View Full Version : TWO REPUBLICS in CHINA (4)

October 4th, 2015, 02:11 PM
IV. Early history of the Chinese communist party

1) The organization of the Chinese communist party
In April, 1920, the Communist International sent Grigori Voitinsky to China. In May, he found Chen Duxiu, forth-two then, to contact some revolutionary young men in other cities for the establishment of Chinese Communist Party (or CPC, the communist party of China). Chen was the professor who had been arrested in the May-fourth student movement in 1919. In August, 1920, under the instruction of the Soviet communist party, the Chinese communist party was organized. But the open data denote that the first meeting of the communist party was held in Shanghai on the 1st day of July, 1921. Why the earlier history was concealed from the public is because it might have two reasons. One was that they wanted to cover the fact that the Communist International had a finger in it. The other was that the Party did have a meeting in Shanghai and Mao attended it so that they could say that Mao was one of the founders to make Mao look better. But the meeting was on the twenty-third, not on the first, when it had been held in Shanghai.
On the 23rd day of July, 1921, at 106 Wangzhi Road (present: 76 Xingye Road) in Shanghai, 15 people attended the meeting, including Mao Zedong (12/26/1893—09/09/1976), Dong Biwu (03/05/1886—04/02/1975, later the vice chairman of the People's Republic of China), Zhang Guotao (1897—12/03/1979, commander of the Red 4th Army in the Long March), Chen Gongbo (10/19/1890—06/08/1946) and Zhou Fohai (05/29/1897—02/28/1948) (both turned over to Japanese invaders in Sino-Japanese War), and Malin and Nico Chhabra (representatives from the International Communist).
Soon they found some suspicious men outside the house. They secretly left the place. And next day, they met in a boat on the South Lake in Jiaxing Town as if playing mahjong, but in fact to continue their meeting. Thus the Chinese communist party was established. At that time it had only 50 members.
On the 23rd day of December, 1921, accompanied by an interpreter, Malin went to see Sun Yat-sen in Guilin City of Guangxi province. He stayed there for 9 days and drew a conclusion that the communist party members could respectively join the National Party while still keeping his status for communist party membership. Thus, it would help the communist party to develop. But his idea was strongly opposed by some party members, especially Chen Duxiu who was then the leader of the party. So on the 23rd day of April, 1922, Malin left Shanghai and through Holland by sea and then through Berlin, for Moscow. He reported his work in China to the International Communist, which consented to his idea. On the 27th day of July, Soviet Union sent a representative, together with Malin, to China, with an instruction. Malin typed the instruction on the shirt he wore. In Shanghai, Malin met Chen duxiu and gave him his shirt.
Chen DuXiu had to obey the decision of the International Communist because at the second meeting of the communist party, held from 16th day to 23rd day of July, 1922, at 625 South Chengdu Road in Shanghai, on which they decided to join the International Communist. Chen Duxiu and Zhang Guotao attended the meeting with ten other representatives. Then the Chinese communist party got financial aid from the International Communist.
On the 29th and 30th of August, 1922, the Chinese communist party held a central meeting on the West Lake in Hangzhou City and decided to found the First United Front between the National Party and the Communist Party.
From the 12th to the 20th of June in 1923, the communist party had the third meeting in Canton, 40 representatives, representing 420 party members, had discussion on the issue of the First United Front, and then elected Chen Duxiu, Li Dazhao (1889—04/28/1927), Mao Zedong, and Xiang Ying (05/1898—03/14/1941, later the commander of the New 4th Army in Sino-Japanese War), five others, as members of the central committee.
It was said that after the meeting, at the push of the communist party, Sun Yat-sen put up his three great policies of Alliance with Russia, Co-operation with the Communist Party, and Assistance to Peasants and Workers. But as a matter of fact, Sun never had such policies. It was just invented by Mikhail Markovich Borodin, a Russian counselor to the Chinese communist party to make it look good. Then the communist party used this invention as fact for its own purpose.
Why Sun agreed to the United Front notion? It was because Sun always maintained his ideal of Three Principles of the People: Principle of Nationalism, Principle of Democracy, and Principle of People's Livelihood. He thought that the ideal of communism was close to his three principles and so he wanted to unite the communist party against their common enemies—warlords.
From the 20th to the 30th of January, 1924, the 196 representatives of the National Party held their first conference in Canton. Sun was the chairman and the Russian counselor Borodin attended it. Some communist party members were elected into the executive committee of the National Party. Li Dazhao and a few others were the members and Mao Zedong, Zhang Guotao were the alternate members.
In autumn of 1924, General Feng Yuxiang (11/06/1882—09/01/1948) made a coup d'etat and controlled the Peking government. He invited Sun Yat-sen to Peking for discussion of national affairs. In the morning of the 5th day of November, Feng sent his troops to surround the Forbidden City and ordered the abdicated emperor to move out of it. So Henry gathered his precious belongings and moved to Tianjin City with his family. A few old faithful courtiers followed him there.
On the 13th day of November, Sun Yat-sen arrived in Peking and was soon found that he was suffering from liver cancer and died on the 12th day of March, 1925. Sun had been in Peking for three times. In 1894, the first time, he went to Peking with the intension to advise the Qing government how to reform. But when he saw the serious corruption, he realized that any reform could not save China. So he decided to make revolution. The second time was in 1912 when the Republic of China was founded. He went to Peking to talk to Yuan Shikai that if Yuan could carry on the revolution, he would resign from the temporary presidency. This was the third time for him.
On the 15th day of September, Zhang Zuolin came from the northeastern provinces towards Peking and allied with Feng Yuxiang. Then a battle broke out between Zhang, Feng and Wu Peifu. Wu's army was put to rout and Wu escaped south to HuNan and Hubei provinces. Therefore, Peking fell under the control of Zhang Zuolin, who was always backed up by Japan.

2) Whampoa Military Academy
The academy was founded on the 16th day of June, 1924, under the instruction of Sun yat-sen, to train the officers for the revolutionary army. It was situated on the Changzhou Island in Whampoa District of Canton. Afterwards, some branches were founded in Wuhan, Changsha, Chaoshan, and Nanning cities. For preparation of the establishment of this academy, Sun had sent Chiang Kai-shek, in September of 1923, to Soviet Union to learn their experience. So the academy was founded after Soviet Union. And Chiang Kai-shek was appointed the president of the academy. Quite a few communist party members were appointed leaders of some departments, such as Ye Jianying (04/28/1897—10/22/1986), vice director of the training department, and Zhou Enlai (03/05/1898—01/08/1976), vice director of the political department.
In May of 1924, the academy began to take in students. Out of 1200, 350 students were enrolled and 120 as the alternate students. That was the first term. In 1927, it was relocated in Nanking and renamed the Central Army Officer Academy. In 1949, it moved to Taiwan. From 1924 to 1949, there were 23 terms, and including all terms in Taiwan, there were 78 terms. The students graduated totaled 41386, including many famous generals.
3) The disruption of the national party and the communist party
After the death of Sun Yat-sen, Chiang Kai-shek took the full command of the revolutionary army. Unlike Sun Yat-sen, Chiang Kai-shek had no confidence in the communist party, especially after their fourth conference.
From the 11th to the 22nd of January, 1925, 20 representatives of the communist party gathered in Shanghai to have their fourth conference. Chen Duxiu, Zhang Guotao, Zhou Enlai, and Xiang Ying, and many others attended the conference. Chen was the chairman. In the conference, Chen was elected the general secretary of the central bureau, consisting of five persons. They made a decision that the communist party must take the leadership of the revolution, which laid the ground for the disruption.
On the 20th day of March, 1926, the Yat-sen warship planned to cannonade the Whanpoa Military Academy to drive away Chiang Kai-shek. Therefore, Chiang gave orders to arrest the captain Li Zhilong, a member of the communist party, and to arrest other members in the academy. Then Chiang ordered Zhou Enlai and all their party members to get out of the academy. The students now faced a problem as to which party they would follow. One student quit the national party and 39 students quit the communist party. Others remained in the academy.
Meanwhile within the national party, Wang Jingwei (1883—1944, later turn over to Japan in the Sino-Japanese War) wanted to have the leadership of the national party. He organized another government in Wuhan City, close to Wuchang City, the cradle of the 1911 revolution, and held the third conference of the national party without the attendance of Chiang. It was called Wuhan government.
At that time Chiang had only the command of the revolution army and had no position in the government. Wuhan government wanted Chiang to obey it and continue to go north to wipe out the warlords there. But Chiang planned to go east to occupy the eastern provinces first, including Shanghai, because those eastern provinces were also under control of warlords.
During those years, the land problem was serious. Peasants wanted to have their own land so that they would not be exploited by landlords. When peasants used land owned by landlords, they must give part of the harvest to landlords. So they wanted the reform of the land ownership and under the instigation of the communist party, they had some kind of action for the purpose.
Stalin, head of Soviet Union, asked the Chinese communist party in October of 1926 to curb the action of peasants, not so violent. In March of 1927, the communist party made regulations how to punish the bad landlords. For landlords against the revolution, they must be put to death.
On the 2nd day of April, 1927, the central committee of the national party held a meeting in Wuhan, inviting two members of the communist party, one of whom was Mao Zedong. They had a bill about the land problem. The government would confiscate the land of the reactionaries such as landlords, corrupt officials and warlords. How to define reactionaries among the landlords, they made it from the number of the mu's (15 mu= 1 hectare) of land the person owned. If anyone who had more than 30 mu's was defined reactionary. All land owners would be classified into rich peasants, small and middle landlords, and big landlords, according to the different number of mu's they possessed. This standard was still used in the land reform when the communist party established their republic.
On the 22nd day of April, when this bill was under discussion at a meeting, there were different opinions between the national party and the communist party. That was one of the reasons for the disruption, because many members of the national party whose families owned lands. Then on the 26th day of April, Chen Duxiu and Zhang Guotao were invited to attend the meeting, and also Borodin, the Russian counselor. On the 6th day of May, the bill was at last passed. Only the land of big landlords would be confiscated. The land belonging to small landlords and families of the revolutionary officials would remain the same. However, once the peasants had been instigated, it was hard to check their enthusiasm for the possession of land.

4) Victory of the revolutionary army and final disruption of the two parties
In July of 1926, the national party decided for the revolutionary army to go north to annihilate the warlords there. As Chiang was the commander-in-chief, he led the army north, fighting all the way up. The plan of the revolutionary army was to attack Wu Peifu first, and then Sun Chuanfang occupying Jiangxi, Fujian, Anhui, Jiangsu, and Zhejiang, five provinces. Finally the revolutionary army would attack Zhang Zuolin in Peking.
In August of 1926, the revolutionary army assaulted the basic force of Wu Peifu and wiped it out and took over Wuchang city on the 10th day of September. In November, the revolutionary army annihilated the main force of Sun Chuanfang, another warlord, and occupied Jiujiang and Nanchang cities. At the same time, Feng Yuxiang got control of the northwestern region of China. A warlord Yan Xishan (10/08/1883—05/23/1960) ruled Shanxi province. Seeing the fast advance of the revolutionary army, both Feng and Yan joined and became part of the revolutionary army. Now only the warlord Zhang from the northeastern provinces stayed in Peking.
In October, the communist party organized workers in Shanghai to rise to arms against the warlord government in Peking, but failed. In November, the revolutionary army got control over the area of the Yangtze River. So the national government decided to set its capital in Wuhan City, but Chiang wanted the capital in Nanchang, which was then under his control. Anyway, on the 9th day of December, the national government moved to Wuhan City.
On 21st day of February, 1927, the central committee of the national party held a meeting. Among 80 members, one-third belonged to the communist party and one-third were those pro to the communist party. Among the leaders of all the departments of the national party, half of them were members of the communist party. It meant that the communist party controlled the national party. And the communist party was organizing its own army. So Chiang Kai-shek decided to found another government. He had many supporters like the brothers, Chen Guofu (10/05/1892—08/25/1951) and Chen Lifu (07/27/1900—02/08/2001) and others in his army. All were young men.
On the 19th day of February, General Bai Chongxi (03/12/1893—11/16/1966) took over Hangzhou city as he marched east with his detachment of the revolutionary army. On the 22nd day, the communist party had the second riot in Shanghai, but failed once more. On the 10th day of March, the central committee of the national party had another meeting to openly declare the disruption with Chiang, who made the decision to entirely cut any relationship with the communist party.
Then Wang Jingwei came back from France and reorganized the national party by expelling the Russian counselor and members of the communist party. He also suggested that the national government and the headquarters of the national party be moved to Nanking.
On the 22nd day of March, the east detachment of the revolutionary army under Bai Chongxi entered Shanghai. On the 24th day, the middle detachment occupied Nanking. A few members of the communist party instigated some soldiers of the revolutionary army to rob and kill some foreigners in an intension to incite foreign governments against the national government. But consuls of England, America and Japan got evidence that it was the doing of the communist party.
On the fifth day of April, the central committee of the national party made a decision to divide the revolutionary army into two military blocs. Chiang was re-appointed the commander-in-chief of the first military bloc and Feng Yuxiang as the commander-in-chief of the second military bloc. On the same day, Chiang contacted some heads of the mafias in Shanghai and asked them to organize Shanghai business guild against Shanghai workers general union, which was controlled by the communist party and had arms.
Meantime, Borodin secretly urged General Guo Songling under the warlord government to fight Zhang Zuolin, who had secret contact with Chiang. On the 6th day of April, Zhang suddenly attacked the embassy of Soviet Union in Peking to arrest 58 members of the communist party hiding there, including Li Dazhao, one of the main founders of the communist party, and found some secret documents, which proved that Soviet Union instructed the communist party to overthrow Chinese government. On the 12th day of April, Chiang sent the national 26th army to the place of Shanghai workers general union to order the surrender of their weapons. But they refused and many people were killed in the event. It was called the 4.12 event. Then Chiang ordered to disband all the organizations controlled by the communist party.
On the 17th day of April, Chiang and other members of the central committee of the national party had a political meeting in Nanking to issue a wanted circular for 197 leading members of the communist party, who were Borodin, Chen Duxiu, Mao Zedong, Zhou Enlai, Liu Shaoqi (11/24/1898—11/12/1969), Zhang Guotao, Deng Yingchao (02/04/1904—07/11/1992, wife of Zhou Enlai), etc. On the 28th day, Li Dazhao and others were hanged in Peking on the accusation to overthrow the government.
On the 20th day of April, the communist party made a statement that Chiang was the open foe of the revolutionary people and called upon people to overthrow him. On the 22nd day, Wang Jingwei and other members of the national party pro to the communist party together with Mao Zedong and some communist party members openly blamed Chiang for the disruption. Chiang founded the national government in Nanking in opposition to the government in Wuhan City.
On the fifth day of June when Roy, the representative of the International Communist, wanted Wang Jingwei to let the communist party control the Wuhan government, Wang began to disband the communist party. Therefore, on the 1st day of August, the communist party held up the banner of riot in Nanchang City. That was the total disruption between the national party and the communist party.

October 14th, 2015, 02:49 AM
I forgot to say -- intension should be intention. Does that help?

October 15th, 2015, 02:09 PM
thank you for the correction.