View Full Version : TWO REPUBLICS in CHINA (2)

September 30th, 2015, 05:02 PM
[sorry. wrong posting. now is the right one.]

II. The ambition of Yuan Shikai

1) How Yuan became the president of the Republic of China
When the Republic of China set its capital in Nanking on the 1st day of January, 1912, Sun Yat-sen was elected the temporary president and Li Yuanhong was elected the vice president. At that time, the last emperor did not abdicate yet. The battle between the revolutionary army and the Qing army was still going on. The new army of the Qing government was organized and trained by Yuan Shikai (09/16/1859—06/06/1916), who was the actual commander of it. Yuan had his own scheme and began a talk for truce with the revolutionary army. Then he aimed at the position of the president of the republic, and forced the emperor to abdicate.
As Sun Yat-sen had no army he himself organized to support him, he had been elected the temporary president of the republic owing to his reputation as a firm revolutionary against the Qing Dynasty. The revolutionary army was controlled by the governors (warlords) of the separate province, who had signed an agreement of truce with Yuan and would not fight Yuan for Sun Yat-sen. Therefore, Sun Yat-sen had to give in and resigned and nominated Yuan as the president on the 15th day of February. Accordingly, Yuan was elected the temporary president of the republic. As a rule, the president must live in the capital, which was Nanking, not Peking where Yuan lived, but Yuan rejected to come south, because he could not bring his army south and would be controlled by the revolutionary army. After negotiation, the revolutionary army had to yield and let Yuan take the office of the temporary president in Peking. But the congress was still in Nanking controlled by the National Party.
In February, 1913, the congress elected Song Jiaoren to be the premier of the cabinet. At that time, Yuan had Zhao Binjun as his premier. However, on the 20th day of March, Song was assassinated at the railway station in Shanghai. When the assassin was caught, some evidence was on his person, which was the letters between Zhao and the assassin. So the National Party drew the conclusion that Yuan was behind it. Then Zhao resigned from the office of the premier under the pressure of the press. Duan Qirui (03/06/1865—11/02/1936) was appointed to take over the office of the premier.
After the assassination, Sun Yat-sen, who was at the time on a visit in Japan, came back to Shanghai and summoned a meeting of the National Party. He put up the suggestion to avenge Yuan with armed force, though some other leaders like Huang Xing tended to appeal to peaceful method.
On the 26th day of April, Yuan asked for the syndicated loans of 25 million British pound from the consortium in China consisting of England, France, Germany, Russia and Japan. The National Party thought that it was illegal for the loans request, which should be approved by the congress first. In May, Li Liejun, the governor of Jiangxi province, Hu Hanming, the governor of Guangdong province, and Bo Wenwei, the governor of Anhui province, declared their opposition to the loans. The three governors were all members of the National Party. In June, Yuan gave orders to remove the three from their positions as governors. On the 3rd day of July, Yuan sent the sixth division of his new army to Jiangxi province. On the 12th day of the same month, Li Liejun, under the instruction of sun Yat-sen, declared the independence of Jiangxi province and formed the headquarters to oppose Yuan. On the 15th day of July, Huang Xing reached Nanking and declared the independence of Jiangsu province. Quite a few provinces followed suit. On the 22nd day of July, the national army from Jiangsu province had a battle with Yuan's army at Xuzhou of Shandong province, and was defeated. The national army in some other places was conquered, too. Then, all the independent provinces had to rescind their declarations of independence. Yuan issued orders to arrest Sun Yat-sen and Huang Xing, who already escaped to Japan. This event was called the second revolution, but ended in failure.
On the 6th day of October, the congress had a session in Peking and congressmen were forced to elect Yuan Shikai as the president and Li Yuanhong as the vice president of the republic. Yuan took the official oath on the tenth day of October.

2) Yuan wanted to be the new emperor
On the 4th day of November, Yuan gave an order to disband the National Party on the pretext of their rebellion. Simultaneously, he drove all the members of the National Party out of the congress. On the 10th day of January, 1914, Yuan dismissed the congress and formed his own council of state, which meant that all the members were his men. He was still dissatisfied to be the president. He wanted to be an emperor.
To gain his goal, he must first get international support. In January of 1915, Japan secretly gave Yuan a document containing 21 articles in 5 chapters, through which Japan would get a lot of rights and benefits in China, such as rights on railroads and in other fields in Manchuria, and in Shandong province, and also the extension of occupation period to 99 years for Luushun and Dalian, two harbor cities, etc. But two articles were unacceptable. One was to employ Japanese counselors in Chinese central government, in financial and military fields. The other was to employ Japanese as counselors in local police departments. The negotiation began from the 2nd day of February to the 7th day of May.
Yuan accepted most of the articles for the support of Japan to his ambition to be the emperor except the two articles. But secret could not be kept long and was soon leaked out. Yuan was severely criticized, but of no avail.
Then Yuan's supporters began to circulate their theory that sovereignty was more suitable to China than republic. They formed a committee for the political future of China and sent out their men to all the provinces to persuade officials and officers and businessmen to support Yuan to be the emperor by promising them personal benefits. Then supporters summoned them to the capital as people's representatives. Those representatives formed groups and on the 1st day of September, handed in petition to Council of State organized by Yuan to ask Yuan to be the emperor.
To show his modesty, Yuan refused their petition. On the 19 day, they organized “National Petition Committee” to turn in their second petition for a request that there should be a conference for the 1993 people's representatives to decide the future of the nation. Accordingly, the conference was in session at 9 o'clock in the morning of the 11th day in December. The representatives would cast votes. Accordingly, all the representatives voted for sovereignty. Yuan, thereby, accepted the result on the 12th day of December, and decided that next year (1916) would be the first year of his China Empire.
In December, just after Yuan accepted the petition, Cai E, the governor of YunNan province, was the first to object to sovereignty and announced the independence, followed by many provinces. Even Yuan's former subordinates, Feng Guozhang (1859—1916), governor of Jiangsu province, Li Chun, governor of Jiangxi province, Zhu Rui, governor of Zhejiang province, Jin Yunpeng, governor of Shandong province, and Tang Xiangming, governor of HuNan province, all sent out telegrams asking Yuan to rescind the sovereignty.
Seeing that even his former subordinates betrayed him, he had to declare openly to rescind the sovereignty and restore to the presidency on the 22nd day of March, 1916. He had been the emperor only for eighty-three days. Before long, he died of a fatal disease on the sixth day of June.
If he was not so ambitious and just contented with the presidency, he would not be hated so much by almost all the people in China. He would not be betrayed by his intimate generals, who commanded part of his new army. It was because he went against the historical tide, against the will of people. He wanted to turn back the time to the imperial age. As a president, his subordinates, when seeing him, only needed to stand before him and salute to him, while when he was the emperor, his subordinates must kneel before him and kowtow to him. Every man, when having a chance to stand up, never wanted to bend knees again. Sense of dignity.
There would be a public funeral for Yuan. As a rule, when the president died, the vice president would be the successor. So Li Yuanhong became the president. Also as a rule the public funeral for the deceased president should be held by the succeeding president. But Li disliked Yuan, for Yuan had put Li in confinement. He had no esteem to Yuan. So on the day of funeral, he just went there to bow for once and left, back to his office. As etiquette required, he should at least bow thrice. Then the premier Duan Qirui took over the role.

October 1st, 2015, 02:53 PM
sorry, I posted wwrong piece under the new title. Now I edited it and posted the right one here.

October 2nd, 2015, 02:23 AM
How do you know so much? I feel like you were actually there.

George Washington once commanded the only standing army in North America.

October 3rd, 2015, 01:12 PM
all these history data are written in quite a few books in Chinese. I only found them and write the data in English. If I want, I can write American history in Chinese as there are so many books about American history there. it's the same.