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xlwoo
October 15th, 2015, 02:17 PM
Chapter 3 The Japanese invasion of China


I. Events happened before overall Sino-Japanese War in 1937


1) The 9.18 event
Japanese army entering China began even in late Qing Dynasty. Round the beginning of the 20th century, Russia had built a railroad in northeastern China. In 1905, Russia and Japan had had a war there, in the territory of China, and Japan got control of the part of the railroad from Changchun city south, called South Manchuria Railway. A legend about the origin of the Japanese goes like this: 2,000 years ago when the first emperor of the Qin Dynasty was on the throne, his next ambition was to live eternally, and so he sent a man by name of Xu Fu to go east in ships together with 100 boys and 100 girls. It was said that there were islands on the east seas, on which dwelt immortals. The errand of Xu Fu was to find immortals and ask for elixir. Once he got it, he must bring it back to the emperor. Xu Fu reached the Japanese islands and lived there with boys and girls, never returning to China. Those were said to be the earliest inhabitants and the earliest ancestors of the Japanese.
About 10:22 at night on the 18th day of September, 1931, some Japanese soldiers laid gunpowder under the rails of the South Manchuria railway for a limited length and exploded it. This part of the rails was by the Liutiao Lake, 7.5 kilometers north of Shenyang city. Then they put three Chinese corpses in the uniform of Chinese soldiers as evidence to prove that the Chinese soldiers exploded the rails. On this excuse, the Japanese army attacked Chinese army in Shenyang city. As Chinese army got order not to cause trouble with Japanese army, two of the three regiments of the Chinese army guarding the city withdrew from the city. But the third 620th regiment did not receive the order, and of course, resisted the attack of the Japanese army. In the afternoon of the next day, Japanese reenforcement came and Japanese army entered the city, but still encountered resistance and fought street by street till all the regiment receded out of the city. The event was called Liutiao Lake Incident or Mukden Incident by foreigners, the beginning of the whole 9.18 event.
On the 19th day, Japanese army attacked other towns respectively and took 18 towns along the South Manchuria Railway. The defensive Chinese army in Changchun city also counterattacked the Japanese army, but on the next day, the city fell into the Japanese hands. On the 21st day, Xie, chief-of-staff of the headquarters of the Chinese army in Jilin province, turned over to Japan. So Japanese army took Jilin. On the 1st day of October, Zhang Haipeng, guarding Tiaoliao town, went to Japan, and under the instruction of Japan, sent three regiments of his army to assault Qiqihar city, but on the 16th day, were defeated by the defensive Chinese army. By the 26th day of October, Japanese army had occupied chief towns along the Sitiao Railroad. On the 4th day of November, the Chinese army in Heilongjiang province fought the Japanese army till the 18th day. Then they had to retreat from Qiqihar after leaving heavy casualties, and the next day, the Japanese army entered it.
At the start of 9.18 event, Zhang Xueliang, who should be in charge of the whole northeastern provinces, left Shenyang for Jinzhou. On the 8th day of October, the Japanese army sent 12 bombers to raid Jinzhou. On the 15th day of December, after occupying the important towns in Heilongjiang province, the Japanese army began to attack Jinzhou. On the 17th day, reenforcement came directly from Japan. On the 28th day, the 2nd division of the Japanese army crossed Liao River to attack Jinzhou. On the 3rd day of January, 1932, the Japanese army took Jinzhou. On the 5th day of February, the Japanese army occupied Harbin city.
The army in the northeastern provinces under the command of Zhang Xueliang had 18 brigades of foot soldiers, five independent brigades of cavalry, and four regiments and a battalion of artillery, plus 262 airplanes and fleets. They could have fought the Japanese invaders, but they just deserted the northeastern provinces. A wrong and shameful strategy.


2) The 1.28 event
After Japan occupied northeastern China, it aimed at southeastern China at the second stage. Shanghai was an ideal place for Japan. At 4 o'clock in the afternoon on the 18th day of January, 1932, five Japanese monks, instructed by Kawashima Yoshiko, a Japanese spy, formerly the Last Princess Of Manchuria, turning over to Japan and using a Japanese name, to throw stones at workers of a Chinese factory, causing a fight. But some thugs came, sent by the Japanese, beating one of the five monks to death and severely injuring another. Then 50 Japanese young men went to the factory in the midnight of the 19th day and burned the factory and also murdered three policemen. On the 20th day, around a thousand overseas Japanese in Shanghai had a demonstration to demand the Japanese consulate and the Japanese mariner headquarters for revenge on the Chinese, but on the way there, they began to riot and smashed Chinese shops. On the 21st day, Japanese general consul demanded the mayor of Shanghai to apologize, punish murderers, compensate the loss, and dismiss all the anti-Japanese organizations. Although the mayor accepted all of them, the consul further requested that Chinese army should go away from Zhabei district on the pretext of protecting their overseas Japanese. He added that if Chinese army did not leave before 6 o'clock in the afternoon on the 28th day, they would attack. On the 24th day, more Japanese mariners came to Shanghai. At 11:30 at night on the 28th day of January, Japanese mariners attacked the Zhabei district in Shanghai, which was in the control of the 19th army of the national government. The 19th army fearlessly resisted the Japanese attack under the support of Shanghai people, which forced the Japanese accepted the mediation of England and America for a truce. But on the 3rd day of February, the fight started anew. On the 23rd day, a fierce battle took place. 3,000 Japanese mariners died and 2,000 Chinese soldiers died, too. On the 24th day, two more divisions from Japan arrived in Shanghai as reenforcement. Only the 5th army of the national government came to the aid. On the 3rd day of March, at the mediation of England and America, Songhu armistice agreement was signed. The Chinese army should be stationed in the region from Shanghai to Suzhou city. Anyway, Japan could have their army in Shanghai.
An episode in this event was that on the 29th day of April, Japan held a military parade in Hongkou Park, to celebrate the birthday of Sumera mikoto and their victory. A Korean hero, disguised as a Japanese, entered the park with a grenade in the shape of a water flask. When the Japanese were singing their anthem, he flung the grenade onto the platform, which exploded. The chairman of the committee for the Japanese in Shanghai died on the spot. The commander of the Japanese army in Shanghai for the event was severely injured and died in the hospital. A regiment commander and the Japanese envoy for China each broke a leg. And one eye of the commander of the 3rd fleet was blinded. The Korean hero was caught and sentenced to death on the 25th day of May. He was sent to Japan and executed in a Japanese army base. After the World War II, his remains were taken back to Korea and his monument was erected in the Hongkou Park in Shanghai.