afterwards, Mao was gradually recovered,but she fell sick, severely. There was no curing for her and she diedin peace in the first moon of 1651 AD.

May 7th, 2017, 01:10 PM
60.Li Xiangjun(oneof eight famous contemporary singsong girls)
LiXiangjun (1624—1653 AD) wasalso one of the eight well-known singsong girls in the Qinhuai riverarea, i.e., Nanking city and its vicinity. She was born in Suzhoucity and her father was an officer. She had two elder brothers. Whenher father died, her family turned out destitute. Therefore, when shewas only eight, she was adopted by a bawd. She was trained to sing,to play lute, to write poems and knew music. She had a good voice,but seldom sang, unless the visitor was the one she liked.
Whenshe reached the age of sixteen, she must have her maidenhood doneaway. She could find a visitor she liked. But the bawd would chargehim highly. Then she met a man called Hou Fangyu (1618—1655 AD), afamous scholar at the time. As he did not have so much money to paythe fee, a friend Yuan Dacheng (1587—1646 AD) loaned him theamount. Yuan was a literary man and a dramatist, but he had a lowcharacter. He was always ambitious while Hou was not. Afterwards,they quarreled and were no longer friends. It was because Yuan madefriends with anyone in hopes that that friend could help him to stepup in his official career. However, Hou could not help him there.After their breach, Yuan wanted Hou to pay back the loan. Hou, withthe help of the girl, repaid all his debt, by selling her jewels andhis borrowing money from other friends and relatives.
Therewas a little, but important detail I must mention. On the night whenHou did the girl, he gave her a precious gift, which was a round fanof white gauze with an ivory carved frame, which was his familyheirloom.
Atthat time when Manchurian occupied the capital of Ming dynasty, aMing emperor fled to the south of the Yangtze river and made Ninkingcity as his temporary capital. Yuan then became a high official inthe court of the emperor. As Yuan hated Hou, he wanted to frame Hou,who learned it and escaped to somewhere. And Li Xiangjun shut herselfup and never received any visitors. But Yuan told the emperor aboutthe famous girl. So the emperor ordered the girl to be fetched to hispresence. The girl could not reject the order of the emperordirectly. So she knockedher head against a pillar and her blood splashed on the fan. Anotherfriend of Hou's, who could paint, got the fan and painted, based onthe blood specks, some red peach blossoms. Hence, the fan was calledPeach Fan.
Yuan, as a dramatist,wrote a drama named Peach Fan. He urged the emperor to send for thegirl by force. She had to enter the palace as a singsong girl. In1644 AD, the Manchurian army approached Nanking city, the emperor ranaway further south. The girl stole out of the palace. She did notknow where she could go and sat down on a small bridge. Just then amaster, who had taught her to sing, came across her by accident onthe bridge. As he knew that the girl had nowhere to go, he took herto Suzhou city, where he lived.
At this moment when thegirl was on this bridge, Hou, her man, was not far from her. He cameback to look for her. But fate made a joke on them. They missed eachother. In 1645 AD, the girl Li went to see Bian Yujing (one of eightsingsong girls and they knew each other) in her temple and stayedthere for a while. In the autumn this year, Hou found her in thetemple and took to his hometown, where his parents and his wifelived. In introduction, he concealed her singsong status, just sayingthat she was his concubine. As she was nice to everyone in thefamily, she was welcome and treated well. Therefore, from 1645 to1652 AD, she led a peaceful and comfortable life.
Then her husband took atrip to somewhere. Somehow, unfortunately, her singsong status wasfound out by the family. Especially her father-in-law was furious anddrove her out of the family to live in a bleak village fifteen li(half a kilometer) away. At the time, Li was pregnant. So themother-in-law and the wife were sympathetic with her and with theascent of the father-in-law, sent a maid there to look after her.When the husband returned, he took her back to live in the familyhouse. But she was feeling unhappy for the discrimination. After shegave birth to the baby, she was suffering from TB—Tuberculosis,and died at the age of thirty.

May 9th, 2017, 01:52 PM
61.Kou Baimen (oneof eight famous contemporary singsong girls)
KouBaimen (1624--? AD) wasalso one of the eight well-known singsong girls in the Qinhuai riverarea, i.e., Nanking city and its vicinity. She was born in a strangefamily, who ran the prostitute business. She was demure andbeautiful. In the late spring of 1642 AD, at the age of seventeen,she married the powerful Duke Baoguo of Ming dynasty.
In1645 AD, the Manchurian army overthrew the Ming dynasty and DukeBaoguo surrendered. Not long after, his family was taken to Peking,which was then the capital of Qing dynasty, founded by the Manchurian(1644—1911 AD). The duke was confined. He wanted to sell all hisdancers and maids and singsong girls, including Kou, who was hisconcubine. But a man could sell his concubine in the feudal China.Kou said to him that if he sold her, he would get at most somehundred taels of silver, but if he could let her go, she would goback to the south and make thousands of taels of silver for him.Therefore, he let her go. She went back to Nanking city. She marrieda scholar in Yangzhou city, but she felt unhappy with the marriage.So she returned to Nanking city again. Then she liked a scholar Han,who liked her at the first sight and supported her. Then she gotsick. One day she still wanted to make love with him, though sick,but he would not allow and leave her room. Later she heard some merrynoise next room. When she entered the next room, she found that Hanwas making love to her maid, who was younger, and beautiful, too,only without fame. She was enraged and her sickness got worse. Shedied soon.

May 10th, 2017, 01:24 PM
62.Chen Yuanyuan (one of eight famous contemporary singsong girls)
ChenYuanyuan (1624—1681 AD) was one of the eight well-known singsonggirls in the Qinhuai river area, i.e., Nanking city and its vicinity,too. Itwas round the end of the Ming Dynasty (1368 AD—1644 AD). EmperorChongzhen was on the throne. When he first became the emperor, he hadthe ambition to make his empire strong, but he was not a man oftalent, and the empire remained weak. In the northeastern China,there was the Mandarin who got stronger and stronger, especially whenthey united the Mongolians in the west. Now they intended to invadeand occupied the territory of the Ming Dynasty. The only blockade tothem was the Great Wall. They must enter through Shanhai Pass at theeastern end of the Great Wall. The Ming Dynasty stationed greatforces to defend it. But the stupid emperor often changed thecommander, which was a disadvantage to the defending army. Supposingwhen a commander just got familiar with the situation and the move ofthe enemy, on which he would make his strategy, then he was removedand a new commander came. The new commander must get familiar witheverything over again.
First the emperorappointed the famous general Yuan Chonghuan (1584 AD—1630 AD) asthe commander. He defeated Mandarin army a few times. They had toretreat. Then the mandarin sent some spies to the capital of the MingDynasty to spread rumor that Yuan Chonghuan was having a peace talkwith the Mandarin. The desire of the emperor was to drive theMandarin back to where they came. So peace negotiation was againstthe wish of the emperor. Therefore, the emperor summoned YuanChonghuan back and put him to death sentence as betrayal.
Then he appointedHong Chengchou (1593 AD—1665 AD) as the commander. He was a wisecourtier and was the minister of the Military Ministry. When theMandarin heard the removal of Yuan Chonghuan, they marched their armytowards Shanhai Pass again. Hong Chengchou wanted to show that he wasan able commander, but in the first battle, he was captured by theMandarin army. He was brought to the presence of the Mandarin emperorHuangtaiji (1592 AD—1643 AD), who tried to persuade Hong to turnover to the Mandarin. However, at first, Hong Chengchou refused tobetray his emperor. According to the history record, one night whenHong Chengchou was sleeping and woke up at midnight, he found a womanlying beside him. He sat up in astonishment and asked who she was.The woman said that she was the empress of Huangtaiji. The empresscame to sleep with him. This was a great honor to him. He was movedand surrendered. It was said that he kowtowed only to the empress,not to the emperor, saying that he was the slave to her. The emperordid not care as long as he had surrendered to the Mandarin. HongChengchou offered then quite a few ideas how to conquer Ming Dynasty.After Hong Chengchou was captured, Emperor Chongzhen appointed WuSanGui as the next commander.
Chen Yuanyuan livedin Kunshan town in Jiangsu province to the south of the Yangtzeriver. She was very beautiful and could sing and dance. She was afamous prostitute in that area. Many patrons came to hear her singand watch her dance.
There at that timegathered large rebels, all of them were peasants, who were under theoppression of the corrupt officials. Their leader was Li Zicheng(1606 Ad—1645 AD). Li Zicheng led his huge army of rebels marchingtowards the capital Peking. Facing such situation of both threat fromthe Mandarin and from the rebels, the emperor felt so heavyheartedand melancholy that one of his imperial concubines Tian wanted tomake him happy. She asked her father Tian Hong to find some beautifulgirls. People thought at that time that all the beautiful girls werein the southern region to the Yangtze river. Tian Hong therebytraveled to the south. He visited brothel after brothel, and at lastfound Chen Yuanyuan in Kunshan town. He was struck by her beauty andtook her back to the capital. He spent two hundred thousand taels ofsilver to get her. He presented the girl to the emperor, but theemperor was not in the mood to hear her sing and watch her dance.Tian Hong had to take the girl back to his own residence.
Commander Wu SanGuiwent with his army to Shanhai Pass to resist the invasion of theMandarin. He went through the capital and Tian Hong entertained himwith the intention that Wu would specially protect his family and hisfortune. He let the girl out to dance for Wu SanGui, who, at thefirst sight, loved the girl very much. He said to Tian Hong that hewould try his best to protect him if he gave the girl to him. Ofcourse, Tian Hong complied. Wu SanGui took the girl to his residencein the capital. When he left the capital for the frontier, he had toleave the girl in the capital.
The rebellious armyled by Li Zicheng approached the capital. The emperor did not haveenough troops to defend the city, and soon the rebels entered it. Theemperor had to hang himself. That was the end of the Ming Dynasty. LiZicheng occupied the palace and declare himself the emperor of theDashun empire. One of his generals Liu Zongming killed all the familymembers of Wu SanGui and took the girl with him.
When Wu SanGuiheard the news, he was greatly infuriated and vowed to revenge on therebels. He knew that the forces he commanded was still no match tothe great number of the rebellious army. So he wanted to ally withthe Mandarin and used the allied force to fight the rebels. Thus, theMandarin army entered the Shanhai Pass and then occupied theterritory of Ming Dynasty. They founded their Qing Dynasty tilloverthrown by the Republic of China in 1911 AD.
The rebels escapedfrom the capital Peking. Wu SanGui chased them till he wiped out allthe rebels. In pursuit of the beaten rebels, Wu SanGui came acrossChen Yuanyuan. When Wu got back his girl, he marched into Yunnanprovince, which is in the far southwest corner of China. He made ithis own territory. He was given the title of king and Yunan provinceas his fief by the emperor of Qing Dynasty. He accepted the title.
As time proceeded,Chen Yuanyuan grew old and Wu SanGui got some girls younger. ChenYuanyuan went to live in a Buddhist nunnery for a quiet life.
Although We SanGuilet in the Mandarin army, He did that just for his own purpose. Hereally did not like the Mandarin. He wished to be independent. So hedeclared that his fief in Yunnan province was an independent empireand did not obey the Qing Dynasty any more. He set Kunming city ashis capital. The Qing government dispatched troops into Yunnanprovince to attack Wu SanGui and took the Kunming city. Wu SanGui waskilled. Chen Yuanyuan was afraid to be captured by the Qing army andinsulted. She drowned herself in the lotus pond outside the nunnery.She was buried by the side of the pond. In the nunnery theredisplayed two pictures of Chen Yuanyuan.
IfChen Yuanyuan never lived, or if Wu SanGui never knew her, Wu SanGuiwould not let in the Mandarin and Ming Dynasty might continue forlonger time. Even if the rebels occupied the capital, the deceasedemperor had some sons and one of the sons could gather troops fromprovinces and drove away the rebels from the capital and restore theMing Dynasty. That's why people said that a whore changed the historyof Ming Dynasty.

May 11th, 2017, 01:36 PM
63.Concubine Xiang (a girl who had scent on her body)
ConcubineXiang (09/15/1734—05/24/1788 AD) was a girl belonging to Uighurtribe in the present Xinjiang Autonomous District. In 1757 AD, someminorities in that area rebelled against Qing dynasty (1644—1911AD.) At the time, Emperor Qianlong (09/25/1711—02/07/1799 AD) wason the throne and he sent army to quench the insurrection. Twobrothers of concubine Xiang helped Qing army to subdue all rebels andthe Qing emperor conferred duke titles to them. The brothers wantedto please the emperor and sent their sister to the emperor in return.The sister was twenty-seven at the time. Therefore, the sister becamethe concubine of the emperor. It was said that the body of the girlwould radiate scent by birth. That was why she got the title ofConcubine Xiang (literally meaning scent).
When she came intothe palace, a litchi tree, transplanted in the palace, produced morethan two hundred litchi fruit. It was deemed as good fortune that thegirl brought. So everyone in the palace liked her, from the empressdowager to the maids in common. Let alone the emperor. EmperorQianlong liked to travel to the south in the region of the YangtzeRiver because the scenery there was very beautiful. Every time hetraveled, he would bring her with him. She was his favoriteconcubine. When the empress died, the emperor never had an empressany more. And Concubine Xiang acted as the first concubine in thepalace. She was then already forty-eight. She died at the age offifty-five.
A legend had adifferent anecdote for her. She was the wife of a muslin chieftain.When the chieftain rebelled and killed by Qing army, she was capturedand sent to the emperor. But she refused to obey the emperor, and theempress dowager let her die. Her body was sent back to her homelandand was buried there. There is still her tomb in Xinjiang district,named Tomb of Concubine Xiang.

May 12th, 2017, 02:21 PM
64.Empress Dowager Cixi(a powerful woman causing Qing dynasty perish)
Empress Dowager Cixi(11/29/1835—11/15/1908 AD) was the last empress dowager in Qingdynasty, and also the last empress dowager in the Chinese history.After her death, Qing dynasty was soon overthrown by the firstrepublic of China.
Her father was anofficial. And in 1852, she was selected to be sent to the palace.Young girls, when selected into palace, had two choices. Mostly theywould be palace maids to do all kinds of services and a few, if theemperor liked them, would be appointed concubines. She was lucky andgot the title of Concubine Lan at the age of eighteen. The emperor ofthat time was Emperor Xianfeng (1831—1861 AD). The empress did notbear any children for him. But Lan bore him a son, who was duly thecrown prince. When the emperor died, the crown prince became EmperorTongzhi (04/27/1856—01/12/1875 AD). She became empress dowagerCixi, and as a rule, the empress became the empress dowager, too,though the new emperor was not her son. She was empress dowager CiAn.They were more easily distinguished from each other by their livingquarters. The former empress dwelt in the east, and was therebycalled East Empress dowager. The former concubine dwelt in the west,and was thereby called West empress Dowager. Since the new emperorwas still a small boy and could not manage the state affairs, the twoempress dowagers decided things for him.
The west empressdowager was ambitious, but she could not make any decisions alone.She was not satisfied. One day she sent some snacks to the eastempress dowager, who ate it and died. It was said that the westempress dowager poisoned her. Then the west empress dowager had allthe power in her hands. Unfortunately, her son, the new emperor, diedyoung from chicken pox. As a rule, she should choose a closerelative's son as her adoptive son and succeeded the throne. Shechose the son of one of her brothers-in-law. This son was still asmall boy and could administrate the government. So the west empressdowager still made decision for him. That was why she did not choosea grown-up son of the brothers-in-law. This new emperor was calledEmperor Guangxu (08/14/1871—11/14/1908 AD).
Compared withsovereign empress Wu, who made the nation strong and prosperous,empress dowager Cixi ruled the nation badly. At the time Japan in theeast always wanted to invade China. If she was a good ruler, shewould strengthen the navy, but she used the funds for navy to buildher summer palace. So in 1894, China's nave was defeated by that ofJapan. In 1900 when the army of Eight-nation alliance occupied thecapital Peking, she had to escape. Under her reign, Qing dynasty wentto destruction.
Seeing this,Emperor Guangxu wanted to have reform like Japan. She and some oldcourtiers opposed the reform and coup d'etat took place. The emperorwas confined and reformers were killed. China's hope was strangled inthe cradle. The emperor died one day earlier than the death ofempress dowager Cixi. It was said that the emperor was poisoned lestafter her death, the emperor would refresh the reform.

May 13th, 2017, 01:38 PM
65. Hong Xuanjiao(a female general, later escaped to US)
Hong Xuanjiao (?--?)was a brave female fighter, commanding an army of all femalesoldiers, and was also the sister of Hong Xiuquan (1814—1864 AD),who was the Heavenly King of the Peace Kingdom (1851—1864 AD). Atthat time Qing dynasty was suffering a difficult time as EmpressDowager Cixi did not have the ability to administrate the country,but she held the power tightly in her hands.
Hong Xiuquan livedin Guangdong province in the southwestern China, far from thecapital, so that Qing dynasty had loose control over that area. In1843 AD, Hong Xiuquan founded a religion called God-WorshipingChurch. The believers developed and in 1851 AD, they held up armsagainst Qing dynasty. They formed Peace Army and took city aftercity. They established Peace Kingdom and then they marched to Nankingcity and occupied it. They made it their capital. The Heavenly Kingwas the head of the kingdom. There were other kings, such as EastKing, West King, South King, North King, Wing King, Loyalty King,etc. They were the other leaders of the Peace Army.
The sister latermarried the West King. After they set Nanking city as their capital,the kings started to fight among themselves for more power andbenefits. First the sister made a plot to kill the East King. ThenNorth King killed the family of the Wing King, who escaped to Sichuanprovince. The Heavenly King killed the North King. Therefore, thePeace Kingdom grew weaker and was finally conquered by Qing Army andNanking city was taken. The Heavenly King made suicide.
The sister escapedin disguise of an ordinary woman among the refugees. She then went toShanghai. Finally she followed a priest and went to the UnitedStates. She stayed in San Francisco and lived as a herb doctor inChinatown there.

May 14th, 2017, 01:59 PM
66. Fu Caiyun (awhore having been in foreign states and speaking their languages)
Fu Caiyun (1872—1936AD) was nicknamed Sai Jinhua (literally meaning surpassing goldenflower). When a little girl, she was sold to a whorehouse in Suzhoucity. In 1887 AD, she was taken by a high official Hong Jun(1839—1893 AD) as his concubine at the age of fifteen while Hongwas forty-eight. Next year, Hong Jun was sent to Russia, Austria,Germany and Holland as an envoy of Qing dynasty. She went with him ashis Ladyship because his wife did not like to live in foreigncountries. She lived in Berlin for a few years. She had been to St.Petersburg and Geneva. So she had known some German officers.
When her husbanddied, the family did not welcome her as she had been a whore. She hadto leave and become a whore again for her living. At first she wentto Shanghai, and later she went to live in Tianjin city, close toPeking. When she was a whore, she was known by her nickname, SaiJinhua.
In 1900 AD, whenthe allied forces came to Peking, she was living there and had somegood relationship with some German officers. It was said that she wasfamiliar with Alfred Graf von Waldersee, the commander of the Germantroops. She had even tried to dissuade him from burning the YuanmingGarden. In 1903 AD, a young whore was ill-treated to death by her,and so she was arrested. Then she was sent in custody to herhometown, Suzhou city, for the service. When she was released fromjail, she went to live in Shanghai. Afterwards, she moved to Pekingand led a poor life till she died of severe disease there in 1936 AD.

May 15th, 2017, 01:52 PM
67.Qiu Jin (a female martyr against Qing dynasty)
QiuJin (1875—1907 AD) was born in Amoy in Fujian province. She learnedkungfu when a little girl and admired Hua Mulan and Qin Laingyu (seeabove). She liked to dress in man's apparel. She called herself“Swords Woman of Mirror Lake,” which lake was in her homeland.
In1896 AD, she was married to Wang Tingjun (1879—1909 AD), who ran apawn shop in Xiangtan town. Qiu Jin moved to live with her husbandthere. In 1900 AD, Wang was assigned an official position in Pekingand the couple went to live in Peking. She bore two children for him.
In1903 AD, she went to Japan to learn Japanese language at first.During her stay in Japan, she took part in the revolutionaryactivities with Chinese students there. In July of 1905 AD, shejoined SunYat-sen'salliance, a revolutionary league against Qing dynasty, and wasassigned to be in charge of the revolutionary activities in Zhejiangprovince. When she returned next year, she became a teacher inShanghai.
She planned topublish a newspaper named “Chinese Women.” She needed financialaid. She went back to her husband's family and got a large sum ofmoney for that purpose. She set her heart to wage the revolution, andso she asked to be divorced to her husband lest her action shouldaffect her husband. Her desire of divorce was to protect her husband.If in the process of revolution, she was arrested, her husband hadnothing to do with her action as they were openly divorced.
In autumn of 1905,two members of the League founded a normal school in Shaoxing town,really for military training. Qiu recruited six hundred members forthe school. In January of 1907 AD, the first issue of the newspaperwas published. She wrote articles for female rights and revolutionaryideas. She toured to towns not far from Shanghai for propaganda ofrevolution. In February that year, she became the school mistress.They planned to rise to arms on the sixth day of July, but the secretwas leaked out. The uprising of her comrades in Anqing town of Anhuiprovince failed. Someone betrayed her to Qing government while othercomrades tried to persuade her to flee, but she rejected, saying thatthe victory of revolution must cost blood. She remained. On thefourteenth day of July, she was arrested in the school. In the prisonshe was tortured, but she confessed nothing. She only wrote, “Autumnwind and autumn rain saddens people.” It was because the first wordin her name Qiu literally meant autumn. She was killed on thefifteenth day.
Her body was atfirst buried At Xiling Bridge on the West lake in Hangzhou city, butthe local Qing government forced it to be moved. Therefore, in 1909AD, her son moved her body to be buried at Mt. Zhao in Xiangtan town,where her husband's family lived. In 1912 AD, when the first republicwas founded, her body was moved back to be interred again in the sameplace by the West Lake of Hangzhou city. She is admired by allChinese people for her heroic deeds.

May 16th, 2017, 01:26 PM
68. Xiao Fengxian(a whore who saved a general)
Xiao Fengxian(1900—1954 AD) was her nickname. Her real name was Zhu Xiaofeng.Her father was a business man and went bankrupt, and so she was soldto a brothel in Peking. She had an ability to know who was who. Nodisguise in her eyes.
It was said thatshe had known Cai E (12/18/1882—11/08/1916 AD), who was a generaland the governor of Yunnan province. He came to Peking to seedoctors. But he would go to some brothels when he was free. That waswhy he knew the girl.
At that time, YuanShikai (09/16/1895—06/06/1916 AD) wished to be the emperor and hedetained Cai E, fearful of his opposition. Cai disagreed to Yuan'sidea to restore China into an empire. Therefore, he wanted to be backto his domain so that he could take up arms against Yuan. Hesucceeded to steal out of Peking with the assistance of the girl. Onenight, the girl rode in her coach out to somewhere, and hid Cai inher coach in disguise. She sent Cai to Tianjing city, where Cai goton board a ship and escaped to Japan, then went back to his Yunnanprovince by way of Hong Kong.
As for the girl,she later married a brigade commander and did not bear any childrenfor him. In 1949 AD, she remarried to a factory worker, who had adaughter of fourteen year old by his ex-wife. When he died, Fengxianlived with her step-daughter. In the early 1951 AD, she went to seethe famous actor of Beijing opera, Mei Lanfang(10/22/1894—08/08/1961 AD), who admired Fengxian for her help ofCai E to escape. Under his influence, she was arranged to work in anursery. In 1952, she suffered from Alzheimer's disease and died in1954.

May 17th, 2017, 02:24 PM
69. Pan Yuliang (a famous paintress and sculptress)
Pan Yuliang(06/14/1895—06/13/1977 AD) was a famous paintress and sculptress.In 1917, she went to Shanghai to learn how to paint. Next year, shewas enrolled in Shanghai Fine Arts School. In 1921, she went toFrance and was enrolled in Ecole Nationale Superieure des Beaux-Arts– ENSBA in Lyon. In 1923, she entered Ecole Nationale Superieuredes Beaux-Arts de Paris. In 1925, she went to Academy of Beaux-Artsof Rome in Italy. She finished an oil painting titled “White Mums,”which was later displayed in the gallery of Education Bureau inNanking city.
In 1926, she beganto learn sculpture. Meantime, she completed two oil paintings. Theywere “Fruits” and “Ruins of Rome.” Her art works were alwayschosen to be shown in the international exhibition in Italy. Her oilpainting “Nude” had won the gold medal in the above exhibition.
In 1928, shereturned to China and at the end of this year, she held her personalart gallery. Next year, she was appointed the director of the WesternPainting Department of Shanghai Fine Arts School. In 1930, shebecame a professor in Central University (the present NankingUniversity), and at the same time, she founded the graduate artsschool in Shanghai. Then she opened an exhibition in Tokyo in Japan.In 1931, she helped to organize the Chinese Arts Society.
In 1934, ShanghaiZhonghua Book Company published the “Collection of Oil Paintings ofPan Yuliang.” In 1937, she went to Paris again for theInternational Art Exposition. In 1940, when Paris was occupied byGermany, she moved to dwell in the suburb and sold paintings for aliving. She resided in France ever since till her death in 1977.

May 18th, 2017, 01:31 PM
70. SoongQingling (the wife of Sun Yat-sen, a revolutionary)
Soong Qingling(01/27/1893—05/29/1981 AD) was the second wife of Sun Yat-sen(11/12/1866—03/12/1925 AD), who founded a revolutionary league. Herfather was a priest as well as a business man, and also a friend andcomrade of Sun Yat-sen. Hers was a rich family. She had two sistersand three brothers. Her younger sister was well-known to the world.(see next episode.)
Shegot her education at McTyeireSchool in Shanghai. After graduation, in 1907, at the age offourteen, she went to USA to study at Wellesley College inMassachusetts.Her English name was Rosamond. She got bachelor's degree ofliterature. In 1913, she returned to China. However, in 1915, shewent to Japan and met SunYat-sen there. She became his assistant in his revolutionary career.On the twenty-fifth of October, that year, she married him in spiteof her father's opposition. She followed his footsteps ever sinceuntil he died of cancer in 1925.
InAugust of 1927, she went to Soviet Union and then to Europe for fouryears. She read works of Karl Marx and studied the core problems ofthe first socialist country and some big capitalist countries. In theSino-Japanese was, she tended to the Communist Party of China.Therefore, in 1949 when CPC established their republic,she was appointed the vice chairman of the republic. In 1950, she waselected the member of World Council of Peace. In 1952, she wasselected the chairwoman of LiaisonCommission for Asia and the Pacific.
InSeptember of 1954, she was made the vice chairwoman of the StandingCommittee of the First National People's Congress. On the seventh ofApril in 1959, in the first session of the National People'sCongress, she was chosen to be the vice chairwoman of the People'sRepublic of China. In January of 1965, she was once more made thevice chairwoman of the People's Republic of China. In January of1975, she was again made the vice chairwoman of theStandingCommittee of the First National People's Congress. In February of1978, she was given that position again. On the thirtieth of Augustin 1980, she was the executive chairman on the third session of theFifth National People's Congress. On the fourteenth of May in 1981,her liver cancer and other disease worsened. On the fifteenth, thecentral political bureau declared that she was the member of CPC. Andon the sixteenth, she was given the title of honorary chairwoman ofthe People's Republic of China. She died on the twenty-ninth inBeijing.
It was said thatbesides English, she knew French, German, Russian, Italian and Greek.She could play piano well. She liked classical music of Europe. Shecould cook good dishes and could paint and embroider. She was alltalented.

May 19th, 2017, 01:47 PM
71.SoongMay-ling (the wife of Chiang Kai-shek)
Soong May-ling(03/05/1897—10/24/2003 AD) was born in Shanghai and was the thirdwife of Chiang Kai-shek (10/31/1887—04/05/1975 AD), who was thechairman of the Republic of China. She was then the first lady of theRepublic of China.
In 1903, she waseducated in McTyeire School in Shanghai. In 1908, at the age ofeleven, she went with her sister Rosamond to USA to study in SouthPiedmont Community College and in 1912, she went to study inWellesley College, MA. In 1917, she returned to Shanghai to work fora church and took part in all sorts of social activities. It was saidthat she had a secret engagement with a friend of her elder brother.
In 1922, she metChiang Kai-shek in Shanghai. Chiang started to suit her. But herfamily opposed it, because Chiang was married and believed inBuddhism. If he wanted to marry the girl, he must first divorce hiswife and commence to change his belief in church. So he agreed to theconditions. Therefore, on the first of December in 1927, they gotmarried. In 1930, Chiang had the ceremony in a Baptist Church inShanghai.
In 1928, she becamethe mistress of the school for the young family members of deadsoldiers of the National Revolutionary Army. In 1932, she was thegeneral secretary of Aviation Committee of China. In 1934, Soong andChiang waged the New Life Movement, to promote drinking boiled waterinstead tea and coffee, learning to read and write instead ofilliteracy, having habit of hygiene instead of spitting phlegmeverywhere.
On the twelfth ofDecember in 1936, Chiang was detained in XiAn city by two generals hesent to attack the army of CPC. At the same time, Soong was inShanghai, being not well. When the news came, she immediately went toNanking city, the capital of Chiang's government. She talked to othergovernment leaders and emphasized on the importance of solving thedispute peacefully. On the fifteenth of December, she flew to XiAncity to negotiate with the two generals and Zhou Enlai, therepresentative of CPC. Finally they reached an agreement and Chiangwas released and came back to Nanking city in company of Soong on thetwenty-fifth.
In 1937, theSino-Japanese war broke out. Chiang appointed Soong in charge of theair force. She then invited American general Claire Lee Chennault(09/06/1893—07/27/1958 AD) to China to form the “Flying tigers,”the nickname of Chinese air force. Soong was thereby nicknamed“Mother of the Air force of China.” In 1938, Times magazinepublished in USA put Chiang and Soong as cover figures. In Februaryof 1943, to gain the help of America, Soong went to USA as Chinag'senvoy and was received by the first lady of President Roosevelt andstayed in the White House for eleven days. On the twenty-eighth ofFebruary, she made a speech in US Congress. It was the first Chinesewoman speaking in the US Congress. Then she toured to other cities tospeak to American people for support. Statistics showed that almost250,000 Americans had listened to her speeches. It was just after theJapanese attack of Pearl Harbor.
InNovember of 1934, when Roosevelt, Churchill and Chiang had aconference in Cairo, she went with Chiang as his interpreter sinceChinag could not understand and speak English. In 1945, she lived inChongqing city, which was the temporary capital of China at the wartime since the real capital was then occupied by the Japanese army.She squeezed out time to write a novel titled PastEvents Have Vanished Like Smoke.
In October of 1946,Soong and Chiang first visited Taiwan. Then they moved to Taiwan whenCPC occupied the mainland. In the sixties, she developed hospitals inTaibei city. In 1975, when Chinag died, she went to live in USA. Onthe twenty-ninth of May in 1981, when her second sister, Rosamond,died in Beijing, the embassy of China in Washington DC told her thesad news and hoped that she could go to Beijing to attend thefuneral, but after the second thought, she declined.
In 1986, she wentback to Taiwan to attend the 100 anniversary of Chiang's birthday andmade a speech, “I wish that the light of the Three People'sPrinciples will shine over the mainland.” In 1991, she left Taiwanfor the United States again, and never returned to Taiwan ever since.In 1994, she moved to live in New York city. In 1995, it was fiftiethanniversary of the end of the second world war. She was invited toattend the ceremony held for her in Congress for her great tributesin the second world war. She died on the twenty-third of October in2003 at the age of one hundred and six in New York city.

May 20th, 2017, 01:47 PM
72. KawashimaYoshiko (a Chinese woman becoming a Japanese spy)
KawashimaYoshiko (05/23/1907—03/25/1948 AD) was the fourteenth daughter of aMandarin prince. When the Qing dynasty was overthrown, the fathergave this daughter to his friend, a Japanese called KawashimaNaniwain the hope that this Japanese friend could train her as a best spyfor the restoration of his collapsed dynasty. Therefore, in 1912, atthe age of seven, the girl went to Japan with the Japanese man as heradoptive father for strict training. She was then changed her Chinesename Jin Bihui to a Japanese name: Kawashima Yoshiko.
Several yearslater, Kawashima Yoshiko was all Japanese. Then she was sent toStella Jogakuin Koutouka C3-bu—a female high school. When she grewup, she cut her hair short like a boy and liked male sports such ashorse-riding, fencing, shooting and judo. She began to wear boy'sclothes.
Shestarted her spy career in 1927 at the age of twenty-one. She returnedto the Northeastern China, and in Port Arthur, she married aMongolian, but in 1931, she eloped with the Japanese secret servicechief to Shanghai. Then she secretly took part in the September 18thIncidents, which was that the Japanese army in northeastern Chinafirst framed Chinese army for the destroy of Japanese railroad thereand then attacked and occupied Shengyang city, and afterwards, tookall the region of the northeastern China, including all threeprovinces.
Shealso participated in January 28thIncidents, which was that in 1931 right after the September 18thIncidents, Japanese army started to attack Shanghai and drove theChinese guarding army out of the area. In 1932, she helped toestablished the so-called Manchukuo, a puppet government in the northeastern China and put on the throne a puppet emperor Peter, whohad been the last emperor of Qing dynasty.
Her purpose was torestore the Qing dynasty, but now as she understood that theManchukuo was only a puppet government of Japan, not the restorationthe Qing dynasty, she was disappointed and used the power in herhands to release some Chinese people arrested by Japanese army. Soshe was deemed by the Japanese army as a dangerous person. In 1934,she was sent back to Japan in confinement. Anyway, she escaped backto China and opened a restaurant in Tianjin city.
In October of 1945when Japan surrendered, she was arrested by the Chinese governmentand had the death verdict on twenty-second of October in 1945, andwas executed on the twenty-fifth of March in 1948 in the First Prisonin Peking at the age of forth-two.

May 21st, 2017, 02:04 PM
73.Zhao Yidi (a woman having a long time love)
ZhaoYidi (05/28/1912—06/22/2000)wasborn in Hong Kong. She was at first the mistress of general ZhangXueliang (06/03/1901—10/15/2001 AD), commanding the army in thenortheastern China, and then became his wife.
In 1928, she wentto Tianjin city to attend the Northeast University and got acquaintedwith general Zhang. Thus she became his secretary as well as hismistress. As Zhang had wife, she could not become his wife. But shefollowed him everywhere ever since.
After the XiAnIncident on the twelfth of December in 1936, when he and anothergeneral were detained by Chiang Kai-shek, he was confined ever sinceand the girl accompanied him in his confinement for as long asseventy-two years. When Chiang escaped to Taiwan, he sent Zhang theretoo. And the girl ensued.
In 1940, Zhang'swife was diagnosed to have breast cancer and went to USA fortreatment. In 1964, Zhang divorced her and married the girl as hissecond wife. She had a son with Zhang.

May 22nd, 2017, 01:29 PM
74.Jiang Zhujun (a CPC member killed by KMD)
JiangZhujun (08/20/1920—11/14/1949) was nicknamed Sister Jiang. She wasborn in Zigong town of Sichuan province. When she was eight yearsold, her mother left her idle father, taking her and her brother toChongqing city, where her uncle lived. At the age of ten, she entereda sock factory and worked as child labor. Since her stature wasshorter than the machine, the owner of the factory specially had a high stool made for her. Next year, she was sent to an orphanage runby a church. She then worked part time and studied part time.
In1939, she joined the Communist Party of China. In 1945, she wasmarried to Peng Yongwu (1915—1948), who was a local partysecretary. After the marriage, she worked for the newspaper publishedby CPC. In the winter of 1947, she was sent to Xiachuandong area tohelp Peng to organize the armed force. She wasa liaisonperson. In 1948, her husband Peng died in a riot against the KMDgovernment. She then succeeded his position and continued therevolution. On the fourteenth day of June in the same year, she wasarrested owing to the betrayal of a comrade. She was imprisoned in aconcentration camp in Chongqing city. She was of course tormented,but she refused to give any information of the Party's work. On thefourteenth day of November, 1949, she was executed at the age oftwenty-eight. She had a son with Peng, and his name is Peng Yun, whonow lives in USA.

May 23rd, 2017, 01:37 PM
75.Liu Hulan (youngest CPC member, killed by KMD)
LiuHulan (10/08/1932—01/12/1947) was born in a peasant's family inYunzhouxi Village in the district of Wenshui town in Shanxi province.The village was now renamed as Liu Hulan Village. At that time thatvillage was under the control of CPC. At eight years old, she went toa primary school there and accepted the Party's education. At ten,she joined scouts. In October of 1945, she took part in the “FemaleCadre Training Class” for a month. When she was back, she becamethe secretary of the women'snational salvation society. In May of 1946, she was promoted to be afemale cadre in the fifth district. In June, she joined the Party.
In the autumn of1946, KMD army came to Wenshui town, and all the party's cadresescaped to the military base in Luuliang Mountains. The Party leadersthought that she was too young to cause the attention of the enemy,and so she stayed. On the twenty-first day of December of the sameyear, the communist militia came to kill the village leader, who hadrejected to cooperate with CPC. Liu Hulan participated in the action.At the time, places often changed hands between CPC and KMD. Then KMDarmy came to arrest local militiamen, CPC soldiers and family membersof CPC caders, six in all. Then Liu Hulan was betrayed and arrested,too, making the number seven. On the twelfth day of January, 1947,KMD army called all the villagers gathering on a square before atemple there. As Liu Hulan was the youngest, the MKD company leadingofficer said to her that if she could declare openly to betray CPC,she could be spared. She said never. Then the other six adultprisoners were killed one by one on a hand hay cutter. At last thegirl was brought forward and asked the question again. As she wouldnot yield, she was also killed in the same way at the age offourteen. She was the youngest Party member.

May 24th, 2017, 01:46 PM
Yan Shanshan (the first female movie star in China)

YanShanshan (1896—1952) was the first female movie star in China and also a member of thefemale bomb squadron during the revolution against Qing dynasty in1911.
Whenshe was in Hong Kong Yide Normal School, she got acquainted with LiMinwei (1893—1953) and on 1931 she was married to him. Then sheand her husband founded the Hong Kong Meihua film Company, and in1914, they made the movie called ZhuangZi Tests his Wife.Zhuang Zi (369—286 BD) was an ancient scholar, who had a bookcollecting his articles. There was a story about how he tested thefaithfulness of his wife to him. Once he feigned to be dead ad buriedin a grave. Before his death, he told his wife that she could remarryif the earth on his grave was dry. Then his wife stayed by the sideof his grave and fanned the earth in the hope that the earth would bedry faster than normally.
Inthis movie she played the role of a maid of the wife, and her husbandacted the wife. All the female roles in the movie before were playedby males in disguise. That was why she was deemed the first femalemovie star. Afterwards, she joined Shanghai Xinmin Film Company andstarred in Goddessof Peace(1926), FiveRevengeful Girlsin 1928, and RevivingRomancein the same year. She gave up acting in that year.
YanShanshan was never a jealous woman. On the contrary, when in 1919,she met Lin Chuchu (1904—1979), another actress, she voluntarilyintroduced her to her husband and let her be another wife of LiMinwei. Li and Lin had formal wedding ceremony on the seventh ofJanuary in 1919. In old China it was lawful to have two wives at thesame time. Both wives had the equal status in the family. In 1924, Liand Lin starred the movie Rougeas the male and female main characters. So Lin became a movie star,too. Yan died in 1952 at the age of fifty-six.

May 25th, 2017, 02:16 PM
77. Wang Hanlun(from a movie star to a business woman)
WangHanlun (1903—08/17/1978)was one of the earliest female movie stars in China. She was born in a big official family in Suzhou city. Then they moved to live inShanghai. She was early educated in St. Mary's Hall, a female schoolrun by the church in Shanghai. After the death of her father, at theage of sixteen, her brother forced to discontinue her schooling andarranged for her to marry an official, who had the adultery with aJapanese woman not long afterwards and deserted her. She had to teachin a primary school in Hongkou district of Shanghai for her living.Then she worked as a clerk in British-American Tobacco Co. (hk) Ltd.,and then as a typist in Siming Foreign Firm, where she knew a femalecolleague, who was also a shareholder of Mingxing film company. Asthe colleague knew that she liked filming, the colleague took her oneday to see the conductor, who was just looking for a female star forhis movie. He told her to perform some actions and make someexpressions on the face like smiling, angry, sad and happy. Hethought that she was okay to be a star and signed a contract withher. Thus, she began her acting career.
Therefore,she resigned from her typist job. When her brother learned it, he wasangry and wanted to send her back to their hometown Suzhou to punishher by family rules. In old families in that time, there were familyrules to punish their sons and daughters who had done somethingagainst the rules or even the will of elders. But it was republicnow. So Wang Hanlun declared to stop her relationship with the familyso that they could not punish her by the family rules.
Heroriginal name was Peng Jianqing. Now as she severed herself from herfamily, she changed her name to Wang Hanlun. The self-given name wasreally taken from Helen by sound, but in Chinese characters. So youcan pronounce Hanlun as Helen.
TheMingxing Film Company was founded in 1922. The movie Wang had a rolein it was called AnOrphan Rescues His Grandpa.The movie was on in 1924 to the warm applause of the public. She thenacted in other three successive movies. She became so well-known tothe public that another film company, Changcheng Film Company, cameto ask her to work for them and pay her more. She then transferred tothat company. For this company, she filmed DesertedWomanand others. But this company did not pay her more, and her complaintscame of no avail. She went to work for another company, Tianyi FilmCompany. As all the film companies paid her not to her satisfaction,she founded a film company of her own called “Hanlun Film Company.”She acted in a movie named BlindLove.All her movies had a tragic end. So she was nicknamed “first tragicstar on the screen.” During the recess, she would go on the stageto greet her audience, which got her a lot of fans.
In1931, she gave up filming and changed her aim to business. She openeda beauty shop in Shanghai. She was one of the first women who studiedthe beauty culture in China. When Shanghai was occupied by Japanesearmy, she had to close the shop. When the Japanese wanted her to workfor them, she refused on the pretense that she was sick. So she livedin a poor condition by selling her belongings. In 1945 when Japansurrendered, she wanted to resume her acting. But as she went to afilming company, the owner rejected her, implying that she was tooold. She was then in her forties.
In1950 when CPC took reign over the mainland, the Kunlun Movie Companyinvited her to the role of Empress Dowager Cixi in the movie Legendof Wuxun.When Shanghai Film Factory was founded, she was given a job there andgot salary as a clerk of something. But she was still assigned someside roles. When the Cultural Revolution began, though she wasretired, the red guards came to her home and took away all the oldfilms she kept for so long. She died of disease on the seventeenth ofAugust in 1978 in the hospital.

May 26th, 2017, 02:12 PM
Zhang Zhiyun (the first movie queen in China)

ZhangZhiyun (1904—1975)was the first movie queen in China. She was born in Fanyu town ofGuangdong province and in childhood, moved to Shanghai with herfamily. When her father died, her family fell into financialdifficulties. Therefore, she had to cease her education in the middleschool.
Atthe beginning of 1924, Dazhonghua Film Company was founded and theyput an advertisement on the newspaper, “Actresses wanted.” Theapplication letters with a photo must be sent to the newspaper's mailbox. Ten days later, they received about ten thousand female photos,but none of them were suitable. Then they found that a reporterworking there secretly opened all letters and hid whatever photos heliked. After negotiation, he returned ten photos. Zhang's photo wasone of them.
Shewas chosen and acted in two silent films, successfully. In 1925 shewent to work for Mingxing Film Company. In 1926, the newspaper heldan activity to vote for movie queen. Twelve actresses joined in it.Zhang was the first by getting 2146 votes. So she was the first moviequeen in China.
Shethen participated in parties of the upper social circle and became toknow Tang Jishan, a tea salesman. In 1927, she gave up her filmingand went with him to America to sell tea. Tang just wanted to use hertitle of movie queen as his spokeswoman to advertise his products.But he did not know that American people never heard of the moviequeen in China. So he failed and had to take her back to China. In1931, he deserted Zhang and lived together with another movie star.
Thencame the ages of sound film. As she could not speak mandarin, she hadseldom any contracts. In 1933, she tried to act in a sound film andin 1935, in another sound film called NewPeach Fan.But the audience did not acknowledge her success. She had to retirefrom filming circle again. In forties she got married and in fifties,she moved to live in Hong Kong till she died there.

May 27th, 2017, 01:50 PM
Xuan Jinglin (first actress with a private car

andshowing her bare legs to the public in China)
XuanJinglin(1904—01/22/1992) was born in Shanghai. Her father was a newspapervendor. She went to the school run by Moore Memorial Church inShanghai for free. As she could not stand the bully of the studentscoming from rich families, she gave up the schooling and went tolearn Peking opera, because her uncle was the accountant in atheater, where Peking operas were performed. When her parents andelder brother fell sick, she was sold to a brothel for money for herfamily when she was still young. In the brothel she met a young man,who loved her, but his parents would not let him marry a prostitute.
Therefore,she started to save money her patrons gave her as gifts to redeemherself from the brothel. The bawd found it and took all her savedmoney away. She could do nothing about it. A poor young girl. Bychance, she was found by the conductor of Mingxing Film Company. Theyhad a new screenplay called LastConsciousness.The girl was fit for the role. They could not find other girls fitfor it. Therefore, the company paid the money to the bawd for herredemption. She became a movie actress. That was in 1923. This moviewas on in 1925.
Thenshe acted for the role of a whore in another movie called AWoman in Shanghai,which won her a great fame, as she acted from her won experience. Sheearned a lot of money and bought a car for herself. She was the firstwoman that had a car for her own use only. And she was also the firstwoman actress in China that showed her bare legs to the public.
Theyoung man still loved the girl, especially she was now a famous moviestar. Yet his parents rejected their marriage owing to the girl'swhore background. Therefore, the conductor of the film company wentto see the parents and persuaded them to accept the girl. Althoughthe parents agreed to their marriage, they had some conditions.Firstly, there was no wedding ceremony. Secondly, the girl could notlive in the house of the parents. The new couple had to rent aseparate house. But there were always rumors about movie stars. Andthe husband often suspected her of something. Finally they divorced.
Shefilmed thirty-five movies. Another movie was Thelady's Fanin 1928. Then when she grew old and there appeared more youngerfemale actresses, she gradually faded from the screen. When CPC ruledover the mainland, Shanghai Film Factory was founded, and she wasinvited to act in the movie Familyin 1956. She died in 1992 at the age of eighty-eight.

May 27th, 2017, 01:51 PM
Why is there such problem with the subtitle and title number? And I can't edit it.

May 28th, 2017, 02:00 PM
80.Hu Die (first actress in China attending international film festivaland getting award)
HuDie (03/23/1908—04/23/1989)was born in Shanghai and when she was nine, the family moved to Canton. She went to Pooi To Middle School. In 1924, when she wassixteen, the family moved back to Shanghai. That year, the movie AnOrphan Rescues His Grandpawas on. It touched audience, including the young Hu Die. So she sether heart on being an actress. She signed up as a candidate inShanghai China Film School, which was the first such a school inChina. She learned drama, film theory, and performing. She likedperforming, and next year she was given a role in Exploits,which was her first movie.
Sheacted in more than twenty movies with different film companies. Hermaster piece was Twinsisters.She acted both sisters with different life experience, characters,and social status. It was so successful that it got the highest seatoccupancy rate at the time.
WhenSeptember 18thIncidents took place, a misfortune befell Hu Die. At the time shewent with the filming crew to Peking. Coincidentally, the generalZhang Xueliang (see above) was also in Peking. That time, people innortheastern China were furious against the Japanese invaders. Totransfer the anger of the Chinese people from Japanese to someoneelse, Japanese news agency spread a rumor that on the night of theincidents, Zhang was dancing with Hu Die. According to logic, Zhangshould be fighting the invaders right on the night as northeasternChina was his defending area. The rumor meant that Zhang neglectedhis duties. So people turned against Zhang and against Hu Die, too.Although she made a declaration openly on newspapers, there werestill doubts.
On the New Year'sDay of 1933, for the development of the filming business, the DailyStar of Shanghai proposed an activity to vote for female star queenagain. Hu Die won the title by getting 21334 votes. She won anotherstar queen title in 1934. In 1935, Russia held an international filmfestival in Moscow, Hu die was invited to attend. She was the onlyfemale movie star that was invited.
InNovember of 1937, when Shanghai was occupied by the Japanese army,they took over the film company. So no film was made anymore. As thehusband of Hu Die was in Hong Kong, she went there to join herhusband. On the twenty-fifth of December in 1941, Japanese armyoccupied Hong Kong. In order to gain the support of Hong Kong people,especially of some famous people there, the Japanese asked Hu Die toact in the film HuDie travels in Tokyo.However, Hu Die declined on the pretense that she was pregnant. Onthe twenty-fourth of November in 1942, Hu Die stole out of Hong Kongand went to Chongqing city, the temporary capital of the Chinesegovernment at the time.
Soonshe was under the control of Dai Li (05/28/1897—03/17/1946), thechief of the bureau of investigation and statistics of the militarycouncil of KMD. Dai always adored the beautiful movie star and wantedher to be his mistress. He even wanted to marry her. But he had anair crash in 1946. So she was free from him and went back to HongKong. She began to act in several films. In 1949, her husband died.Then she stopped filming for ten long years. In 1959, she recommencedto act in several films in Hong Kong or Taiwan. In 1960, on theSeventh Asian Film Festival held in Japan, she won the award of thebest actress in the movie called Backdoor.She got the title of Asian star queen at the age of fifty-two. In1966, she retired from the screen and lived in Taiwan. In 1975, sheimmigrated to Vancouver in Canada, and died there in 1989. Her lastwords were, “The butterfly will fly away.” The pronunciation ofher name Hu Die literally meant Butterfly.

May 29th, 2017, 02:12 PM
81. Li Minghui (an actress inmovie and on stage)
Li Minghui(06/1909—12/09/2003) was born in Shanghai. Her father was a famouscomposer and founded a Song & Dance Ensemble. So as a child, shecould sing and dance. At the age of twelve, she began to step up onthe stage to sing and she had more than fifty gramophone records as asinger. Her master piece of songs was called Drizzle.
At the age ofthirteen, she got her first role, a supporting role, in a film. In1925, she got another supporting role. From 1925 to 1928, she actedmain roles in LittleFactory Owner,TransparentShanghai,and Women,etc. Nine movies in all during that period of time. She also actedsome children's plays such as GrapeFairy,and Sparrowand Kids,etc. As she often acted the role of a young girl, she got he nickname“Little sister.”
In 1934, she married the famousfootball player at the time, who later went to Hong Kong to become abusinessman. In 1937, she founded a nursery in Shanghai. When herhusband died of liver cancer, she stopped acting career. In 1971, shewas assigned the work of the secretary to take care of the daily lifeof the old curator of history museum. She died in a nursing home inShanghai on the ninth of December in 2003.

May 30th, 2017, 01:54 PM
82.Xu Lai (an actress nicknamed Oriental Beauty)
XuLai(1909—04/1973) was born in Shanghai in a poor family. Therefore,she had to work in an egg factory run by a British businessman at theage of thirteen. Later as her family became better financially, shewas able to attend school. At school, she was only a mediocre student, but began to like dancing. In 1927 when she was eighteen, sheentered the China Song & Dance college. After graduation, shejoined the China Song & Dance Ensemble, and married the founderof the ensemble, a Mr. Li. Then she headed the troupe to perform inCanton and Hong Kong. In 1928, the troupe went on the preforming tourabroad to Thailand, Singapore and Java, etc. Her great beauty andwisdom attracted large audience. She got the nickname “OrientalBeauty.”
In1933, she was invited to act in a silent film LateSpring.She acted the role of a romantic girl from a wealthy family. The girlwas known as a campus belle in the college. So many rich boys came tocourt her, but at last she made sacrifice for true love. There waseven a scene of her in the bath. At that time, such a scene causedsevere criticism from old prigs. Anyway, she became welcome andwell-known. She received so many letters from her fans that she hadhired a female secretary to help her to handle the letters. She wasthe first movie star in China that had a secretary. In 1935, sheacted in the film called BoatGirl.That year, another famous movie star committed suicide. She was soshocked that she gave up filming for ever.
Then she gotacquainted with a man Tang. She divorced Li and married Tang. She andTang lived in Shanghai till 1949. During their stay, Shanghai wascontrolled by Japan. Tang came from a family of big landlord andspent money freely. He moved among those Chinese pro to the Japanese.So Tang was deemed as a traitor to Chinese people. But after thesurrender of Japan, he revealed his true identity as a secret agentfrom KMD. So he was a patriot instead of a traitor. In 1949, theymoved to Hong Kong. In 1950, Tang went to join the CPC's army andbecame a general. Tang and the army went south to fight with KMD'sarmy. In 1956, he went to Beijing to work there. So Xu Lai went tolive there. In the so-called great cultural revolution, she and herhusband were put in jail. It was because when she was in Shanghai asan actress, she knew a lot of the scandals of Jiang Qing, Mao's wife.Almost all actors and actresses who had been in Shanghai at the timewere persecuted. Xu was tormented in prison and she died in April of1973 at the age of sixty-four.

May 31st, 2017, 01:44 PM
83.Yuan Lingyu (died early and had largest funeral internationally)
YuanLingyu(04/26/1910—03/08/1935) was born in Shanghai. She reached thehighest level of acting arts in the time of silent films. Her fatherdied when she was only six years old. She lived with her mother. Atthe age of eight, she entered Shanghai ShungTak Female School. She was clever and studied hard. She was one ofthe best students so that she was often chosen to attend singing anddancing performances. She thus developed her interest in acting.
In1926 when she was sixteen, she was admitted to Shanghai Mingxing FilmCompany and began her filming career. Her maiden movie was CouplesOnly in Name,and others. In 1928, she went to work with another film company andacted in six movies. In 1930, she worked for still another filmcompany. She had the main role in ThreeModern Females.She acted in twenty-nine movies all her short life.
On the eighth ofMarch in 1935, at the age of twenty-five, she made suicide by takingtoo much sleeping pills. The reason for it was that her husband oftenill-treated, even beat her. She could not endure it any more. Whenthe husband found her taking too much sleeping pills, he did not sendher to the nearest hospital for treatment immediately, he was firstconsidering whether her suicide would harm his reputation. So he tookher to a Japanese hospital far from home. But this hospital did nothave emergency room. He then took her to a private clinic of hisfriend's. But this clinic could not do it. Finally he took her to abig hospital at eleven in the next morning after so many hours. Herlife was not saved.
Her early sad deathshocked Shanghai and her fans when newspapers reported it. At thefuneral ceremony, even three of her fans made suicide on spot. Theyleft their will, saying that when Yuan was gone, there was no reasonfor the trio to live in this world. Three hundred thousand peopleattended her funeral and the procession lasted three li (one and half akilometer). Next day, the New York Times had the headline like this“The recent largest funeral internationally.”

June 1st, 2017, 12:49 PM
84.Jiang Qing (Mao's fourth wife)
JiangQing (03/05/1914—05/14/1991) was born in Zhu Town ofShandong province. Her original name was Li Yunhe. Her father LiDewen opened a carpentry shop. Her mother was his concubine, who hadbeen a maidservant. (She might be hired by Kang Sheng, later acommunist party member in YanAn.) In the summer of 1921, Jiang Qingstudied in a primary school, but in 1926, was expelled by the school.Her father died of some disease in the same year and her mother tookher to live with her brother-in-law in Tianjin city, who was anofficer in the army of the warlord Zhang Zuolin(03/19/1875—06/04/1928), who ruled the northeastern China. JiangQing had worked for three months as a child laborer in the factory ofBritish-American Tobacco Co., Ltd.
In 1928, the troop ofthe brother-in-law moved to somewhere else, and her mother took herto live with her cousin in JiNan city of Shandong province. In springof 1929, when she was fifteen years old, she learned to be an actressin a theater in the city. In May of 1931, she married a man from awealthy family, but got divorced in July. Then she went to Qingdaocity, close to the East Sea. From July of 1931 to April of 1933, sheworked in a library there.
But in February of 1932,at the age of eighteen, she lived with (not married to) Yu Qiwei,three years older than she. He was a university student, majoring inbiography, who was also the leader of the propaganda department ofthe communist party there, and had contact with those in the circleof so-called communist culture. She had acted a one-scene play namedPut down your whip, which could be performed in the street inprotest to the Japanese aggression. In February of 1933, she tookoath and joined the communist party through Yu Qiwei in a warehousein Qingdao city.
In April, Yu wasarrested and she ran away to Shanghai. In May of 1933, she attendedThe Great China University as an auditor student. In July she workedas a music teacher in a primary school in the western suburb ofShanghai, and acted in some amateur plays after work. InSeptember of 1934, she was arrested, but in February, 1935, she wasreleased and went to Peking to live with Yu Qiwei again, who had beenreleased, too. But in March, she returned to Shanghai to join theDiantong Film Company, using her stage name Lanping. She acted theheroine in the play Nara,and got good comments. Afterwards, she played some roles in twomovies. In September, she lived with Tanner, a movie commenter. InApril of 1936, she married Tanner. The ceremony was held togetherwith other two couples, before Liuhe Pagoda in Hangzhou city in themoonlight. A romantic ritual. As she still kept in touch with YuQiwei, in July, Tanner could not bear it and committed suicide invain.
ThenShe went back to Shanghai and joined the Lianhua Film Company. Shehad a role in the film Bloodon Wolf Mountain.In February of 1937, she acted in the drama Thunderstorm.On the thirtieth day of May, Tanner attempted the second suicide, butstill of no avail. Afterwards he went to France and lived thereforever. In July of 1937, as the Anti-Japanese War broke out, sheleft Shanghai, and in August, she arrived inYanAn and changed her name to Jiang Qing. In November, she wasenrolled in the Anti-Japanese Military and Political University.
On the tenth day ofApril in 1938, the Lu Xun Arts College was founded and she wasappointed the instructor of the drama department. She acted in twodramas, and in August, acted in a Peking opera. Her efforts wereappreciated and soon afterwards, she was promoted to be the secretaryin the office of the military committee, close to Mao now. It wassaid that she often went to see Mao and asked for instructions fromhim. The intimacy changed their relationship and soon she lived withMao, in place of his current wife He Zizhen, who was studying inMoscow, Soviet Union, at the time. In 1939, she married Mao. But atthe time, she had not been divorced to Tanner yet and Mao had notbeen divorced to He Zizhen yet. Both committed bigamy.
Therefore, quite a fewcommunist party leaders opposed the marriage. Zhang Wentian was thechief opposer, who maintained his opinion that He Zizhen was a goodcomrade and must be respected as a legal wife. Besides, She had beenhurt in the long march and could not be ignored like this. WangShiying had been in Shanghai and knew all the love affairs of JiangQing, which were really scandals. And as the chief leader of thecommunist party, Mao should not marry a woman with such scandals. Sohe wrote a letter about the scandals. He asked Nan Hanchen to signthe letter, too, who also worked in Shanghai and knew all these.(both were persecuted to death by Jiang Qing in the culturalrevolution.) Only Kang Sheng (1898—1975) supported their marriage.
Then the communist partyhad a meeting and put up three conditions: 1) Jiang Qing should notinterfere with political affairs; 2) Jiang Qing could not take anyoffice inside or outside the communist party; 3) Jiang Qing's maintask was to look after Mao in his health and personal life.
When CPC reigned themainland, she was a member of National Movie Advisory committee andthe head of movie bureau of the propaganda department of the centralcommittee of CPC. In 1963, under Mao's secret instruction, she raisedup the leftist thinking in name of Beijing opera revolution as shehad learned how to play Beijing opera. She created eight so-calledmodel Beijing operas. All the old things and classics were forbidden.
In May of 1966, she wasappointed the vice leader of central cultural revolution group, andthen the proxy leader. At the ninth and tenth national CPCconference, she was appointed a member of the central politicalbureau of CPC. She instigated the red guards to criticize many oldCPC cadres. She secretly instructed her followers to persecute actorsand actresses, who knew her scandals in Shanghai and most of whomwere tortured to death. In 1971, after the Lin Biao's Incident, sheand Wang Hongwen, Zhang Chunqiao, Yao Wenyuan formed the so-calledgang of four. They wanted to seize the power out of the remaining oldcadres and ruled China all by themselves. But they failed with thedeath of Mao.
On the sixth day ofOctober in 1976, the gang of four were respectively arrested. In Julyof 1977, she was expelled from CPC at a CPC central meeting. Duringthe period from the twentieth day of November in 1980 to thetwenty-fifth day of January in 1981, the gang of four respectivelygot verdicts. Jiang Qing was sentenced to death, but got two years'probation. Then the sentence was reduced for life. On the fourteenthday of May in 1991, during her release on medical parole, she madeher suicide.
JiangQing had a daughter with Mao, born in 1940 and called Li Na, who isalive now in her retirement.

June 2nd, 2017, 01:46 PM
85.Wang Renmei (an actress nicknamed TheWildcat of Shanghai)
WangRenmei (12/24/1914—04/12/1987) was born in Changsha town of HuNanprovince in a teacher's family. Her father was a mathematics teacherin the First Normal School of the province. Even Mao Zedong had beenhis student. So the girl had good education since childhood. She hadbrothers and sisters, seven in all, including herself, the youngestsister. Her mother died of stroke when she was only seven and in aprimary school.
In1926, she graduated from the primary school, and was admitted to theFirst Female Normal School of the province. She liked mathematics andwanted to be a mathematics teacher like her father. On the nineteenthof September in the same year, her father was stung by wasps and diedfrom it.
Hereldest brother had been to Germany for university, known Zhou Enlaithere. But when he returned, he died of some sort of disease. In1927, after the death of her father and mother, her family membersscattered and she went with her two brothers to Wuxi city, where thefamily of the wife of her second brother lived.
Atthe beginning of 1928, her two brothers took her to Shanghai. She andher third brother entered the Methodist Girls' School, where shelearned singing and dancing while her brother learned mandolin. Asher second brother knew the founder of the Mingyue Singing &Dancing Troupe, the trio soon worked for it. She was the singer anddancer. Her third brother played mandolin and her second brother wasin charge of costumes and the arrangement of the scenes.
InMay of 1928, the troupe made a tour around East Asia, to Singapore,KualaLumpur, Penang, Bangkok, Malacca,Jakarta, and Sumatera, and other cities. In 1929, the troupe wasdismissed. She went back to Shanghai and learned English for a yearin a school. While she was learning English, she rehearsed achildren's play called LittlePainter,which was a success. Therefore, the school hired her as a singingteacher and she then got pay.
In1931, she became a movie actress. She played the main role in themovie WildRoses.In 1934, she acted in the movie Songsof Fishermen,which continued to show in cinemas for eighty-four days, the longestperiod among all movies shown. It attracted a million of audience,and in 1935, she won the Honorary Award of the international filmfestival held in Moscow, Soviet Union. It was the first award for aChinese movie star to have won.
Anyway,in spite of the great success, the company discontinued her contractbecause they thought that a married woman would lose her attractionto the audience. However, she did marry the actor, who was the mainmale character in this movie. In 1937, when Japanese army occupiedShanghai, the Japanese wanted her husband to make a movie for them,but he declined. In autumn of 1938, with the help of friends, thecouple escaped to Hong Kong. In 1939, the couple were invited to actin the movie Wingsof China,and they accepted. This movie described the development of the airforce of China.
Whenthe Japanese took Hong Kong, they escaped to Chongqing city, thetemporary capital of the Chinese government. Then the couple oftenlived separately. At the end of 1943, the husband went to Chengducity and in 1944, invited by the Roc Drama Club, she went to Kunmingcity to act the drama Peacock.Soon the club was dismissed. To make her living, she had to work as atypist in the supplies department of the American military basethere. The husband could not bear the separation, and so theydivorced in 1945.
Afterthe surrender of Japan, she returned to Shanghai, and then moved toHong Kong. In 1950, she came back to Shanghai again under theinfluence of the propaganda of CPC. But in 1952, when CPC waged therectification movement in the film circle, she was slandered to havethe intercourse with KMD spy head Dai Li. She was almost insane andwas sent to an asylum. Then her second sister took her to Beijing andshe was by degrees recovered. Then she was assigned to work inBeijing Film Factory. In 1955, through the introduction of friends,she married a painter. They often quarreled owing to differentcharacters. However, they maintained the marriage till her death.
In1957 during the anti-rightist movement, she was sick again and herhusband sent her to an asylum again. Anyway, she handed in herapplications for joining CPC. During the cultural revolution, she wassent to labor in the countryside. And her husband was put in jail asa KMD spy for seven years. In 1979, she was redressed and herapplication to join CPC was approved.
In1980, she got a stroke and paralyzed on bed. In 1986, she got strokeonce more and became human vegetable. On the twelfth of April in1987, she died in Beijing at the age of seventy-three. In 2003, shewas chosen by the film Acting Arts Academy of China to be one of theone-hundred excellent movie stars in the one-hundred years in China.In 2013, Prof. Richard J. Meyer of Seattle University wrote a bookabout her, titled WangRenmei: The Wildcat of Shanghai publishedby the press of The Chinese University of Hong Kong.

June 3rd, 2017, 01:11 PM
86. Chen Yanyan(an actress nicknamed Queen of Tragedies)
ChenYanyan (01/12/1916—05/07/1999) was the daughter of a mandarin, bornin Ningpo town of Zhejiang province adjacent to the East Sea. Soonher family moved to Peking. She went to the MoiraHouse Girls School. In 1930 when she was fourteen, she began to likefilming. After school, she often went to see film shooting of outdoorscenes by any film companies.
Oncewhen the movie SpringDream of Old Capitalwas in shooting process, she went to the conductor and recommendedherself. As she was pretty and lovely, the conductor let her play aside role. She must wear long fur coat and high-heeled shoes,flirting with a bodyguard of some officer. She was only fourteen, andhad no such experience. She failed the performance. The part of thefilm was cut off. Anyway, she was a potential movie star. Theconductor went to her home to talk with her parents. As shepersevered in her wish to be an actress, her mother agreed first.Originally her father did not like his daughter to be an actress. Atlast, he yielded to the mother. So the mother accompanied her toShanghai. Thus she started her filming career.
Atfirst she worked as a trainee, and sometimes helped in the darkroom.Then she played some side roles. Gradually her performing ability wasacknowledged in the film circle. She acted in Maternallight,ThreeModern Ladies,etc. She was apt to play young girls. So she had the nickname: LittlePretty Bird. In 1936, she acted in New& Old Times,etc. In 1938, she filmed Storyof Lute,etc. In 1942, she acted in MadameButterfly,etc. When she reached mid-age, she acted some tragic roles and wasnicknamed Queen of Tragedies.
She got married tothe cameraman of the company in 1937 and bore a daughter for him. Butsoon there was a conflict between them and finally they divorced.Afterwards, she married Wang Hao, an actor. In 1949, they moved toHong Kong. In 1952, they founded a film company of their own. Theyshot outside scenes in Hong Kong or Taiwan. When the husband betrayedher, they divorced. And she lived single ever since. She stoppedacting in 1972. And in 1993, she was conferred the Memorial Award ofthe Golden Horse Awards. She died on the seventh of May in 1999 atthe age of eighty-three.

June 4th, 2017, 02:41 PM
87. Gong Qiuxia(a famous actress and singer with silver voice)
GongQiuxia (12/04/1916—09/07/2004) was born in Chongming town ofJiangsu province, which is now part of Shanghai. She was known tohave the silver voice. In 1930, she was a student in Renshan GirlsSchool in Shanghai, and at the same time she was admitted in atraining class for singing and dancing. In 1933, she joined ShanghaiPlum Singing & Dancing Ensemble. During that time, she acted indrama and operas, such as ImperialConcubine Yang,Backstage,etc. But she soon felt that it was not a regular acting troupe, andso she left it. Then the troupe was dismissed.
In1936, she had a part in the movie Parentsand Offspring.It was her first movie. She married the conductor. In 1937, she actedin NewYear's Money,for which she won great fame. Every New Year's Day in China, parentswould give children money put in a red envelope, meaning good luckfor the whole year. Another famous movie for her was StrangeCase in an Ancient Pagoda.She also sang the theme song of the movie herself. Then she sangtheme songs for other movies. Those songs soon became popular. Shehad a contract with a gramophone company to make records. She wasboth the singer and actress.
InMay of 1945, she held a personal concert to sing most of all thepopular theme songs she had sung in movies in Lyceum Theater,Shanghai. After 1949, she acted in more than sixty movies, such asFlowerStreet,HarvestMoon,Thunder,and ThreeSmiles,etc. She played the role of a good wife. After 1956, she had no moregramophone records made. In 1967, she and her husband moved to livein Taiwan. The last movie she acted in 1980 was Rouge.In 1993, she attended the International Film Festival in Shanghai. Onthe seventh of September in 2004, she died of heat disease in HongKong at the age of eighty-seven.

June 5th, 2017, 01:51 PM
88. Yuan Meiyun (firstactress in China acting a boy)
YuanMeiyun(1917—02/19/1999)wasborn in Hangzhou city of Zhejiang province. She began to learn Pekingopera at six and acted on the stage at nine. When her father died,her mother, for five hundred yuan, let her daughter of ten learnacting further from an expert in that field. Her performance wasapplauded by audience, which attracted the attention of a movieconductor.
In1932, at the age of fifteen, she acted in the film LittleActress.The heroine in the film had almost the same experience as she, and soshe acted the role like living her own life. The film was a greatsuccess. She was then nicknamed Little Actress. In 1933, after shefinished some more films, she took the main role in a film shootingan Peking opera. As she learned Peking opera as a little girl, herperformance in that movie was excellent. Then in the movie DisguisedGirl,she acted a boy, which was a comedy. The movie was welcomed by theaudience. Therefore, it became a serial.
In1937 when Shanghai was occupied by the Japanese, she filmed TheLady of the Camellias,Sunrise,Lady'sFan,etc. In 1938, she went to Hong Kong and filmed FemaleMasterthere. In 1944, she acted the hero, not the heroine, in the RedChamber Dream. Onceshe had an accident. At that time, all the film studio in China hadan underground level like basement. When it was night and she went toher dressing room to change. She missed a step and got the fall. Sherolled through the staircase into the basement and fainted. Luckilyshe only hurt her knees as there were wooden chips and nails. Whenthe film RedChamber Dreamfinished, she gained a bit weight and did not look so good on thescreen as before. Her health got poor and she stopped acting in 1948.
In 1938, she andher husband joined the same film company and they began to like eachother. Afterwards, her husband turned to be the conductor. When shestopped filming, she helped her husband to make the films. Theyreturned to the mainland in the eighties and lived a retired lifethere till their last days.

June 6th, 2017, 01:36 PM
89. Bai Hong (thefirst singer queen in China)
Bai Hong(02/24/1919—05/28/1992) was born in Peking in a mandarin family. Atthe beginning of 1931, Shanghai Mingyue Singing & DancingEnsemble came to Peking to enroll singers and dancers. At the timeshe was twelve, lovely with white skin. She was accepted and went toShanghai with the ensemble. Thus she began her career.
Atfirst she acted operas on stage, such as ThreeButterflies,GrapeFairy,LittlePainter,etc. Her acting ability was acknowledged. In 1932, her first song wasrecorded for the gramophone, and through 1933, she already producedmany gramophone records. Then the ensemble put an advertisement tointroduce her, which made her popular. At that time, many famoussingers sang their favorite songs on radios. They earned income fromthe radio broadcast with business advertisements.
In 1934, thenewspaper Grand Evening Post in Shanghai held a competition forfemale radio singers. They would put the information on theirnewspaper for which singer, at what time, on which radio and whatsong she would sing. Audience could listen to whichever singer theyliked and then voted for her. The competition began on thetwenty-sixth of May and ended on the fourteenth of June. The resultwas that Bai Hong was voted the first with 9103 votes and Zhou Xuanwas the second with 8876 votes. Their photos appeared separately onthe cover of Singer Illustrated Magazine, which was first publishedin August of 1935. She was the first singer queen in China.
In1934, she acted in the musical film FairyMaidensand also sang the theme song. In April of 1936, the Mingyue Singing &Dancing Ensemble held a performance for their fifteenth anniversaryin Jincheng Theater. The five-scene opera FairyMaidenswas performed. More than sixty famous actors and actresses joined theperformance with Bai Hong as the heroine. It was a great success.Afterwards, they went to perform in Nanking city and every night wasfull house. In July of 1936, the troupe had a tour in the south Asiafor one year and returned to Shanghai next July. In 1938, dramaacting became popular in Shanghai. She acted the main character inThunder,and then in Sunrise.
Between1938 and 1940, she filmed Lady'sFan,ThreeMusketeers,and EmpressWu the Great,etc., and also sang the theme songs. From the thirty-first ofDecember in 1940 to the fourth of January in 1941, she performed theEuropean-styled opera Songof the Earth,which described the rebellion of the villagers in the south of theYangtze River, and which hinted that the Chinese people rose againstthe Japanese. Therefore, it was forced to stop.
Inlate 1942, they rehearsed the three-scene opera Songof the Fashion.Round the Chinese New Year in 1943, the opera was shown in MajesticTheater. But as she was exhausted in the rehearsals, once she faintedon the stage. The performance ceased. She was sick for some time. InDecember of 1944, she held her own concert in Suzhou city. Then twodays in January of 1945, she gave her solo concert in Lyceum Theatern Shanghai. The songs she sang were AveMariaby Schubert, MerryWidow Waltz,Carmen,and many Chinese popular tunes.
In1936, she married a composer, who was more than ten years older thanshe, and they had four children. After the surrender of Japan, formost of her time, she sang on the stage, and her husband was theconductor of the orchestra. But on the twenty-fourth of January in1950, they declared divorce. Then she went to live in Beijing. InAugust that year, she married an actor. Afterwards, she joined amilitary ensemble as an actress. She acted the dramas Sunriseand Mother,etc.
During the culturalrevolution, she was persecuted and put in prison as she had known thescandals of Jiang Qing when in Shanghai. Luckily she survived. Sheretired in 1979. But not long after, she was diagnosed to suffer fromcancer and died on the twenty-eighth of May in 1992 at the age ofseventy-two.

June 7th, 2017, 01:36 PM
90. Chen Yunshang(Film Queen of China)
ChenYunshang (08/10/1919—06/30/2016) was born in Hong Kong, but herfamily moved to Canton when she was a little child. She had anEnglish name: Nancy Chan. Since a child she learned mandarin, Pekingopera, and Canton opera, which means to use Canton dialect in thedialogue. She was beautiful, and could sing and dance. In 1933, atthe age of fourteen, she joined a film company. In 1936, she wasinvited to Hong Kong to act in TheNew Youth,which earned her popularity. In the subsequent four years, she hadmore than twenty films made in the dialect of Cantonese.
In1938, she was invited to Shanghai to act the role of Mulan in MulanJoins the Army,in the language of mandarin, which also became popular and for whichshe won the Film Queen of China held the third time in Shanghai.During the next five years, she had more than twenty films made inmandarin. In ten years she had fifty-seven films in all. Anastonishing number.
In 1945, shemarried a practitioner in Hong Kong, Therefore, she retired from thescreen and set her heart on looking after her husband and family. Sheseldom participated in social activities. She lived peacefully inHong Kong till her death on the thirtieth of June in 2016 at home atthe age of ninety-six.

June 8th, 2017, 01:28 PM
91.Yin Guifang (a famous actress of Shaoxing opera)
YinGuifang (12/01/1919—03/01/2000) was born in a poor family. Herfather died when she was only seven. She was a famous actress ofShaoxing opera or Yue opera, like Beijing opera. Shaoxing is a townin Zhejiang province, which has a simplified name Yue. There are manylocal operas in China. Beijing opera is only one of them. In everyopera, the actors and actresses sing in different dialects. Thedialogue or words of songs in Beijing opera are said or sung inmandarin. Those of Shaoxing opera are said or sung in Shaoxingdialect.
Yinalways acted the main male character. In Shaoxing opera, onlyactresses perform. No actors traditionally. So the male characterswere played by actresses attired like actors, yet in female voices.Nowadays, Shaoxing opera had a little reform. Actors were trained toplay male roles.
Atthe age of ten, she began to learn the acting of Shaoxing opera inSheng town in Zhejiang province, which was deemed the “homeland”of Shaoxing opera. In 1933, she went with her troupe on a performingtour to Shaoxing, Ninpo, and Hangzhou, and some other towns. At theend of 1934, another troupe needed an actress to play as an actor.Therefore, she was invited to go there. Thus she became famous.
In1938, she came to Shanghai and soon in 1940, she became the chiefactress in the troupe. Generally the performance of Shaoxing operawas about old stories, that is to say, the costumes were of the oldstyles like people wore in the ancient China. In 1942, despite theopposition of the owner of the theater, she insisted in playingmodern stories, that is to say, the actresses wore modern costumes,like people in the forties of the nineteenth century wore. The ownerobjected to it because he was afraid that the change might affect hisbox office earnings. Anyway, the new opera Gold and Beauty wason in June, which was welcomed by the audience. The new notion was asuccess.
Inspring of 1945, she invited some play writers to write new operas,such as Desert Prince, and The Love's Dream, etc.However, at the same time, they also acted some old operas like Baoyuand Daiyu, both were the names of the hero and heroine in thewell-known novel Red Chamber Dream. They did this to meet thewish of part of the audience who liked to watch old stories. In 1946,she and her partner founded their own troupe. Besides the formeroperas, they had a new opera Begonias, which was the nicknameof an actor in the opera. It was a tragedy.
In1947, when another famous actress of Shaoxing opera want to havebenefit performance for the people in some disastrous regions, shesupported the action and gave up her own plan to make a film. In1948, she was voted to be the “Emperor of Yue Opera” because sheacted the male role. In 1952, she performed The Tale of WestChamber and The Tale of Liang Shanbo and Zhu Yingtai,another tragedy. In 1954, there was a joint performance for manylocal operas. Their opera Qu Yuan won the first prize for theplay, the acting, and the music. The Character Qu Yuan was apatriotic poet as well as a high-rank official in Chu state in thefirst warring period (770—221 BC). In 1955, she was selected as theso-called people's representative of Shanghai municipal conference.
In1959, her troupe was relocated to Fuzhou town in Fujian provinceacross to Taiwan, and she was chosen to be the people'srepresentative of the town's conference. In 1960, she was accepted tobe a member of CPC. During the cultural revolution, she was beaten bythe local red guards and became handicapped. One of her legs and oneof her arms were paralyzed as her spine was damaged. In 1978, afterthe arrest of the gang of four, she was rewarded with a lot oftitles: member of national literary federation, vice chairwoman ofFujian branch of national dramatist association of China, and memberof Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC) inFujian province. In 1979, though paralyzed, she went to Shanghai tohold her solo concert, helped by Shaoxing Opera theater of Shanghaiand the Academy of Arts of China. In the concert, she sang somefamous pieces of her tune in her opera Memory of My Country.In 1986, they held the celebration of their fortieth anniversary oftheir troupe. From the tenth to the seventeenth of December in 1990,the troupe went to perform in Hong Kong. On the first of March in2000, she died, leaving her arts of Shaoxing opera for her disciplesto inherit.

June 9th, 2017, 02:15 PM
92.Zhou Xuan (a movie star and singer with golden voice)
ZhouXuan (08/01/1920—09/22/1957) was born in Changzhou town of Jiangsuprovince. She was the second child of the eight sisters and brothers.In 1923, she was kidnapped by her uncle, who liked to smoke opium.The uncle gave her to a Wang family in another town for the exchangeof some money. When Wang couple divorced, they gave her to a Zhoufamily in Shanghai, which gave her the chance to be a movie star.
Sheliked to sing, and at school, her grade in the singing class wasalways the first. In 1928, the family was broke and the adoptivefather wanted to sell her to a brothel, but her adoptive motherstrongly objected to it. In 1931, she joined the Mingyue Singing &Dancing Ensemble. In 1932, she acted the main role in the musicaldrama ExpressTrainon stage, and sang the theme song, which became popular and was madein the gramophone record. In the same year, she performed in anothermusical drama.
Atthe beginning of 1934, after her performance on stage for some time,she was invited to sing on radio. Then she was the second in theradio singer competition and got the nickname golden voice. In 1935,she was invited to act in her first film Childrenof Trouble Time.Only she had a side role. But it was the first step for her to enterthe film circle. In 1936 she acted the main role in four films.
In1937, she acted in the musical film for some business advertisement,which was not so welcome as others, but the theme song WhenWill You Come Againwas very popular. Almost all people in Shanghai knew it and therecords sold well. Her most popular film was StreetAngel,in which two theme songs were especially welcomed by the public. Theywere WanderingSongstressand Songof four Seasons.Afterwards, she joined the performing tour in Hong Kong andPhilippines. She returned with the troupe in the summer of 1938.
InFebruary of 1940, she took the part of the heroine in the film DongXiaowan(see above), who was a famous prostitute at the end of Ming dynasty.In June of the same year, she acted in the famous love comedy ThreeSmiles,and in December, she acted in the movie Taleof the West Chamber. In 1941, Shanghai Daily held an activity to vote for film queen.She was voted to be the film queen, but she refused to take thetitle, because she thought that too much honor was not a good thing.
InJune of 1944, she accepted the role of the heroine in the film RedChamber Dream. It was the first Chinese film that was introduced to Japan. In Marchof 1945, she began to act in the film Phoenixon the Wing.And in May of the same year, she gave her solo concert for three daysin Jindu Theater in Shanghai, singing all her popular songs.
Inwinter of 1946, she was invited to fly to Hong Kong and in Januarynext year she began to shoot her first film in Hong Kong. Her themesong Nightof Shanghaibecame a popular song ever since. In the same year, she shot anotherfilm, in which she played two different roles: a village girl, kindand naive; a Hong Kong girl, naughty and haughty. In 1948, she actedin the film Secretsof Qing Palace,which was another of her master pieces and which attractedinternational attention for a Chinese female movie star.
Shereturned to Shanghai from Hong Kong in 1950. And in January of 1951,she was invited to play the main role in the film Doveof Peace,but during the shooting, she fell sick and was diagnosed of some kindof nerve disease. She was sent to a nursing home. In July of 1957,she got meningitis and was sent to the hospital. She died of thatdisease on the twenty-second of September.
Inautumn of 1936, she got engagement with a composer and married him onthe tenth of July in 1938. The marriage lasted for three years. Theneach suspected the other of having affairs with someone else. After aseries of quarrels, Zhou Xuan left home and they got divorced in1941. Then she lived together with a cloth businessman without aformal marriage. She had two sons with him. Then it was rumored thatthe man cheated her out of her money. So in 1950, she made opendeclaration to stop living together with him. Then she knew apainting teacher. But when she prepared to marry him in May of 1952,the teacher was arrested for cheating and sentenced for three years'service. She lived alone till her death.

June 10th, 2017, 01:26 PM
93. Shangguan Yunzhu (afamous actress, also Mao's mistress)
Shangguan(double surname) Yunzhu (03/02/1920—11/23/1968)was born in a small town in Jiangsu province. In 1936, she married apainting teacher, a Mr. Zhang, and next year, she went to Shanghaiwith Zhang. At first she worked in a photo gallery. In 1940, she wasadmitted into a drama school to learn acting. In 1941, she firstappeared on stage in the drama Thunderand was a success.
Shegot divorced with Zhang, with whom she had a son. Then she married agraduate from Yale and bore a daughter in 1944 for him. But shedivorced him in 1946. She turned to be a film actress and acted inthe following films: AnIllusion of Paradise,Ariver of Spring Water flows East,Hopein the World,and Crowand Sparrow,etc.
After1949, she worked in Shanghai Film Factory and acted in EarlySpring,and StageDoor Johnny,etc. In 1951, she married the manager of Lyceum Theater and bore ason for him. But they divorced in 1952.
Inthe fifties, when Mao came to Shanghai, the mayor Ke arranged her tomeet Mao in Jinjiang Hotel. It was said by one of her best friendsthat when Mao received her, Mao was just putting on a sleeping robe.Mao showed her a slip of note paper, saying that since olden timeheroes love beauties. He (Mao) was a hero and she (Shangguan) was abeauty. Afterwards she gave her friend this note to keep for her. Forseveral years she became Mao's secret mistress. Whenever Mao came toShanghai, she would be summoned to see him. She had once been takento Beijing, to where Mao lived—ZhongNanHai. Then Mao's liking ofher faded. He got younger girls.
Duringthe cultural revolution, she was persecuted by Jiang Qing, Mao'swife, who ordered to organize a special investigating team to dealwith her. They wanted her to confess what she did when she was withMao. She said what she could and refused to say what she could not.So this was not satisfactory and she was tormented. Finally she madesuicide by jumping down from a high building at three a.m., on thetwenty-third of November in 1968 at the age of forty-eight. It wasreported in the official record. But the truth was later known thatshe was thrown down by the team from the high building. At that time,she was surely confined in a room in that high building as always insuch cases. There was someone watching over her. How could she jumpout?

June 11th, 2017, 01:31 PM
94. Bai Yang(international movie award winner)
BaiYang(04/22/1920—09/18/1996)was born in Peking. In 1931 at the age of eleven, she started tolearn acting in a film company. In 1934 she joined a touring troupe.Her career thus began. In 1936, her first film was Crossroads,which brought her popularity. She was even known internationally. TheTimesin England said that she was the Chinese Greta Garbo.
Duringthe Anti-Japanese war she was in Chongqing city, the temporarycapital of the Chinese government since the capital Nanking city wasoccupied by the Japanese. She acted in a few films such as Wingsof China,etc., and performed some dramas on the stage such as Sunrise,etc. In 1946 after the surrender of Japan, she went to Shanghai andhad two famous films made: EightThousand Li of Cloud and Moonand ARiver of Spring Water Flows East.
After1949, she worked in Shanghai Film Factory first as actress and thenas conductor. She was also the vice director of Arts Committee andvice chairwomen of China Film Association. In 1960s, she acted inseveral films, one of which was Blessing.For her acting of the heroine in the film, she was conferred thespecial award of the tenth Karlovy Vary International Film Festival.She also published some books about film acting and skills.
Duringthe cultural revolution, she was beaten by red guards severely. Shewas put in prison for five years. In 1971, she ended the dark prisonlife, but was sent to labor in the countryside. She was redressed in1977. She wrote an article about her sad experience, which waspublished in PeopleDaily.In 1980s, she played the role of Soong Qinglin (see above) in a TVserial film like soap opera. She died on the eighteenth of Septemberin 1996 at the age of seventy-six.

June 12th, 2017, 01:35 PM
95.Hongxiannuu (a famous actress of Canton opera)
Hongxiannu(12/27/1924—12/08/2013) was the nickname of Kuang Jianlian and wasborn in Canton. Her nickname literally meant “Red thread Woman.”She was a famous actress of Canton opera. When she was eight, shelearned to sing Canton opera by following the gramophone records. In1938, as the Japanese invaders came into China, she went with hermother to Hong Kong via Macao. In spring of 1939, she began to takesome assisting parts on the stage like maids. In 1940, she joined thetroupe founded by her maternal aunt and got the present nickname. In1941, she went with the troupe to Shanghai. At the end of that year,the Japanese army occupied Hong Kong. The troupe went to perform inthe regions that were still under the control of the Chinesegovernment. She married in 1944 and had two sons and a daughter. Thehusband was much older than she.
Afterthe surrender of Japan, she returned to Hong Kong to learn Beijingopera for three years. Afterwards she performed on the stage MadamaButterfly, etc. In 1946 in Hong Kong, she acted the successfulopera Hidden Desire, a full house everyday for a month. Nextyear this opera was turned into a screenplay and made on a film. Atthe beginning of 1950, she founded the Red Star Troupe and acted inthe Tears of Pearl River. In 1952, the opera Wang Zhaojun(the second beauty, see above) was on. She also tried to turnShakespeare's plays into Canton operas.
In1955, she was divorced, and in the same year, she was invited byPremier Zhou to the mianland, and in 1965, she was invited as a VIPto attend the national ceremony for the seventh anniversary of theestablishment of the People's Republic of China. In 1957, she camefrom Hong Kong to Canton to work for Guangdong Canton Opera Troupe.
Duringthe cultural revolution, she and her family were persecuted. Half ofher hair was shaved, a sign of insult. She was called by the redguards as the Black Thread Woman. In 1967, she was sent to labor on atea farm. In 1970, Premier Zhou came to Canton for an internationalconference, and she was allowed to act for the foreign visitors. In1975, she married a writer. The husband died of cancer ten yearslater. During his stay in the hospital, she went there almosteveryday to look after him.
Herdaughter Hong Hong was also an actress of Canton opera. Disgusting ofthe tyranny of CPC, in March of 1984 when she went with the troupe toHong Kong, she disappeared. Half a year later, on the ninth ofOctober, she appeared in Taiwan and held a press conference, sayingthat she desired freedom and so left the mainland. Afterwards sheimmigrated to Canada. It was said that she had secretly gone back tosee her mother before the mother died of myocardialinfarction on the eighth of December in 2013 in Canton.

June 13th, 2017, 01:19 PM
96.Yan Fengying (a famous actress of Huangmei opera)
YanFengying (04/13/1930—04/08/1968) was born in Tong town of Anhuiprovince, where the local opera was Huangmei (literally meaningYellow Plum) opera. She was the most famous actress of that opera. Atthe age of ten, she started to learn acting and singing of the opera,and went with the troupe to act some side roles. In 1930s, the troupeentered Anqin, a big city in Anhui province. The opera was sowelcomed by the public that they had to play three times a day. Buther family did not like her to be an actress of Huangmei opera, andso she had to flee to Nanking city and gave up the acting of theopera.
Duringher stay in Nanking city, she had to sing in a public ballroom. Atthat time in China there were such ballrooms in big cities, wherethere was a band with female singers to sing to the music. Customerscould dance to the music too. There was a dancing floor in themiddle. There were also some female dancers, who could dance withmale customers for money. The girls did that for a living.
In1947, she went to learn Beijing opera, which helped her later in heracting of Huangmei opera. In 1949, Anhui province wanted to developthe Huangmei opera and invited her to come back to Anqin city. In1952, there was a joint performance of operas in Shanghai. Her actingwas widely praised. She was only twenty-two then. In 1954, she hadthe Huangmei opera Marriage of a Goddess with a Mortal madeinto a film. It was said that more than one hundred million audiencehad watched the film. Then she was known the nation over. Other twofilms were made, too, Female Consort (1958) and Cowboy &Girl Weaver (1963). Both were welcomed by the public.
Rightat the start of the cultural revolution, she was persecuted andcommitted suicide at the age of thirty-eight. The authorities accusedher of spy and for the reason to search for a radio transmitter, or aspy camera, they had her abdomen opened and her insides taken out.During the cultural revolution many innocent people were accused ofspies, and therefore, persecuted without any evidence. They justwanted to have a reason to persecute someone, anyone, they wanted totorture. However, what they found in her belly was more than onehundred sleeping pills. She thus died a tragic death.

June 14th, 2017, 02:39 PM
97.Zhang Zhixin (a member of as well as a victim of CPC)
ZhangZhixin (12/05/1930—04/04/1975) was a female member of the CommunistParty of China. She was born in a music family. Her father had joinedthe revolutionary army against Qing dynasty. She learned Russian andworked as a translator. On the National Day of 1955, she got marriedand in the same year, she joined the Communist Party. Later she had adaughter and a son.
Inthe so-called Great Cultural Revolution, she was thrown into prison,though a party member, because she criticized Mao's class-fighttheory. At that time, whoever dared to criticize Mao would be acriminal, called Reactionary. As she persisted that she was right inthe criticism of Mao's theory, she was sentenced to death. In theprison, she had been repeatedly raped and tortured. Her mouth andtongue was sewed up with iron wires. She was put on her back a heavyburden of 9 kg, and her legs wore heavy fetters. In May of 1970, shewas sentenced for death in the local court. But in a higher court ofprovince level, her case was reconsidered. She was thought that shehad no action, had only oral criticism, and so her sentence waschanged to two years imprisonment, then was changed again to fifteenyears. During the long custody, she had shouted “Down with MaoZetong!” So her verdict was changed for life. At a gathering, shestood up and shouted that Mao Zedong was the cause of wrong action ofthe party. Then she was changed to death sentence.
Beforeshe was transported to the execution site, her throat was cut lestshe should yell out some words against the Gang of Four to the crowdscoming for the sight. When she died, her daughter was twelve and herson was only three.
Onthe first of March in 1979, she was redressed and defined as arevolutionary martyr. In August at the second session of the fifthNational People's Congress, a cadre of high rank said, “From thewrong case of Zhang Zhixin, we can understand that if there is nosocialist democracy and law system, the dictatorship of proletariatwill surely become the dictatorship of fascism.” Think she yearnedto join CPC and worked for CPC, but as the result, she was killed byCPC.

June 15th, 2017, 02:31 PM
98.Lin Zhao (a victim of CPC tyranny)
LinZhao (12/16/1932—04/29/1968 AD) was her pen name, and her real namewas Peng Linzhao. She was born in Suzhou city. During the reign ofKMD government, her father had been the mayor of Wu town and hermother was the general manager of Dahua newspaper, which supportedCommunist Party of China. She secretly got donations for CPC, andalso set up an underground radio station for CPC, too. She had beenarrested for that by Japanese. Therefore, in her family, mothertended to CPC and father tended to KMD politically. Lin Zhao did notknow which way she must take. In 1943 when she entered a high schoolin Suzhou city, the influence of her mother got the upper hand onher. So she tended to CPC. In July of 1949, she was enrolled in aschool run by CPC. This school was named the “RevolutionaryCradle.” When CPC wanted her to reveal what her farther had doneagainst CPC, to show her loyalty to them, she had to invent someuntruth about her father. Afterwards, she felt sorry for her father.After she graduated from that school, she joined in the land reformmovement. The land reform team, to show that they had power to doanything for the peasants, put the landlords in big vats filled withcold water as it was winter. The landlords trembled with cold. LinZhao said that she felt cruel happiness. It was revolution. To showto CPC that she had cut off relationship with her father, she changedher name from Peng Linzhao to Linzhao, hence he pen name later.
In1954, she was enrolled in the department of journalism in BeijingUniversity. She decided to be a best reporter in Mao Zedong's time.Now as she faced reality, she found that reality was not what she hadimagined. So good. As she got mature in thinking, she wanted to writewhat she thought. Then she became a co-editor of the universitymagazine. In the spring of 1955, she joined the poetic society ofBeijing University and was an editor of Poetry Magazine of BeijingUniversity, which stopped publishing in the autumn of 1956. Then shebecame a member of the editing committee of “Red Tower,” whichwas a student's literary magazine.
Onthe nineteenth day of May in1957, another member of the editingcommittee put up a so-called Big-Word Paper criticizing somethingwrong in reality. The member was later expelled from the committee.Once Lin Zhao said to the member that she felt that she was likebeing deceived. Anyway, she supported the criticism.
Whenthe so-called Anti-Rightist movement began, she was defined as arightist because of her support of the rightist idea. Lin Zhao didnot know what to think. She said the truth, but she was told wrong.She swallowed a lot of sleeping pills for suicide, but she was saved.On the twenty-fifth day of December in 1957, the other member wassecretly arrested and sentenced for eight years in labor camp. Shegot only three years, but she did not go to the labor camp owing toher poor health. In Beijing University, out of eight thousand studentand staff, fifteen hundred were rightists, though redressed twentyyears later. But her bad dream was not over yet.
Insteadof laboring in a camp, she labored in the reference room of thedepartment of journalism and in the same reference room a malerightist worked too. They gradually fell in love with each other.When they applied to the authorities for the permission for marriage,their application was denied. They must first reform their thinking,not getting married. In September of 1959, the male rightist was sentto a labor reform camp in Xinjiang Autonomous Region in the farthestwest of China. Her sickness worsened and in winter, she coughedblood. She wanted to take leave to go back to Shanghai to getrecovered. In the spring of 1960, she was allowed to go to Shanghai.Her mother came to fetch her.
Aftersome rest her health got better. In Shanghai, she began to know threemale students from Lanzhou University. They planed to publish amagazine named “Star and Fire” so that they could have somewhereto publish their writings to criticize the bad current affairs. Whentheir first issue came out, all the members of the magazine werearrested, and so was she in October of 1960. At the beginning of1962, she was released on medical parole. In September that year, Shewent to Suzhou city and drafted the program and articles of apolitical organization called “Fighting Union of Free Youth ofChina.” Then they asked a foreigner to take out two of theirarticles “We are guiltless” and “Letter to the Principle ofBeijing University” to some foreign countries to publish there. InDecember that year, she was put in jail again. In the prison when shewanted to write something, she had no pen and paper. So she wrote onwhite sheets with her own blood. As she did not yield and insisted onwhat she thought right, she was handcuffed behind the back.Sometimes, they put two pairs of handcuff on her wrists. Even whenshe had stomach ache or had periods, they did not take off even onepair of handcuff from her.
Onthe thirty-first of May in 1965, she was sentenced for twenty years.Then she wrote her declaration for the sentence, still in her ownblood. Part of her writing was thus:
“...This is a shameful verdict, but I proudly listen to it. This is theevaluation of my personal action of fight by the enemy. I heartilyfeel proud of myself to be a fighter. … I must do more to deserveyour evaluation. Besides, the so-called verdict is senseless to me. Idespise it. Wait and see: the historical court will soon give aformal verdict to people after me. You, those rogues, villains andtraitors, will be real criminals. Victory to justice! Long livefreedom! Lin Zhao 06/01/1965.”
Onthe twenty-ninth of April in 1968, she got a new verdict of death.She was shot dead in the airdrome of Longhua, a place in Shanghai.Her body was never delivered to her family. But on the first day ofMay that year, the police came to see her mother to demand her to payfive cents for the bullet they used to shot her daughter dead. Herfather made suicide. Her mother became insane and made suicide on theBund of Shanghai.
InApril of 2009, her sister Peng Lingfan brought all her personal stuffto USA and donated them to the reference room of the library ofStanford University. Her stuff included her articles written inblood, her open letters and her private letters, also family photos.Let's salute the heroine!

June 16th, 2017, 01:53 PM
99.Sun Weishi (a woman raped by Mao and killed by his wife)
SunWeishi (1921—10/14/1968) was born in a revolutionary family. Shehad a brother Sun Yang. Her father died early and she was adopted byZhou Enlai (1898—1976), who was the premier of the State Council ofthe People's Republic of China. She was nicknamed “Red Princess.”
Herfather was a friend of Zhou Enlai. Both joined revolution. Once theywanted to meet secretly. Her father carried her in his arms, tellingher to look behind his back to see anyone following him. She was thenonly five years old. When her father met Zhou in a house, the littlegirl stayed at the window to look out if anyone approached. If anyoneappeared in her sight, she was told to make a sign.
InApril of 1927, her father was arrested in Shanghai by KMD governmentand executed later. Her mother escaped with her to Wuhan city, butpresently they returned to Shanghai and continued her undergroundwork for CPC. The girl helped her mother to send secret messages hereand there. A little girl would attract less attention. From nine tosixteen, she and her mother led a vagabond-like life. During thatperiod of time, she was educated only by her mother. At twelve yearsold, she attended the BridgemanGirls' School in Peking.
In1935, her mother took her back to Shanghai. At first her motherwanted to resume her school education, but she liked to learn acting.Therefore, through the assistance of someone working for CPC inShanghai to be enrolled in an acting class run by Touhou Projectbelonging to Tianyi Film Company. There were some ten students inthe class. A few actors and actresses were invited to come to theclass to have talks with students. One of the visitors was Jiang Qing(Mao's fourth wife, called Lan Ping at the time), who even gave aphoto of hers to the girl. The girl, when finishing the class, had arole in the movie called NewYear's Money,which was given to children as their pocket money for the New Year.Afterwards, her mother took her back to Peking to let her study in aschool there.
In1937 when the Sino-Japanese war broke out, she was in Shanghai andjoined in the Shanghai Drama Salvation Troupe performing short playsto call upon people against Japanese invaders in the streets andschools, etc. In 1938, she joined CPC and went to YanAn city to workthere. In that year, Jiang Qing went to YanAn city, too. To remindpeople of the January 28thIncidents that happened in Shanghai, whoever could act rehearsed aplay called Shanghaiblood Sacrifice,in which Jiang Qing acted the role of the second concubine and thegirl Sun Weishi was assigned the role of a daughter.
InJuly of 1939, when Zhou Enlai fell from the horseback and broke hisright arm bone, he was sent to Russia for the treatment. Sun Weishiwanted to accompany him there. Therefore, she was permitted to enterthe Moscow Oriental University. Then she transferred to the actingdepartment and then conducting department of drama college.
Inmarch of 1940, many Chinese people who were in Russia went back toChina to participate in the war against Japan. Sun Weishi was allowedto stay in Russia to further her studies. But she experienced the warin Russia against Nazi Germany. At that time Lin Biao was in Russiafor treatment of his health problem. In 1941, before he came back toChina, he asked the girl to marry him, but she refused him. In 1943,he wrote a letter to the girl, saying that he got married. InNovember of 1946, Sun Weishi returned to YanAn city. At the end ofthat year, she asked to join in the drama troupe in Harbin city andwas approved to go there. But on the way she received a telegramsaying that she could not go to Harbin. This telegram was sent by thenew wife of Lin Biao who lived in Harbin city at that time. The newwife was afraid that if Lin Biao met the girl again, somethingawkward might happen between them. In September of 1948, she wastransferred to a university troupe in Huabei region. She conductedand rehearsed a drama named AFalse Alarm.They performed the drama to entertain the troops in fighting in 1948.And in 1949 when they entered Beijing, they performed the play in atheater openly to the common people in the city, and got warmapplause.
In December of 1949, when the People's Republic of China was founded,she went with Mao Zedong (12/26/1893—09/09/1976) and Zhou Enlai toRussia to see Stalin in Moscow. As she had been to Russia, she knewRussian and was assigned to be the team leader of interpreters. Maowanted to learn Russian from her. It was said that on the train toMoscow, Mao sent for her to his compartment and raped her. Shecomplained to Zhou, her adoptive father, but Zhou could do nothing tohelp her, as he was always afraid of Mao.
Anyway,she was still engaged in her career of acting and conducting. Shetranslated Russian plays and conducted them. She was then assigned towork with the Chinese Youth Art Theater as the general conductor andthe director of the Art Committee and the vice theater leader. Shewas also CPPCCNational Committee for the second, third and fourth sessions. She wasa director of the National Drama Association, too. In 1952, sheconducted the ImperialEnvoyby NikolaiGogoland also conducted UncleVanyaby Anton Chekhov. Both were greatly cheered by the public. Shetranslated and conducted the Russian children's play LittleRabbit.In September of 1956, the Cultural Ministry of the People's Republicof China founded the Central Experimental Drama Theater and she wasappointed the vice director of the theater as well as the generalconductor.
InSeptember of 1976, when the so-called Great Cultural Revolution wason the swing, Jiang Qing, Mao's wife, said that Sun Yang, a vicepresident of the Chinese People's University, was a spy. Several dayslater, he was found dead in a cell of the university. Sun Yang wasthe brother of Sun Weishi. In December of the same year, Jin Shan,the husband of Sun Weishi, was put in prison on the excuse that hewas a spy, too. Then some men were sent to search her home and tookaway all her personal letters and photos.
Atthe midnight of the first of March in 1968, some men broke open herdoor and took her away by force on the excuse that she was a spy.Then she was put in a dark room and tortured. She was kept in asecret place lest Zhou, her adoptive father, came to her rescue. Onthe fourteenth of October in 1968, she was beaten to death at the ageof forty-seven. She was found with a long nail knocked into her head.All these were plotted by Jiang Qing behind her back. It was saidthat Jiang Qing hated her because Mao liked her. Besides, Jiang Qingpersecuted almost everyone of the actors and actresses in Shanghaibecause they knew too much of her lewd history in Shanghai, which shewould like to conceal. And Sun Weishi had also worked with her inShanghai

June 17th, 2017, 01:19 PM
100.Fu SuoAn (from a red guard to a spy)
FuSuoAn (06/05/1949—04/13/1974) was born in a so-called intellectualfamily in Tianjin city, close to the capital Beijing. It was a harborcity with the Yellow Sea to its east. Her father was a doctor in ahospital. Her mother was a translator of English language in aresearch institute. She was beautiful and her photo of childhood wasenlarged and displayed in the show window of a photo gallery. Herphotos had been taken from baby till 1968. But her parents burnedthem all when she escaped into Soviet Union.
In1966 when the so-called Great Cultural Revolution began, she was onlya student of the first grade in a high school (equivalent to tenthgrade in America). She was a student leader in her class and a vicesecretary of the Youth League branch. She was an active girl. Thenshe became a red guard, and even one among the red guards received byChairman Mao on TianAn Men Square on the eighteenth of August in1966. Twenty years later, her younger brother gave a description ofher in 1968 as a tall girl, 1.70 meters tall, weighing 55 kilograms,with oval face, regular features, large eyes, black curving eyebrows.She was always wearing a green uniform, with a green cap to match.And a red armband round her upper right arm, bearing the words: RedGuard.
Thenthe red guards toured all over the country to create chaos as Maoplanned. But most of them just went for sightseeing. However, she wasa different girl. She went on the social investigations. During thethree months, she had been to the far west region and to thenortheastern China and Inner Mongolia. She did not go to cities.Instead, she went to small villages. Qima village was only twentykilometers from the ArgunRiver, which divided the territory of China and the Soviet Union. Inthat village, she called an old woman as her dry-mother (almostequivalent to god-mother, but without religious sense). Just a closerrelationship than others. Somewhat like a relative.
At the end of 1966,she returned to her hometown. At the time, Mao called on people torebel against local governments. That was his second plan to seizepower from the local followers of his political enemy: Liu Shaoqi.When she was back to Tianjing city, there were a lot of so-calledrebellious groups. As she was an active girl, many groups wanted herto join them. However, she refused. She wanted to organize one of herown. During the cultural revolution, the family background of astudent mattered much. Any student who came from the family oflandlord or businessman could not join the red guards. If the fatheror mother of the student was a reactionary, the student could notjoin the red guards, either. Most rebellious groups did not take suchstudents in. But she accepted all those students who wantedrevolution. While general students were criticizing their teachersand school masters, she skipped them and directly criticized the headof the educational bureau of the city. That was why she could be oneof the red guards to see Mao on the TianAnMen Square.
At the time, almosteveryone in any group wanted to be the leader. As she took in allsorts of students, there certainly were some ambitious ones whowished to replace her. Therefore, she was supplanted out of her owngroup. She left with some of her faithful followers. Then she neededa seal to organize another group. She asked a neighbor to engrave onefor her, but the neighbor was scared. For secret engraving of a sealwithout the approval of the police was deemed guilty. Of course, insuch chaos, some bold engravers would do it. As this neighborrefused, Fu was angry and hit him on the head. He fell in swoon. Hewas the clue person in an important case. Therefore, Fu was wanted bythe police. She had to escape out of the city to Qima village, to herdry-mother for shelter.
Onlytwo kilometers from the Qima village, there was another villagecalled Baojia village. They jointly built a small reservoirfor irrigation. But the water supply from the reservoir was notenough for both villages. Therefore, they often had disputes.
Asthe universities stopped enrolling during the movement,all the high school students were sent to the countryside to live andwork with peasants. They lived separately in the homes of localpeasants. Fu went to the Qima village in this name, as she had beenthere before. She wished to help the Qima villagers. So one night,she led a group of Qima villagers to Baojia village. And there arosea fight between the two villages. Five of the Baojia villagers wereinjured, including three with broken bones and one with a blindedeye. The police came to stop it. She was thought to be the cause ofthe fight. She was thereby criticized, beaten and confined. She couldnot stand it and fled, but was caught and handcuffed. She was aclever girl and studied how the handcuff worked. So one night sheopened the handcuff and jumped out from a window. She ran away underthe cover of night from the village towards the ArgunRiver. She was a good runner at school. When she was swimming acrossthe river to the other side, she was found by a Soviet patrollingboat. Across the river, there was the No. 36 area of the KGB. She wastaken to the captain, who wanted to see her ID. But she said that noID card was issued to anyone in China. When she was asked what washer identity, she replied that she was a red guard. She wanted tolead the conversation to politics, which might benefit her a bit.
The captain askedagain, “If you are a red guard, why you come into our territory?”She replied, “I risked my life to come to you for my politicalasylum.” Question again, “Why's that?” Answer, “ BecauseChina has deserted Marxism-Leninism. So I want to come to SovietUnion for that.”
Therefore,the captain reported the event tothe headquarters of KGB. Andropov, head ofKGB at the time, was struck with a wonderful notion: why not to trainthe Chinese girl to be a spy for their country. She might be usefulsome day in dealing with China. So shewas sent to Tver Intelligence school. At school, she showed herselfto be an excellent spy.
Her first task wasto assassinate the Soviet traitor, Yuri Pavlov, who escaped to Japanand lived in Tokyo at the time. For necessary preparations, shestayed in a private place. A man came to show her how to use a thickpen gun, which, when triggered, would discharge some poisonous gas.The gas would vanish in one or two seconds without leaving any traceto be found. Then A woman came to teach her Japanese, till all thenecessary training was completed.
Yuri Pavlov hadbeen a soldier in the Patriotic War of Soviet Union against NaziGermany. After the war he was sent to study in a military academy andbecame a weapons expert. He had used money freely, and too freelythat he was always in heavy debt. He also liked beautiful girls. InNovember of 1967, when he was invited to Bulgaria on lecturing tour.But there he disappeared and betrayed his country. In March of 1968,he got death verdict in the military court in his absence. Later hewas found living in Philadelphia. So Soviet Union sent some spies toassassinate him, but failed. The second try was also failed when hewas found in Hawaii. About one year ago, he was accidentally found inTokyo, Japan. KGB concluded that why two tries failed was becausethe assassins they sent were all his kinsfolk that he was always onthe alert of. So this time, if they sent a Chinese girl, it would beout of his expectation. Besides, a beautiful girl might be easier toget access to him.
InApril of 1970, Fu used a fake passport, in disguise of a Hong Kongresident by name of Li Nali to travel to Japan to visit her uncle.She went through Japanese customs without a hitch. KGB arranged amid-aged Japanese man to come to meet her. He was called TakashiSaburo,who was supposed to be her landlord, i.e., she would stay in hishouse. But he knew nothing of her task. She paid him her board andfood, plus some gifts.
Thatfirst night, she took out a photo of Pavlov after his plasticsurgery. After impressing his image in her mind for a long while, shewas sure that she could recognize him among the crowds. She burnedthe photo and flushed the ash in the toilet. Next day, she touredTokyo the whole day. She was surprised to find that the city wasexactly the same in even details to the model in the Stereosand tablein KGB office.
Fromthe third day, she began to follow and watch her target. Pavlov livedin Tanimachiin the south of Tokyo. It was a luxury apartment house, only fifteenminute walk from her lodging place. His daily life was that at sixevery morning he would walk in a nearby small garden, for forty-fiveminutes, accompanied by two bodyguards. Then he went to the flyoverin front of the garden. There were some newspaper vendors and someshoe polishers. He would buy a newspaper and sat before a shoepolisher to have his shoes polished while reading the newspaper. Thenhe went home. After breakfast, he would ride in his car to hisoffice, where he would stay till seven in the evening and go home. Helived with his Japanese wife and two pretty female secretaries aswell as maidservants. He liked beautiful women. The plan ofassassination was to be carried out in his office building. Generallythe bodyguards would pay less attention to their protective objectwhen he was at home or in office. Supposedly, the two places wouldprovide more chance for the job. Nevertheless, after she studied thesituation in the office building, she found otherwise. She must findsome other ways to finish her task.
She contacted herliaison to get permission to change the plan and got supplies for thejob. She disguised her as a newspaper vendor on the flyover. Shewould use a poisonous smog gun to kill him. The poisonous gas shouldtouch his face for the fatal result. As Pavlov came to buy newspaper,she held out a newspaper, smiling to him. He liked a beautiful girland bought the newspaper from her. It might be a chance to kill him,but she found that since she was sitting on a low footstool, shecould not reach his face unless she should stand up. But any movementfrom her would catch the eyes of the bodyguards right behind him. Sheregretted that she did not think of disguising herself as a shoepolisher. She would be in a closer position to aim her gun at hisface.
When Pavlov boughtthe newspaper from her, he asked, “You are supposed not Japanese?”she said, “No. I came from Hong Kong.” She smiled her best smile.She had to give up this chance. She must change a bit of the detailsof her action. She needed more people to help her.
Itwas Monday, the thirteenth of April in 1970. Thirteen is a black dayfor European people. When Pavlov accepted the newspaper from thegirl, he murmured, “Charming Oriental beauty.” As usual, he wentto sit to have his shoes polished while he smoked a cigarette,reading the newspaper. All of a sudden, there was the shout “help!”from the girl. He looked that way and saw two big guys chasing thegirl. The girl ran his way. Naturally she was holding a rolled-upnewspaper, inside which she hid her gun. Pavlov called to her, “Comehere!” And to his bodyguards, “Stop them!” Meaning the two bigguys. Just then a guy kicked the butts of the girl, sending her forthtowards Pavlov. The two bodyguards turned to stop them while the girlrushed to Pavlov, and shot the gun to his face. Pavlov gave out a cryof pain and the girl hid the gun in her clothes and threw down thenewspaper. The two bodyguards ran to Pavlov and got him to thehospital, where he died. The girl left Tokyo and flew back to Moscow.
General Cimbal, thehead of the action department of KGB, received her and gave her agold watch of female style made in Switzerland. She was then sent toa rest home for her nerve and physical recovery from the task.Generally she could rest for two months, but after half a month shewas sent to rest in Hong Kong. She realized that she might soon havesome new task.
Afterthat she was assigned several other tasks. She did them successfully.On the thirteenth of September in 1971, she was ordered to fly toÖndörkhaanin Mongolian Republic. On the way there she was told that an airplanefrom China crashed there and nine bodies were in it. One of themshould be that of Lin Biao. As she was from China and had chances tosee Lin or his picture before, she had more ability to recognizewhich body was Lin's. When she reached there, the nine bodies werealready covered up by local people. Their faces changed a littlethrough rotten process. She first recognize Ye Qun, the wife of Lin,by her long hair. She was the only one wearing long hair. Others wereall men. Then she pointed out which was Lin's body best as she couldby his short stature and skulk.
In 1974, she wasfound to have severe liver disease and felt painful besides havinghigh fever. Although she had injection to ease her pain, she could nolonger bear it. She was found to hang herself in her room by a clothrope made from torn sheets on the thirteenth of April. Thirteen isindeed a bad number.