View Full Version : TWO REPUBLICS in CHINA (15)

December 16th, 2015, 03:32 PM
9) The battles in Nanning City area in Guangxi province
On the 1st day of September, 1939, Germany invaded Poland. The World War II broke out. Japan thought that he must speed the process of conquering China. Considering that China got all the supplies from international support through southwestern border. Therefore, Japan must cut off its supply line and China would soon surrender. Japan sent army and navy to occupy Nanning city in Guangxi province and controlled the railroads there. And the Chinese defensive forces were not so strong there as in Changsha area.
On the 9th day of November, 1939, the Japanese attacking forces gathered at Shanya Bay area, ready for the action. On the 13th day, a Japanese fleet started from Shanya Bay and arrived at Beihai on the 14th day. As the Chinese army there was not ready to fight, Beihai soon fell in the possession of japan. On the 17th day, the Japanese army took Qinzhou and continued north. Guided by the bandits among the mountains in that area, the Japanese army accelerated its advance. On the 22nd day, they reached the south bank of the Yong River in the vicinity of Nanning city. But at the time, the Chinese armies already arrived in the city and its area.
On the 23rd day, the Japanese army crossed the Yong River with the aid of air raid. At dawn of the 24th day, the onset of the city began. The Japanese army got strong resistance, but took it at last in the afternoon. The Chinese army retreated to the Gaofeng Pass. On the 26th day, the Japanese army attacked the Pass. On the 1st day of December, the Japanese army occupied Gaofeng Pass and on the 4th day, also occupied Kunlun Pass. Then, both sides held respective positions for a while. No fight went on.
On the 7th day, the Chinese army began to counterattack the invaders. On the 16th day, the Chinese army surrounded the Kunlun Pass. The newly organized Chinese 22nd division went round the pass from its right side to stop the Japanese reenforcement from Nanning. Two regiments went round from its left side to block the escape of the Japanese army. At the daybreak of the 18th day, the Chinese army commenced the assault and took the Kunlun Pass. At the noon of the 19th day, the Japanese army came back and took the Pass again. It changed hands for several times. On the 18th day, the Chinese 170th division attacked the Gaofeng Pass defended by the Japanese army, and took a hilltop nearby, but in the same night, the Japanese army gave a surprise attack and occupied the hilltop again. On the 20th day, the Japanese army at the Kunlun Pass could not hold anymore. And the reenforcement was blocked on its way there. In the afternoon of the 26th day, both Japanese troops escaped and safely arrived in Nanning.
At night of the 28th day, the Chinese army attacked Jieshou Highland, the gate to the Kunlun Pass. In the morning of the 29th day, the Chinese army took the highland, and on the 30th day of December, the Chinese army took the Kunlun Pass. On the 31st day, they wiped out all enemies in the area of Kunlun Pass. If at the time, the Chinese army could have advanced in the pursuit of the enemies, the situation of the battles might have been different.
On the 1st day of January, 1940, Japan sent reinforcement, and warfare went on. On the 7th day, Chiang Kai-shek flew to Huilin city and on the 10th day, went to the headquarters at Qian River to hold a meeting with all the frontier commanders. At that time, Japan had not gathered enough forces yet. So at the request of some commanders, Chiang decided to launch an attack, but next day, when he returned to Liuzhou, he changed his order, missing the chance to annihilate the remaining foe in that area.
On the 14th day, 3,000 Japanese soldiers landed in Qinzhou, and on the 16th day, they began to assail the Chinese army. On the 27th day, the Japanese army resumed their assault. The Chinese commanders did not get enough information about the maneuvers of the Japanese army and made a terrible mistake. They did not have enough time to make proper arrangements. On the 1st of February, the Japanese army made their overall attack. But Chiang changed the commander-in-chief in the front, which was really against the essential rules of the art of war. In the afternoon on the 2nd day, the Japanese army entered Binyang town. On the 3rd day, they took Kunlun Pass and other spots. Battles of Nanning city ended in the failure of the Chinese army. It was actually the fault of Chiang, who often changed orders, which made his subordinates not know what to do. Chiang was not really a good commander himself, though he had graduated from a famous military academy in Japan, or he would not have been beaten by Mao, who hadn't attended any such academies, but only learned tactics from the Chinese history books. It may bespeak that Mao had higher IQ than Chiang. Every Chinese knows that the rule of Chiang was bad, but the rule of the communist party and Mao is worse. Some historians said that if Chiang could have beaten Mao, Chinese people wouldn't have suffered so much during all the cruel political movements under Mao.
10) The battles of 100 regiments of the communist party
in the Anti-Japanese War, most battles were waged between the Japanese army and the army of the national government. The communist party, though having their own army, did their best to shun any major fights with Japan so that they could keep enough forces to fight Chiang Kai-shek after the Anti-Japanese War and seized power from Chiang to rule China. That was why Mao Zedong thanked the first Japanese delegation when they came to China for saving the communist party and himself too, from the destruction Chiang might have inflicted on them, if Japan hadn't invaded China. So Mao generously gave up the rights for the war indemnity from Japan, regardless of the demand of Chinese people for some indemnity for their heavy loss.
Anyway, at that time, Japan also wanted to occupy where the communist party possessed. So the warfare between the Japanese army and the army of the communist party broke out at last from the 20th day of August to the 10th day of September, 1940, for the first stage. The Japanese army was 300,000 strong, while the communist party gathered 105 regiments. They called it 100 regiments battles. Their commander-in-chief was Peng Dehuai. At that time, the red army changed their name to the 8th route army, included in the military system of the national government. Their aim was to damage the railroads so that the Japanese army could not get supplies by train. They attacked Zhengtai railway, Tongpu railway, Pinghan railway, and Jinpu railway, especially Zhengtai railway, the main route for the traffic of the Japanese army. Japan in the northern China didn't have so many soldiers to guard every inch of the rails and as a result, all the four railways did not function any more after the attacks.
From the 22nd day of September to the10th day of October, for the second stage, the 8th route army attacked some important strategical spots controlled by Japan. At 8 o'clock in the evening that day, the 8th route army began to attack the Lailing area, and took some Japanese front fortresses round Laiyuan town, but they could not break through the defense of the town itself because they did not have effective weapons for the attack to seize a town. On the 23rd day, they stopped besieging the town and changed their stratagem to first seize the defensive spots outside the town.
On the 25th day, they turned to attack the stronghold at Dongyuan. The Japanese army inside gave sturdy resistance, even using poisonous gas. However, the Japanese army was forced to recede to the central defensive structure, which was surrounded by the 8th route army. As the Japanese soldiers knew that they could never escape, they committed suicide by burning themselves.
On the 28th day, 3,000 Japanese soldiers came for reenforcement. The situation became not so favorable to attack the town any longer and so they withdrew. On the 1st day of October, the Japanese army took back most of the places that the 8th route army had occupied. On the 7th day, the Japanese army at Lingqiu got the intelligence that the 8th Route Army was planning to attack the position, and so the Japanese army just left the position to meet the right wing detachment of the 8th route army and beat them. From the night of the 8th day to the dawn of the 9th day, the left wing detachment of the 8th route army took the chance that the Japanese army was out of the position and took it and other positions in its vicinity. But on the 10th day, the 8th route army learned that the Japanese army gathered and would clean out the area of the 8th route army, they withdrew from the combat. Thus ended the warfare lasting for 18 days.
In this warfare, the 8th route army had heavy casualties, more than what the Japanese army had lost. Therefore, after the combat, Mao Zedong criticized Peng Dehuai for the loss of so many soldiers. Mao's intention was to keep his forces at the least loss as possible so that he could fight Chiang Kai-shek after the Anti-Japanese War.
But in the cleaning-out action of the Japanese army, the 8th route army always ran away to elude any fight with the Japanese army. They called it as mobile warfare strategy. So the Japanese army just vented their disappointment and wrath on the common Chinese people for their support of the 8th route army. Record showed that on the 25th day of January, 1941, when the Japanese army had a cleaning-out action without finding any 8th route army soldiers in the northern Hebei province, they just encircled a village called Panjiayu in the area of Fengrun town, and slaughtered 1,237 villagers and burned 1,000 houses there. The 8th route army had already escaped, deserting the villagers.