View Full Version : TWO REPUBLICS in CHINA (5)

October 5th, 2015, 01:12 PM
Chapter 2 The first civil war between the national party and the communist party

I. Riots of the communist party

1) Riot in Nanchang City
On the 15th day of July, 1927, Wang Jingwei learned that Soviet Union wanted to assist the Chinese communist party to take over power from Wuhan government, he expelled all the members of the communist party in the national party and Wuhan government. Therefore, the central committee of the communist party in Jiujiang city of Jiangxi province determined to have armed riot in Nanchang city as they controlled some army there. On the 26th day of July, Zhou Enlai was sent there to organize the riot. Several hours after Zhou left, they got a telegram from the International Communist, conveying the instruction: if no hope, don't start the riot. So Zhang Guotao was sent after Zhou. When Zhang reached Nanchang, all the preparations were ready, and besides, most representatives refused to take the instruction. The 11th army and the 20th army under the command of He Long (03/22/189606/09/1969) had already come to Nanchang from Jiujiang city, welcomed by Zhu De (12/01/188607/06/1976), commander of the 9th army and head of the police station in the city.
At two o'clock in the early morning on the 1st day of August, 1927, the rebels began to attack the national revolutionary army guarding the city. After the fight for four hours, they occupied the city. But the national government gathered more troops to surround Nanchang. So the rebellious army had to beat a retreat from the city and went south. On the way, Zhou Enlai, He Long and other leaders deserted their troops and escaped to Hongkong and Shanghai. Only Zhu De led the rest of the army to Guangdong province. They had to adopt the stratagem of guerrilla warfare. In January of 1928, Zhu De took a riot again and led his army to Mt. JingGang in Jiangxi province, where he met Mao Zedong. Their troops formed the Red 4th Army.

2) Mao Zedong resorted to rebel
As Wang Jingwei expelled the members of the communist party from the national party and the Wuhan government, Mao Zedong went to Changsha city on the 12th day of August to arm peasants and mine workers in that area for a riot. He had an army of 8,000 soldiers. On the 9th day of September, they started the rebellion and wanted to attack Changsha city. There were many communist party members in the city, scheming to let in the attackers by taking a sudden assault to the national government army guarding the city. But their plan was leaked by some traitors and known to the national government. The inside supporters had to escape or they would be arrested and killed. Mao had to change the plan of attack and marched towards Mt JingGang, where they united with the army of Zhu De.
On the 4th day of June in 1928, Zhang was forced to withdraw from Peking to go back to his original location. As he could not always satisfy the demands of Japan, Japan was not satisfied with him. On the fifth day, when Zhang rode on a train back and through the railway station at Huanggutun, his train was exploded with gunpowder buried there by Japan. He was severely injured and died when he reached Shenyang city. His son Zhang Xueliang (06/04/190110/15/2001) succeeded his position. On 29th day of December, 1928, he declared to join the revolutionary army. So there were no more warlords and China was thus united.

II. Chiang Kai-shek besieged the Red Army for five times

1) The first besieging
In October of 1930, since Chiang Kai-shek had cleared all the warlords from China, he began to deal with the communist party and the red army. Chiang sent his army, 300,000 strong against the red army, 40,000 soldiers. If Chiang could surround the red army, he could wipe it out. But Mao's strategy was wiser than Chiang's. On the 1st day of November, Mao faked to maneuvere the red army in some different directions to let Chiang's commander-in-chief think that the red army would escape. Therefore, the national army separated itself to chase the escaped enemies in different directions. Then the red army secretly gathered together to annihilate a small separated national division of 9,000 soldiers on the 30th day of December, 1930. And the other divisions had to recede. Thus ended the first besieging.

2) The second besieging
On the 1st day of April, 1931, the second besieging began. Considering the failure of the first besieging because of the tactics of intending to surround the red army, Chiang wanted to use a new strategy of moving slowly and all troops keeping close. On the 13th day of May, the 28th division of the fifth army of the national forces left Futian and marched east. On the fifth day, Zhu De and Mao directed their 3rd military bloc and red 35th army to go on the left wing, and the red 3rd army to go on the middle, and the red 4th army and red 12th army to go on the right wing, to surround the national fifth army. The commander of this army committed the same mistake. It should not march separately from others. Zhu De and Mao ordered their red 7th division and red 35th division to blockade the advance of the reenforcement of the national 19th army. As a result, on the 16th day, the 28th division of the national army was annihilated at the overwhelming number of enemy armies. On the 19th day, the red 12th army attacked the national 54th division, which escaped. The 19th national army had no information about what was happening to other armies and had to retreat. Thus ended the second besieging.

3) The third besieging
On the 21st day of June, 1931, after the two failures of the besieging, Chiang formed two military blocs with 300,000 strong for the third besieging. On the 10th day of July, the communist party also made all possible preparations for the battle. The national army started to march on the 1st day of July, but could not find the whereabouts of the red army. Towards the end of this month, the main forces of the red army was found to go a roundabout way to a place called XingGuo. From the spot of the enemy, Chiang judged that the red army wanted to go west to cross the Gan River. So he wanted to wipe it out on the east bank of the river. The original plan of Mao and Zhu was that ignoring the main forces of national army, the red army would break through the encirclement at Futian, to assail the remaining detachment in the rear, but the intension was detected. The 11th and the 14th divisions of the national army marched faster to occupy Futian to block the escape of the red army. This time, it looked good for Chiang. But Mao changed to a bold plan. He ordered the red 35th army to disguise as their main forces and go to cross the Gan River to distract the notice of the national army. On the 4th day of August, his main forces stole between the 40 li wide gap of the two military blocs of the national army before they closed like a vise. This strategy was successful and the red army arrived at a safe place and annihilated a brigade of the national army there on the 7th day of Augusst. Then the red army moved to Huangpo and wiped out four national regiments on the 11th day. Then Chiang found what he was pursuing was not the main forces of the red army. When the national army turned back to march north, the fatigued army was like the arrow at the end of its flying course. On the 18th day of September, the 9.18 event happened, so Chiang had to go back to Nanking to take care of it. Thus ended the third besieging. From the strategies Mao used in the previous three battles, the same stratagem could be seen to be repeated and repeated. Chiang was defeated for three times by the same stratagem. It showed that Chiang never learned from failure and made some improvement. That is why Chiang deserved being driven away from the mainland to Taiwan, after all.

4) The establishment of the red government in Ruijin.
After a few victories, the communist party founded their red government in Ruijin city of Jiangxi province. It was located in a basin with mountains on three sides. Nanchang city, the capital of the province, under the national government, was 300 li (=half a kilometer) away from it.
On the 7th day of November, 1931, a celebration took place for the founding of the red government. Mao was the chairman of the government and Zhu De was the commander of the army. In the area of the red government, almost everyone was in an organization of some sort. The organization for six-year-olds up was called children league. That of the teenagers of fifteen-year-old and up was called young pioneers. That of the young adults was called red guard army. They printed their own paper money and used terrorist method to control people. Even their own comrades were killed. Li Wenlin, also a leader in the party, was murdered. Peasants there did not need to give part of their harvest to landlords, but to the red government to support the red army.
No one could leave the area without a pass. There were sentinels everywhere for 24 hours. Whoever was caught leaving secretly would be executed. Under such terrorism, even the intimate subordinate Yang Yuebin deserted Mao and went to the national government, showing the location of where Mao lived. Some airplanes were sent to bombard the place and Mao had to move.

5) The fourth besieging
After the 9.18 and 12.8 events (details of both events in chapter 3) were temporarily over with the signing of Songhu armistice agreement in May of 1932, Chiang planned for the fourth besieging. This time he attacked the district of Hubei, HuNan and Anhui provinces where the red army was weak, which was soon vanquished. Then in February of 1933, Chiang concentrated his forces to push forwards to where the main forces of the red army camped. The leadership of the red army was changed at the meeting in Ningdu town in October of 1932. Mao Zedong was dismissed from the commanding position. The leader was Bogu coming from Shanghai on the 7th day of January, 1933, but the actual commanders for the red army were Zhu De, Zhou Enlai and Peng Dehuai (189811/29/1974). They used the same ruse Mao had used. They ordered the red 11th army to disguise as the main forces to attract and lead the middle second and third columns of the national army to Lichuan area while their actual main forces rested at Guangchang. Then they laid ambushes for the red 1st military bloc and red 3rd military bloc and red 21st army to attack the 52nd national army and for the red 5th military bloc and red 22nd army to attack the 59th national army. On the 1st of March, both national armies were annihilated and the commanders were captured. So the national army was forced to withdraw. Thus ended the fourth besieging.

6) The fifth besieging
In May of 1933, Chiang Kai-shek set his headquarters in Nanchang city and assumed the responsibility of the commander-in-chief himself for the fifth besieging of the red army. Since the last besieging, the red army increased a lot. Chiang, thereby, gathered a million strong, including the 300,000 soldiers of Chen Jitang in Guangdong province. Chen had been a warlord there and then obeyed the national government as he saw all the other warlords had been wiped out.
The besieging began on the 25th day of September, 1933, and ended on the 14th day of October, 1934, lasting for 385 days. Chiang used artillery and airplanes. On the 25th day, the national army attacked Lichuan town on a large scale. After three days, they took the town. On the 9th day of October, the red 24th division went to attack Xiaoshi, but the national army had strong defense with fortresses and trenches. For several days, the red army could not take the town, leaving heavy casualties. That was the first stage.
In November, there was a coup d'etat in Fujian province against Chiang Kai-shek. The leaders of this coup d'etat founded another government, but no one supported it. Even the communist party declared on the fifth day of December that this new government was unlawful. This coup d'etat ended in failure.
On the 11th day of December, the national army in town changed their defense to counterattack. The red army fought back under the command of the central committee of the communist party, regardless of the fact that the national army had much better equipment. So the red army was conquered and retreated. That was the second stage.
On the 10th day of April, 1934, Chiang sent 11 divisions divided into two columns marching towards Guangchang. The communist party used 9 divisions to prevent the national army to attack the town. Battles happened in many other places, too. The red army lost those places and had to withdraw to Guangchang. On the 27th day of April, the national army attacked the town and occupied it in the evening. The red army had to escape, leaving 5,500 casualties. That was the third stage.
In June of 1934, the communist party decided to resist the assault of the national army to the last ditch. On the 5th day of August, 9 divisions of the national army, under the support of air raid, defeated the red army. The rest of the red army had to escape and began the famous long march. That was the final stage of the fifth besieging.
The failure of the red army was because the commanders changed the right strategy to a wrong one. In this besieging, Mao Zedong was not in the red army. He was sent somewhere else. The failure gave a conclusion that a right strategy was very important, and even decisive sometimes, in anything and everything, especially in politics and war.

October 14th, 2015, 03:00 AM
I especially liked the last paragraph.

Why was everyone so eager to fight?

October 15th, 2015, 02:11 PM
for power, and benefits.